See also:
U+5D16, 崖
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5D16

[U+5D15]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5D17]

TranslingualEdit

Han characterEdit

(radical 46, +8, 11 strokes, cangjie input 山一土土 (UMGG), four-corner 22214, composition)

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 314, character 8
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 8180
  • Dae Jaweon: page 614, character 25
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 778, character 8
  • Unihan data for U+5D16

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han)
Small seal script
 

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *ŋreː, *ŋre): semantic (mountain) + phonetic (OC *ŋreː, cliff).

Alternatively analyzed as Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *ŋreː, *ŋre): semantic (cliff) + phonetic (OC *kʷeː).

PronunciationEdit



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /ia³⁵/
Harbin /ai²⁴/
/ia²⁴/
Tianjin /iɑ⁴⁵/
Jinan /iɛ⁴²/
Qingdao /iɛ⁴²/
Zhengzhou /ia⁴²/
Xi'an /nai²⁴/
Xining /nɛ²⁴/
Yinchuan /ia⁵³/
Lanzhou /ɛ⁵³/
Ürümqi /ia⁵¹/
Wuhan /ŋai²¹³/
Chengdu /ŋai³¹/
Guiyang /ŋai²¹/
Kunming /æ³¹/
Nanjing /iɑ²⁴/
Hefei /ia⁵⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /ia¹¹/
Pingyao /ȵiɑ¹³/
Hohhot /nɛ³¹/
Wu Shanghai /ɦia²³/
Suzhou /ɦiɑ¹³/
Hangzhou /ɦie̞²¹³/
Wenzhou /ŋa³¹/
Hui Shexian /ia⁴⁴/
Tunxi /ŋɔ⁴⁴/
Xiang Changsha /ŋai¹³/
Xiangtan /ŋai¹²/
Gan Nanchang
Hakka Meixian /ŋai¹¹/
Taoyuan
Cantonese Guangzhou /ŋai²¹/
Nanning /ŋai²¹/
Hong Kong /ŋai²¹/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /gai³⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /ŋai⁵³/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /ŋa³³/
Shantou (Min Nan) /ŋãi⁵⁵/
Haikou (Min Nan) /zai³¹/
/ŋai³¹/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
Initial () (31) (31)
Final () (13) (31)
Tone (調) Level (Ø) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open Open
Division () Chongniu III II
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ŋˠiᴇ/ /ŋˠɛ/
Pan
Wuyun
/ŋᵚiɛ/ /ŋᵚæ/
Shao
Rongfen
/ŋiɛ/ /ŋæi/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ŋjiə̆/ /ŋaɨj/
Li
Rong
/ŋje/ /ŋɛ/
Wang
Li
/ŋǐe/ /ŋai/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ŋie̯/ /ŋai/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
ji4 ngaai4
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ ngɛ ›
Old
Chinese
/*ŋˁrar/
English river bank; limit

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
No. 4536 4547
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0 0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ŋreː/ /*ŋre/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. cliff, precipice
  2. precipitous
  3. limit; boundary; margin
    Synonym: ()

CompoundsEdit


JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(common “Jōyō” kanji)

ReadingsEdit

EtymologyEdit

Kanji in this term
がけ
Grade: S
kun’yomi

NounEdit

(がけ) (gake

  1. cliff

KoreanEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Middle Chinese (MC ŋˠɛ). Recorded as Middle Korean  (Yale: ay) in Hunmong Jahoe (訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회), 1527.

HanjaEdit

Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun 벼랑 (byeorang ae))

  1. Hanja form? of (cliff; precipice; precipitous).

CompoundsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [1]

VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

: Hán Nôm readings: nhai, day

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.