See also:
U+65B9, 方
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-65B9

[U+65B8]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+65BA]
U+2F45, ⽅
KANGXI RADICAL SQUARE

[U+2F44]
Kangxi Radicals
[U+2F46]
Commons:Category
Commons:Category
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Translingual

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Traditional
Simplified
Japanese
Korean
Stroke order
 
Stroke order (alternative)
 
Stroke order
 
Stroke order
(alternative)
 

Han character

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(Kangxi radical 70, +0, 4 strokes, cangjie input 卜竹尸 (YHS), four-corner 00227, composition )

  1. Kangxi radical #70, .

Derived characters

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References

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  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 481, character 3
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 13620
  • Dae Jaweon: page 842, character 5
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 3, page 2172, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+65B9

Further reading

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Chinese

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simp. and trad.

Glyph origin

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Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
         

Ideogrammic compound (會意会意) : + (sword)blade; tip of a blade. Original form of (OC *maːŋ, *maŋ, “awn (of cereal); tip (of blade)”); later borrowed to mean “side”. Other theories regarding the origin of this character also exist.

It is unrelated to (“fluttering flag”), from which characters like (OC *ɡɯ, “flag”) and (OC *ɡ·raʔ, “troops”) are derived.

Etymology 1

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"side; square; region"
Probably related to (OC *baːŋ), (OC *baːŋ, *baːŋs) (Schuessler, 2007).
"parallel boats"
Cognate with (OC *paːŋs, *paŋs, “boat”), (“boat”). According to STEDT, from Proto-Sino-Tibetan *poŋ (raft; float); compare Burmese ဖောင် (hpaung, raft), Jingpho hpong (kac). According to Schuessler (2007), this etymon is an area word; compare Thai พ่วง (pûuang, raft; pontoon), Proto-Austronesian *qabaŋ (boat), Old Mon kɓaŋ (ship; boat).
"just now"; "now"
Cognate with (OC *paʔ, “just now”). Compare Jingpho hpang (to begin), Proto-Kuki-Chin *pran (to begin) (STEDT).
"method; law"
Etymology not certain. May be the same word as (OC *paŋ, “side; square; region”). Cognate with 仿 (OC *pