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U+826F, 良
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-826F

[U+826E]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+8270]
U+F97C, 良
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-F97C

[U+F97B]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs
[U+F97D]

TranslingualEdit

Han characterEdit

(radical 138, +1, 7 strokes, cangjie input 戈日女 (IAV), four-corner 30732, composition(GHT) or ⿱(JK) or ⿱(V))

  1. good, virtuous, respectable

Derived charactersEdit

DescendantsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 1013, character 23
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 30597
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1472, character 16
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 5, page 3170, character 2
  • Unihan data for U+826F

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
         

EtymologyEdit

Possibly from Proto-Sino-Tibetan *l(j)a(k/ŋ) (good, beautiful).

Pronunciation 1Edit


Note:
  • liông/liâng - literary;
  • niû - vernacular.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (37)
    Final () (105)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /lɨɐŋ/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /liɐŋ/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /liɑŋ/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /lɨaŋ/
    Li
    Rong
    /liaŋ/
    Wang
    Li
    /lĭaŋ/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /li̯aŋ/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    liáng
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    liáng
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ ljang ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[r]aŋ/
    English good

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 8046
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*raŋ/
    Notes

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. good

    CompoundsEdit

    Pronunciation 2Edit


    DefinitionsEdit

    1. Only used in 方良, alternative form of 魍魎魍魉 (wǎngliǎng).

    ReferencesEdit


    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 4 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. good

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    NounEdit

    (りょう) (ryō (historical kana りやう)

    1. (school mark) good, B
      数学(すうがく)成績(せいせき)(りょう)だった
      sūgaku no seiseki wa ryō datta
      I got a B in math

    Proper nounEdit

    (りょう) (Ryō (historical kana りやう)

    1. A male given name

    KoreanEdit

    HanjaEdit

    (eumhun 어질 (eojil ryang), South Korea 어질 (eojil yang))

    1. Hanja form? of (good).

    CompoundsEdit


    Old KoreanEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

    Believed to be a semantically adapted phonogram from Old Korean *a- (to be good), ancestral to the first element of modern 어질다 (eojilda).

    PhonogramEdit

    (*a)

    1. A syllabic phonogram denoting the syllable *a (generally not word-initial)

    Etymology 2Edit

    ParticleEdit

    (*-a)

    1. in; at; on (locative case marker, attested primarily in hyangga poems)

    DescendantsEdit

    • Old Korean: 良中 (*-akuy) (compounded with (*-kuy))
      • Middle Korean: (-ay)
        • Korean: (-e)

    See alsoEdit

    • (*-kuy) (locative case marker)
    • (*-uy) (locative case marker)
    • 良中 (*-akuy) (locative case marker predominant after the eleventh century)

    NotesEdit

    First-millennium Old Korean also featured the locative particle (*-kuy). The two particles were compounded as 良中 (*-a-kuy) as early as the seventh century. The compounded form becomes predominant in the corpus after the eleventh century, after which 良 *-a in isolation is not encountered. The compounded form eventually fused into a single morpheme, becoming the Middle Korean locative particle (Yale: -ay).

    After the fourteenth century, Korean scribes occasionally reused the character 良 to write (Yale: -ay). This is a feature of Middle Korean writing, not Old Korean.

    ReferencesEdit

    • 배대은 (Bae Dae-eun) (1996) , “Idu cheogyeok josa-ui tongsijeok gochal [A diachronic study of locative case markers in Idu]”, in Baedalmal, volume 21, pages 139–156
    • 이승재 (Lee Seung-jae) (2000) , “Chaja pyogi jaryo-ui gyeokjosa yeon'gu [Study of case markers in the Chinese-based orthography [of Korean]]”, in Gugeo Gukmunhak, volume 127, pages 107–132
    • Hwang Seon-yeop (2006). "Godae gugeo-ui cheogyeok josa" 고대국어의 처격조사] ["The locative case markers of Old Korean"]. Hanmal Yeon'gu Hakhoe Jeon'guk Haksul Daehoe (conference). Seongnam, South Korea. pp. 35–48.
    • Nam Pung-hyun (2012) , “Old Korean”, in The Languages of Japan and Korea, Routledge, →ISBN, pages 41–72

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    (lương)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.