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U+826F, 良
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-826F

[U+826E]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+8270]
U+F97C, 良
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-F97C

[U+F97B]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs
[U+F97D]

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 138, +1, 7 strokes, cangjie input 戈日女 (IAV), four-corner 30732, composition(GHT) or ⿱(JK) or ⿱(V))

  1. good, virtuous, respectable

Derived charactersEdit

DescendantsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 1013, character 23
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 30597
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1472, character 16
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 5, page 3170, character 2
  • Unihan data for U+826F

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
         

EtymologyEdit

Possibly from Proto-Sino-Tibetan *l(j)a(k/ŋ) (good, beautiful).

Pronunciation 1Edit


Note:
  • liông/liâng - literary;
  • niû - vernacular.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (37)
    Final () (105)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /lɨɐŋ/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /liɐŋ/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /liɑŋ/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /lɨaŋ/
    Li
    Rong
    /liaŋ/
    Wang
    Li
    /lĭaŋ/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /li̯aŋ/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    liáng
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    loeng4
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    liáng
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ ljang ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[r]aŋ/
    English good

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 8046
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*raŋ/
    Notes

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. good

    CompoundsEdit

    Pronunciation 2Edit


    DefinitionsEdit

    1. Only used in 方良, alternative form of 魍魎魍魉 (wǎngliǎng).

    ReferencesEdit


    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 4 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. good

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

    Kanji in this term
    りょう
    Grade: 4
    kan’on

    NounEdit

    (りょう) (ryōりやう (ryau)?

    1. (school mark) good, B
      数学(すうがく)成績(せいせき)(りょう)だった
      sūgaku no seiseki wa ryō datta
      I got a B in math

    Proper nounEdit

    (りょう) (Ryōりやう (ryau)?

    1. A male given name

    KoreanEdit

    EtymologyEdit

    From Middle Chinese (MC lɨɐŋ).

    Historical Readings
    Dongguk Jeongun Reading
    Dongguk Jeongun, 1448 랴ᇰ (Yale: lyàng)
    Middle Korean
    Text Eumhun
    Gloss (hun) Reading
    Gwangju Cheonjamun, 1575 (Yale: al) (Yale: lyang)
    Sinjeung Yuhap, 1576 어딜 (Yale: etil) (Yale: lyang)
    Seokbong Cheonjamun, 1583 어딜 (Yale: etil) (Yale: nyang)

    PronunciationEdit

    HanjaEdit

    (eumhun 어질 (eojil ryang), South Korea 어질 (eojil yang))

    1. Hanja form? of (good). [affix]
    2. Hanja form? of (good). [affix]

    CompoundsEdit


    Old KoreanEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

    PhonogramEdit

    (*a)

    1. A syllabic phonogram denoting the syllable *a (generally not word-initial)

    Etymology 2Edit

    SuffixEdit

    (*-a)

    1. The verbal and adjectival infinitive suffix.
    DescendantsEdit
    • Middle Korean: 어〮 (), 아〮 ()

    Etymology 3Edit

    ParticleEdit

    (*-a)

    1. in; at; on; locative case marker, attested primarily in hyangga poems
    Usage notesEdit
    • First-millennium Old Korean also featured the locative particle (*-kuy). The two particles were compounded as 良中 (*-a-kuy) as early as the seventh century. The compounded form becomes predominant in the corpus after the eleventh century, after which (*-a) in isolation is not encountered. The compounded form eventually fused into a single morpheme, becoming the Middle Korean locative particle 에〮/애〮 (-éy/áy).
    • After the fourteenth century, Korean scribes occasionally reused the character to write 에〮/애〮 (-éy/áy). This is a feature of Middle Korean writing, not Old Korean.
    DescendantsEdit
    • Old Korean: 良中 (*-akuy) (compounded with (*-kuy))
    See alsoEdit
    • (*-kuy) (locative case marker)
    • (*-uy) (locative case marker)
    • 良中 (*-akuy) (locative case marker predominant after the eleventh century)

    ReferencesEdit

    • 배대은 (Bae Dae-eun) (1996), “Idu cheogyeok josa-ui tongsijeok gochal [A diachronic study of locative case markers in Idu]”, in Baedalmal, volume 21, pages 139–156
    • 이승재 (Lee Seung-jae) (2000), “Chaja pyogi jaryo-ui gyeokjosa yeon'gu [Study of case markers in the Chinese-based orthography [of Korean]]”, in Gugeo Gukmunhak, volume 127, pages 107–132
    • Hwang Seon-yeop (2006). "Godae gugeo-ui cheogyeok josa" 고대국어의 처격조사] ["The locative case markers of Old Korean"]. Hanmal Yeon'gu Hakhoe Jeon'guk Haksul Daehoe (conference). Seongnam, South Korea. pp. 35–48.
    • Nam Pung-hyun (2012), “Old Korean”, in The Languages of Japan and Korea, Routledge, →ISBN, pages 41–72

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    : Hán Nôm readings: lương

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