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See also:
U+978B, 鞋
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-978B

[U+978A]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+978C]

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 177 +6, 15 strokes, cangjie input 廿十土土 (TJGG), four-corner 44514, composition)

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 1387, character 22
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 42813
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1902, character 3
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 7, page 4333, character 2
  • Unihan data for U+978B

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.
alt. forms ⿰又圭 second round simplified

Glyph originEdit

Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*kreː, *kreː
*ɡreː, *ɡreː, *ɡreː
*ŋreː, *ŋreːʔ
*kreː
*ɡreː, *kʷeː, *kʰʷeː
*ŋreː, *ŋre
*ŋreː, *ŋre
*ŋreː
*ŋreː
*ŋreː
*ŋreːs
*qreː
*qreː, *qʷraː, *kʷeː
*qreː, *qʷraː
*ɡeː, *kʷeː
*qeːns
*ɡʷraːʔ
*ɡʷraːʔ, *ɡʷreːs, *ɡʷeː
*ɡʷraːʔ, *qʰʷe
*qʷraː, *qʷreː
*qʷraː
*kʷreːs
*kʷreːs
*kʷreːs
詿 *kʷreːs, *ɡʷreːs
*kʷreːs, *ɡʷreːs, *kʷeːs
*kʰʷreː, *ɡʷreːs
*ɢʷreː, *qʷreː
*kʷeː
*kʷeː
*kʷeː
*kʷeː
*kʷeː
*kʷeː, *ɡʷeː
*kʷeː, *kʰʷeː
*kʷeːs
*kʷeːs
*kʰʷeː
*kʰʷeː
*kʰʷeː
*kʰʷeː
*qʰʷeː
*ɡʷeː
*ɡʷeː, *sqʰʷe, *qʰʷe, *qʰʷi
*qʷeː, *kʰʷeːŋʔ
*kʰʷeʔ
*qʷes
*qʰʷreɡ

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *ɡreː, *ɡreː, *ɡreː): semantic  (leather) + phonetic  (OC *kʷeː) – leather shoes.

Etymology 1Edit

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • ê/ôe/êre - vernacular;
  • hâi - literary.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /ɕiɛ³⁵/
    Harbin /ɕiɛ²⁴/
    Tianjin /ɕie⁴⁵/
    Jinan /ɕiɛ⁴²/
    Qingdao /ɕiɛ⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /ɕiɛ⁴²/
    Xi'an /xai²⁴/
    Xining /xɛ²⁴/
    Yinchuan /xɛ⁵³/
    /ɕie⁵³/
    Lanzhou /xɛ⁵³/
    Ürümqi /xai⁵¹/
    Wuhan /xai²¹³/
    Chengdu /xai³¹/
    Guiyang /xai²¹/
    Kunming /xæ³¹/
    Nanjing /ɕiɛ²⁴/
    Hefei /ɕie̞⁵⁵/
    Jin Taiyuan /xai¹¹/
    /ɕie¹¹/
    Pingyao /xæ¹³/
    Hohhot /ɕie³¹/ 皮~
    /xɛ³¹/ 靸~
    Wu Shanghai /ɦa²³/
    Suzhou /ɦɑ¹³/
    Hangzhou /ɦie̞²¹³/
    Wenzhou /ɦa³¹/
    Hui Shexian /xa⁴⁴/
    Tunxi /xa⁴⁴/
    Xiang Changsha /xai¹³/
    Xiangtan /ɦai¹²/
    Gan Nanchang /hai²⁴/
    Hakka Meixian /hai¹¹/
    Taoyuan /hɑi¹¹/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /hai²¹/
    Nanning /hai²¹/
    Hong Kong /hai²¹/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /hai³⁵/
    /ue³⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /ɛ⁵³/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /ai²¹/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /oi⁵⁵/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /ɔi³¹/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    Initial () (33) (33)
    Final () (31) (33)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open Open
    Division () II II
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ɦˠɛ/ /ɦˠɛi/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ɦᵚæ/ /ɦᵚæi/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ɣæi/ /ɣɐi/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ɦaɨj/ /ɦəɨj/
    Li
    Rong
    /ɣɛ/ /ɣɛi/
    Wang
    Li
    /ɣai/ /ɣɐi/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ɣai/ /ɣăi/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    xiá xié
    Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    xié
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹  ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[ɡ]ˤre/ (no pre-Qín exx.)
    English shoe

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/3 2/3 3/3
    No. 4528 4534 4541
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0 0 0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ɡreː/ /*ɡreː/ /*ɡreː/
    Notes

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. shoe; footwear (Classifier: ; ; )
      /   ―  yī shuāng xié  ―  a pair of shoes
      Chuān shàng nǐ de xié, wǒmen chūqù chī wǎnfàn. [Pinyin]
      Put on your shoes. Let's go out for dinner.
      Zài zhèlǐ wǒ bìxū tuō xié ma? [Pinyin]
      Do I have to take off my shoes here?

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 2Edit

    For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“rough; coarse; sigh”).
    (This character, , is a variant form of .)

    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (uncommon “Hyōgai” kanji)

    1. shoes; shoe; footwear

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

    Kanji in this term
    くつ
    Hyōgaiji
    kun’yomi

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana くつ, rōmaji kutsu)

    1. Alternative spelling of (piece of footwear)

    Etymology 2Edit

    Kanji in this term
    わらじ
    Hyōgaiji
    kun’yomi

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana わらじ, rōmaji waraji, historical hiragana わらぢ)

    1. Rare spelling of 草鞋 (straw sandal).

    ReferencesEdit

    1. 1.0 1.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    2. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

    KoreanEdit

    HanjaEdit

    (hye) (hangeul )

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    (hài, giày)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.