See also:
U+6C38, 永
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-6C38

[U+6C37]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+6C39]

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

Stroke order
 

(radical 85, +1, 5 strokes, cangjie input 戈弓水 (INE), four-corner 30232, composition𠃌丿)

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 603, character 4
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 17088
  • Dae Jaweon: page 996, character 4
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 3, page 1546, character 3
  • Unihan data for U+6C38

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.

Glyph originEdit

EtymologyEdit

Uncertain.

PronunciationEdit



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /yŋ²¹⁴/
Harbin /yŋ²¹³/
Tianjin /ʐuŋ¹³/
/yŋ¹³/
Jinan /yŋ⁵⁵/
Qingdao /iŋ⁵⁵/
Zhengzhou /yuŋ⁵³/
Xi'an /yŋ⁵³/
Xining /yə̃⁵³/
Yinchuan /yŋ⁵³/
Lanzhou /ỹn⁴⁴²/
Ürümqi /yŋ⁵¹/
Wuhan /yn⁴²/
Chengdu /yn⁵³/
Guiyang /in⁴²/
Kunming /ioŋ⁵³/
Nanjing /ioŋ²¹²/
Hefei /yn²⁴/
Jin Taiyuan /yəŋ⁵³/
Pingyao /yŋ⁵³/
/y⁵³/ ~城村
Hohhot /ỹŋ⁵³/
Wu Shanghai /ioŋ³⁵/
Suzhou /ioŋ⁵¹/
Hangzhou /ʔioŋ⁵³/
Wenzhou /j̠oŋ³⁵/
Hui Shexian /yʌ̃³⁵/
Tunxi /yan²⁴/
Xiang Changsha /yn⁴¹/
Xiangtan /yn⁴²/
Gan Nanchang /yn²¹³/
Hakka Meixian /iun³¹/
Taoyuan /ʒuŋ³¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /weŋ²³/
Nanning /weŋ²⁴/
Hong Kong /wiŋ¹³/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /iŋ⁵³/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /iŋ³²/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /œyŋ²¹/
Shantou (Min Nan) /ioŋ⁵³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /zoŋ²¹³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (35)
Final () (112)
Tone (調) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Closed
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ɦˠwiæŋX/
Pan
Wuyun
/ɦʷᵚiaŋX/
Shao
Rongfen
/ɣiuaŋX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ɦwiajŋX/
Li
Rong
/ɣiuɐŋX/
Wang
Li
/ɣĭwɐŋX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/i̯wɐŋX/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
yǒng
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
wing5
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
yǒng
Middle
Chinese
‹ hjwængX ›
Old
Chinese
/*[ɢ]ʷraŋʔ/
English long (time)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 15423
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ɢʷraŋʔ/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. perpetual; eternal; permanent; forever
  2. long (space or time)
  3. to prolong; to lengthen
  4. 53rd tetragram of the Taixuanjing; "eternity" (𝌺)
  5. A surname​.

CompoundsEdit


JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(grade 5 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. eternity
  2. long
  3. lengthy

ReadingsEdit

CompoundsEdit

SynonymsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • New Nelson: 3031
  • Halpern: 1937
  • Halpern Learners: 1230
  • Heisig: 132
  • Tuttle Kanji Dictionary: 3a1.1
  1. Source: EDICT and KANJIDIC files licensed by the Electronic Dictionaries Research Group.

Etymology 1Edit

Kanji in this term
えい
Grade: 5
kan’on

From Middle Chinese (MC ɦˠwiæŋX).

The kan'on pronunciation, so likely a later borrowing.

PronunciationEdit

AffixEdit

(えい) (ei

  1. long (time)
  2. perpetual; eternal

NounEdit

(えい) (ei

  1. (historical) Abbreviation of 永楽銭 (eirakusen).
  2. (historical) This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Etymology 2Edit

Kanji in this term
よう
Grade: 5
goon

From Middle Chinese (MC ɦˠwiæŋX).

The goon pronunciation, so likely the initial borrowing.

PronunciationEdit

AffixEdit

(よう) (やう (yau)?

  1. (rare) Synonym of (ei, long (time), eternal)

Etymology 3Edit

Kanji in this term
なが
Grade: 5
kun’yomi
For pronunciation and definitions of – see なが.
(This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above terms.)

(The following entry is uncreated: なが.)

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

(eumhun (gil yeong))

  1. Hanja form? of (long, deep, forever).

ReferencesEdit


VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

: Hán Việt readings: vĩnh
: Nôm readings: vắng, vẳng, vánh, vảnh, vênh, vểnh, viếng, vĩnh

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.