See also:
U+65B9, 方
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-65B9

[U+65B8]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+65BA]
U+2F45, ⽅
KANGXI RADICAL SQUARE

[U+2F44]
Kangxi Radicals
[U+2F46]
Commons:Category
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TranslingualEdit

Traditional
Simplified
Japanese
Korean
Stroke order
 
Stroke order (alternative)
 
Stroke order
 
Stroke order
(alternative)
 

Han characterEdit

(Kangxi radical 70, +0, 4 strokes, cangjie input 卜竹尸 (YHS), four-corner 00227, composition)

  1. Kangxi radical #70, .

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 481, character 3
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 13620
  • Dae Jaweon: page 842, character 5
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 3, page 2172, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+65B9

Further readingEdit


ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
         

Ideogrammic compound (會意): + (sword)blade; tip of a blade. Original form of (OC *maːŋ, *maŋ, “awn (of cereal); tip (of blade)”); later borrowed to mean “side”. Other theories regarding the origin of this character also exist.

It is unrelated to (“fluttering flag”), from which characters like (OC *ɡɯ, “flag”) and (OC *ɡ·raʔ, “troops”) are derived.

Etymology 1Edit

"side; square; region"
Probably related to (OC *baːŋ), (OC *baːŋ, *baːŋs) (Schuessler, 2007).
"parallel boats"
Cognate with (OC *paːŋs, *paŋs, “boat”), (“boat”). According to STEDT, from Proto-Sino-Tibetan *poŋ (raft; float); compare Burmese ဖောင် (hpaung, raft), Jingpho hpong (kac). According to Schuessler (2007), this etymon is an area word; compare Thai พ่วง (pûuang, raft; pontoon), Proto-Austronesian *qabaŋ (boat), Old Mon kɓaŋ (ship; boat).
"just now"; "now"
Cognate with (OC *paʔ, “just now”). Compare Jingpho hpang (phaŋ³³, to begin), Proto-Kuki-Chin *pran (to begin) (STEDT).
"method; law"
Etymology not certain. May be the same word as (OC *paŋ, “side; square; region”). Cognate with 仿 (OC *pʰaŋʔ, “to imitate”). Perhaps cognate with Tibetan བྱང་བ (byang ba, skill; experience), Tibetan སྦྱངས (sbyangs, trained; exercised studied) (Schuessler, 2007). Alternatively, it may belong to Khmer ព្រាង (priəng, to draft; to sketch) < Khmer រាង (riəng, shape; form; figure). If so, it belongs to an Austroasiatic allofam which includes (OC *zraŋs, “form; appearance”). "Law; norm; standard" is a common extension of "form; shape".

Pronunciation 1Edit


Note:
  • hng - vernacular (“prescription; place”);
  • png/puiⁿ - vernacular (surname);
  • hong - literary.
Note:
  • bang1 - vernacular (“square; power; unit of measurement”);
  • hng1 - vernacular (“prescription”);
  • bung1 - vernacular (surname);
  • huang1 - literary.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Initial () (1)
    Final () (106)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Closed
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /pʉɐŋ/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /pʷiɐŋ/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /piuɑŋ/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /puaŋ/
    Li
    Rong
    /piuaŋ/
    Wang
    Li
    /pĭwaŋ/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /piwaŋ/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    fāng
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    fong1
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/3 2/3 3/3
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    fāng fāng fāng
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ pjang › ‹ pjang › ‹ pjang ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*C-paŋ/ /*paŋ/ /*paŋ/
    English square method just, then

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    No. 3023
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*paŋ/
    Notes
    DefinitionsEdit

    1. (obsolete) parallel; side by side
    2. (obsolete) parallel boats; raft made of bamboo
    3. (obsolete) to match; to be equal to
    4. (obsolete) to compare; to set side by side
    5. (obsolete) to differentiate; to discriminate
    6. (obsolete) to occupy; to take up
    7. (mathematics) square; rectangle; cube
        ―  zhèngfāngxíng  ―  square
      /   ―  chángfāngxíng  ―  rectangle
        ―  fāngzhuō  ―  square table
    8. side; aspect; party
        ―  jiǎ fāng  ―  Party A
        ―  fāngmiàn  ―  aspect; side
    9. place; region; locality
      /   ―  yuǎnfāng  ―  faraway place
        ―  fāngyán  ―  dialect; regional variety
    10. orientation; direction
      /   ―  dōngfāng  ―  east
        ―  qiánfāng  ―  front
    11. (obsolete) law; rule; reason
    12. method; way
      百計 / 百计  ―  qiānfāngbǎijì  ―  by every conceivable means
      教導 / 教导  ―  jiàodǎo yǒufāng  ―  to teach with the right method
    13. (obsolete) sort; category; kind
    14. (obsolete) moral principle and knowledge; learning
    15. (obsolete) earth; solid earth; ground
    16. (traditional Chinese medicine) prescription
        ―  fāng  ―  ancient prescription
        ―  piānfāng  ―  folk prescription
    17. (mathematics) power
      238  ―  2 de 3 cìfāng shì 8.  ―  2 to the third power is 8.
    18. (mathematics) Short for 平方米 (píngfāngmǐ, “Classifier for square metre.”).
    19. (mathematics) Short for 立方米 (lìfāngmǐ, “Classifier for cubic metre.”).
    20. Classifier for square objects.
      手帕  ―  fāng shǒupà  ―  one handkerchief
      圖章 / 图章  ―  liǎng fāng túzhāng  ―  two seal
    21. (literary, preceding a measurement of length to indicate area) area surrounding (something); surroundings; vicinity
    22. upright; honest; irreproachable
        ―  fāngzhèng  ―  upright; righteous
      品行  ―  pǐnxíng duānfāng  ―  righteous
    23. just; just when; at the time when; just now; now
      興未艾 / 兴未艾  ―  fāngxìngwèi'ài  ―  to be now rising or flourishing and have not yet stopped
    24. just; only
      書到用時恨少 / 书到用时恨少  ―  shū dào yòng shí fāng hèn shào  ―  to regret not acquiring enough knowledge only when it comes time to apply it
      解決社會問題市道回穩 [MSC, trad.]
      解决社会问题市道回稳 [MSC, simp.]
      Jiějué shèhuì wèntí fāng néng lìng shìdào huíwěn. [Pinyin]
      Only after solving social issues can the market recover.
      Synonym: (cái)
    25. at (a specific time)
    26. will; going to
    27. (dictionaries) Short for 方言 (fāngyán, “dialect”).
    28. A surname​.
        ―  Fāng Xiàorú  ―  Fang Xiaoru (Confucian scholar-bureaucrat of the Ming Dynasty)
    CompoundsEdit
    DescendantsEdit
    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese: (ほう) ()
    • Korean: (, bang)
    • Vietnamese: phương ()

