See also:
U+6C38, 永
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-6C38

[U+6C37]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+6C39]

Translingual edit

Stroke order
 
Stroke order
 

Han character edit

(Kangxi radical 85, +1, 5 strokes, cangjie input 戈弓水 (INE), four-corner 30232, composition 𠃌丿)

Derived characters edit

References edit

  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 603, character 4
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 17088
  • Dae Jaweon: page 996, character 4
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 3, page 1546, character 3
  • Unihan data for U+6C38

Chinese edit

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin edit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
       

Etymology edit

Uncertain.

Pronunciation edit



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /yŋ²¹⁴/
Harbin /yŋ²¹³/
Tianjin /ʐuŋ¹³/
/yŋ¹³/
Jinan /yŋ⁵⁵/
Qingdao /iŋ⁵⁵/
Zhengzhou /yuŋ⁵³/
Xi'an /yŋ⁵³/
Xining /yə̃⁵³/
Yinchuan /yŋ⁵³/
Lanzhou /ỹn⁴⁴²/
Ürümqi /yŋ⁵¹/
Wuhan /yn⁴²/
Chengdu /yn⁵³/
Guiyang /in⁴²/
Kunming /ioŋ⁵³/
Nanjing /ioŋ²¹²/
Hefei /yn²⁴/
Jin Taiyuan /yəŋ⁵³/
Pingyao /yŋ⁵³/
/y⁵³/ ~城村
Hohhot /ỹŋ⁵³/
Wu Shanghai /ioŋ³⁵/
Suzhou /ioŋ⁵¹/
Hangzhou /ʔioŋ⁵³/
Wenzhou /j̠oŋ³⁵/
Hui Shexian /yʌ̃³⁵/
Tunxi /yan²⁴/
Xiang Changsha /yn⁴¹/
Xiangtan /yn⁴²/
Gan Nanchang /yn²¹³/
Hakka Meixian /iun³¹/
Taoyuan /ʒuŋ³¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /weŋ²³/
Nanning /weŋ²⁴/
Hong Kong /wiŋ¹³/
Min Xiamen (Hokkien) /iŋ⁵³/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /iŋ³²/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /œyŋ²¹/
Shantou (Min Nan) /ioŋ⁵³/
Haikou (Hainanese) /zoŋ²¹³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (35)
Final () (112)
Tone (調) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Closed
Division () III
Fanqie
Baxter hjwaengX
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ɦˠwiæŋX/
Pan
Wuyun
/ɦʷᵚiaŋX/
Shao
Rongfen
/ɣiuaŋX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ɦwiajŋX/
Li
Rong
/ɣiuɐŋX/
Wang
Li
/ɣĭwɐŋX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/i̯wɐŋX/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
yǒng
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
wing5
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
yǒng
Middle
Chinese
‹ hjwængX ›
Old
Chinese
/*[ɢ]ʷraŋʔ/
English long (time)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 15423
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ɢʷraŋʔ/

Definitions edit

  1. perpetual; eternal; permanent; forever
  2. long (space or time)
  3. to prolong; to lengthen
  4. 53rd tetragram of the Taixuanjing; "eternity" (𝌺)
  5. a surname

Compounds edit

Japanese edit

Kanji edit

(grade 5 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. eternity
  2. long
  3. lengthy

Readings edit

Compounds edit

Synonyms edit

Etymology 1 edit

Kanji in this term
えい
Grade: 5
kan’on

From Middle Chinese (MC hjwaengX).

The kan'on pronunciation, so likely a later borrowing.

Pronunciation edit

Affix edit

(えい) (ei

  1. long (time)
  2. perpetual; eternal

Noun edit

(えい) (ei

  1. (historical) Abbreviation of 永楽銭 (eirakusen).
  2. (historical) This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Etymology 2 edit

Kanji in this term
よう
Grade: 5
goon

From Middle Chinese (MC hjwaengX).

The goon pronunciation, so likely the initial borrowing.

Pronunciation edit

Affix edit

(よう) (やう (yau)?

  1. (rare) Synonym of (ei, long (time), eternal)

Etymology 3 edit

Kanji in this term
なが
Grade: 5
kun’yomi
For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry: なが

(The following entry is uncreated: なが.)

References edit

  1. ^ Akira Matsumura, editor (2006) 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

Korean edit

Hanja edit

(eumhun (gil yeong))

  1. Hanja form? of (long, deep, forever).

References edit

Vietnamese edit

Han character edit

: Hán Việt readings: vĩnh
: Nôm readings: vắng, vẳng, vánh, vảnh, vênh, vểnh, viếng, vĩnh

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.