See also: and
U+7F8E, 美
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-7F8E

[U+7F8D]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+7F8F]

Translingual edit

Stroke order
 
Stroke order
(Chinese)
 
Stroke order
(Japan)
 

Han character edit

(Kangxi radical 123, +3, 9 strokes, cangjie input 廿土大 (TGK), four-corner 80431, composition 𦍌)

Descendants edit

Derived characters edit

References edit

  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 951, character 10
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 28435
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1393, character 17
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 5, page 3126, character 5
  • Unihan data for U+7F8E


Chinese edit

trad.
simp. #
alternative forms

ancient
ancient
𫟈

Glyph origin edit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions
   

Pictogram (象形) – a person () wearing a headdress (now written ) of feathers or ram's horn.

The modern form could be considered an ideogrammic compound (會意会意): (ram or feathers) + (person).

Etymology edit

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *mwaj (beautiful, well, perfectly) (STEDT).

According to Schuessler (2007), cognate with Mizo mawi (beautiful, lovely), Jingpho moi (perfectly, beautifully) as well as Karbi me- (be good) and Jingpho cha mai (good); the former two items from *moy "beautiful" and the latter from *may "good, well", which were two roots reconstructed separately by Benedict (1972).

Pronunciation edit


Note:
  • mui2 - literary;
  • bhuê2 - vernacular.
  • (Leizhou)
    • Leizhou Pinyin: mui2
    • Sinological IPA: /mui³¹/
  • Wu
  • Xiang

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (4)
    Final () (17)
    Tone (調) Rising (X)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Baxter mijX
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /mˠiɪX/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /mᵚiX/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /miɪX/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /mjiX/
    Li
    Rong
    /mjiX/
    Wang
    Li
    /miX/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /miX/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    mei5
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    měi
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ mijX ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[m]rəjʔ/
    English beautiful

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 8951
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    2
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*mriʔ/
    Notes

    Definitions edit

    1. beautiful; pretty; attractive; good-looking
        ―  měirén  ―  beautiful woman
      香港夜景 [MSC, trad. and simp.]
      Xiānggǎng de yèjǐng zhēn měi a! [Pinyin]
      Hong Kong's nightscape is so beautiful!
    2. delicious; tasty; flavoursome
        ―  měishí  ―  culinary delicacy
    3. good; fine; satisfactory; happy
        ―  měijiǔ  ―  good wine
      價廉物价廉物  ―  jiàliánwùměi  ―  to be attractive in price and quality
    4. to beautify; to prettify
        ―  měiróng  ―  to improve one's appearance
    5. to praise; to commend
    6. (colloquial) to be pleased with oneself
      一百分兒 [MSC, trad.]
      一百分儿 [MSC, simp.]
      Tā bù jiù shi dé le ge yī bǎi fēnr ma? Kàn bǎ tā měi de! [Pinyin]
      Didn't he just get a one hundred percent? Look at how pleased it made him!
    7. beautiful things; beauty
      藝術艺术  ―  yìshù měi  ―  artistic beauty
      曲線曲线  ―  qūxiàn měi  ―  (please add an English translation of this usage example)
    8. Short for 美洲 (Měizhōu, “America (continent)”).
        ―  Nánměi  ―  South America
    9. Short for 美國美国 (Měiguó, “United States of America”).
      華人华人  ―  Měi jí Huárén  ―  Chinese American
    10. a surname. Mei

    Synonyms edit

    Compounds edit

    Descendants edit

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese: () (mi); () (bi)
    • Korean: 미(美) (mi)
    • Vietnamese: ()

    References edit

    Japanese edit

    Kanji edit

    (grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. beauty; beautiful

    Readings edit

    Compounds edit

    Etymology 1 edit

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 3
    kan’on

    Pronunciation edit

    Adjective edit

    () (bi-na (adnominal () (bi na), adverbial () (bi ni))

    1. beautiful
    Inflection edit

    Noun edit

    () (bi

    1. beauty
      ()(ぜん)()
      shizen no bi
      beauty of nature; natural beauty

    Etymology 2 edit

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 3
    goon

    Pronunciation edit

    Affix edit

    () (mi

    1. beauty; beautiful

    Suffix edit

    () (-mi

    1. suffix used by female given names, such as 奈美 (なみ, Nami), 恵美 (えみ, Emi; めぐみ, Megumi), 宏美 (ひろみ, Hiromi)
    2. (rare) suffix used by male given names

    References edit

    1. ^ Akira Matsumura, editor (2006) 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

    Korean edit

    Etymology edit

    From Middle Chinese (MC mijX).

    Historical Readings
    Dongguk Jeongun Reading
    Dongguk Jeongun, 1448 밍〯 (Yale: )
    Middle Korean
    Text Eumhun
    Gloss (hun) Reading
    Gwangju Cheonjamun, 1575 아ᄅᆞᆷ다올 (Yale: alom-tawol) (Yale: mi)

    Pronunciation edit

    • (USA (in compounds)):
    • (beauty; good; etc.):
      • (SK Standard/Seoul) IPA(key): [mi(ː)]
      • Phonetic hangul: [(ː)]
        • Though still prescribed in Standard Korean, most speakers in both Koreas no longer distinguish vowel length.

    Hanja edit

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun 아름다울 (areumdaul mi))

    1. Hanja form? of (beauty; beautiful). [noun]
    2. Hanja form? of (the USA, the Americas (in compounds, in news media)). [proper noun]

    Compounds edit

    Proper noun edit

    Hanja in this term

    (Mi) (hangeul )

    1. (in headlines) Short for ()() (Miguk, the USA).
      , 제안 대해 긍정적 입장 보여
      Mi, jeane daehae geungjeongjeok ipjang boyeo
      The United States expressed a positive attitude toward the proposal.

    Usage notes edit

    A common convention in news headlines, this is almost always written solely in the Hanja form, even in contemporary Korean text otherwise devoid of any Hanja.

    References edit

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [2]

    Vietnamese edit

    Han character edit

    : Hán Việt readings: mỹ[1][2], [3]
    : Nôm readings: mẻ[2][3][4], mẹ[1][2], mỹ[1][2], mẽ[1][4], mỉa[1][4], mở[1], mỉ[3], [4]

    1. chữ Hán form of /mỹ (beautiful; pretty; good).

    Compounds edit

    References edit