    Others:

    Pronunciation 2Edit



    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Initial () (3)
    Final () (106)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Closed
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /bʉɐŋ/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /bʷiɐŋ/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /biuɑŋ/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /buaŋ/
    Li
    Rong
    /biuaŋ/
    Wang
    Li
    /bĭwaŋ/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /bʱiwaŋ/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    fáng
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    fong4
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    No. 3056
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*baŋ/
    DefinitionsEdit

    1. Only used in 方輿方舆 (Fángyù, “an ancient county in modern Shandong”).
    2. to disobey
    3. Alternative form of (fáng).
    4. Alternative form of (fáng).

    Etymology 2Edit

    Rendering of a dialectal pronunciation of (huāng).

    PronunciationEdit


    DefinitionsEdit

    (Mainland China, neologism, slang)

    1. Pronunciation spelling of (huāng).
        ―  fāng le!  ―  I panic!
    2. Pronunciation spelling of (huāng).
        ―  Hǎo fāng!  ―  So panicky!

    Etymology 3Edit

    For pronunciation and definitions of – see 仿 (“to imitate; to resemble; to be similar; etc.”).
    (This character, , is a variant form of 仿.)

    Etymology 4Edit

    PronunciationEdit


    DefinitionsEdit

    1. Used in 方羊 and 方洋.
    2. Used in 方皇.
    3. Alternative form of (páng).

    Etymology 5Edit

    PronunciationEdit


    DefinitionsEdit

    1. Only used in 方良.

    Etymology 6Edit

    Borrowed from English phon.

    PronunciationEdit


    DefinitionsEdit

    1. phon (unit of apparent loudness)

    ReferencesEdit


    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. direction
    2. person
    3. alternative

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

    Kanji in this term
    ほう
    Grade: 2
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese (pjang).

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (ほう) (はう (fau)?

    1. direction, way, side
      (おに)さんこちら()()(ほう)
      oni-san kochira, te no naru e
      hey, "it", over here, to (the direction of) the clapping of the hands (phrase said in tag)
    2. more so (preceded by ~の, often followed by ~が)
      この時計(とけい)(ほう)がそっちより(たか)いです。
      Kono tokei no ga sotchi yori takai desu.
      This watch is more expensive than that one.

    Etymology 2Edit

    Kanji in this term
    かた
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (かた) (kata

    1. (polite) person
      あの(かた)
      Ano kata.
      That person. (polite)
      あの(かた)はどなたですか。
      Ano kata wa donata desu ka.
      Who is that gentleman? (formal)
    SynonymsEdit

    SuffixEdit

    (かた) (-kata

    1. way, method (of doing)
      ()(かた)
      kakikata
      way of writing something; how to write something
      使(つか)(かた)
      tsukaikata
      way of using something; how to use something
    See alsoEdit

    Etymology 3Edit

    pe > ɸe > we > e.

    SuffixEdit

    () (-e (fe)?

    1. a suffix expressing location, direction, or time
    Derived termsEdit

    Etymology 4Edit

    Kanji in this term
    さま
    Grade: 2
    Irregular

    From Old Japanese. Originally a compound of (sa, that, pronominal indicating a person, place, thing, or direction in the middle distance) +‎ (ma, likeness, way, similarity, suffix indicating a quality).[3]

    PronunciationEdit

    Alternative formsEdit

    NounEdit

    (さま) (sama

    1. a person's appearance (as of body, or style, or face, etc.)
    2. the state or situation of a thing
    3. the general trend, tenor, or feel of a thing
    4. one's social station, status, or quality
    5. the way or means of doing something, how one does something
    6. the reason or circumstances for something

    ReferencesEdit

    1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN
    3. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan

    KoreanEdit

    HanjaEdit

    (eumhun (mo bang))

    1. Hanja form? of (direction).

    CompoundsEdit


    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    : Hán Việt readings: phương ((phủ)(lương)(thiết))[1][2][3]
    : Nôm readings: phương[1][2][3], vuông[1][3][4], phăng[1]

    1. chữ Hán form of phương (way; direction; means; method).

    ReferencesEdit