See also:

Contents

TranslingualEdit

EtymologyEdit

Phono-semantic compound (形聲): semantic  ‎(mountain) + phonetic  ‎(cliff).

Alternatively analyzed as Phono-semantic compound (形聲): semantic  ‎(cliff) + phonetic 

Han characterEdit

(radical 46 +8, 11 strokes, cangjie input 山一土土 (UMGG), four-corner 22214, composition)

  1. cliff, precipice
  2. precipitous

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 314, character 8
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 8180
  • Dae Jaweon: page 614, character 25
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 778, character 8
  • Unihan data for U+5D16

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.

PronunciationEdit


Dialectal pronunciations ()
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /ia³⁵/
Harbin /ai²⁴/
/ia²⁴/
Tianjin /iɑ⁴⁵/
Jinan /iɛ⁴²/
Qingdao /iɛ⁴²/
Zhengzhou /ia⁴²/
Xi'an /nai²⁴/
Xining /nɛ²⁴/
Yinchuan /ia⁵³/
Lanzhou /ɛ⁵³/
Ürümqi /ia⁵¹/
Wuhan /ŋai²¹³/
Chengdu /ŋai³¹/
Guiyang /ŋai²¹/
Kunming /æ³¹/
Nanjing /iɑ²⁴/
Hefei /ia⁵⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /ia¹¹/
Pingyao /ȵiɑ¹³/
Hohhot /nɛ³¹/
Wu Shanghai /ɦia¹³/
Suzhou /ɦiɑ¹³/
Hangzhou /ɦie̞²¹³/
Wenzhou /ŋa³¹/
Hui Shexian /ia⁴⁴/
Tunxi /ŋɔ⁴⁴/
Xiang Changsha /ŋai¹³/
Xiangtan /ŋai¹²/
Gan Nanchang
Hakka Meixian /ŋai¹¹/
Taoyuan
Cantonese Guangzhou /ŋai²¹/
Nanning /ŋai²¹/
Hong Kong /ŋai²¹/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /gai³⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /ŋai⁵³/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /ŋa³³/
Shantou (Min Nan) /ŋãi⁵⁵/
Haikou (Min Nan) /zai³¹/
/ŋai³¹/
Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (), Pronunciation 1/2

Initial: (31)
Final:
Division: III

Openness: Open
Tone: Level (Ø)

Fanqie:
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/ŋiᴇ/ /ŋie̯/ /ŋie/ /ŋiɛ/ /ŋiə̆/ /ŋǐe/ /ŋjɛ/
Character (), Pronunciation 2/2

Initial: (31)
Final:
Division: II

Openness: Open
Tone: Level (Ø)

Fanqie:
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/ŋɣɛ/ /ŋai/ /ŋɛ/ /ŋɯæ/ /ŋaɨj/ /ŋai/ /ŋæi/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
‹ ngɛ › /*ŋˤrar/ river bank; limit

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
4536 0 /*ŋreː/
4547 0 /*ŋre/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(common “Jōyō” kanji)

ReadingsEdit

Kanji in this term
がけ
Grade: S
kun'yomi

NounEdit

‎(hiragana がけ, romaji gake)

  1. cliff

KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

‎(ae, ui) (hangeul , , revised ae, ui, McCune-Reischauer ae, ŭi)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

(nhai, day)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.
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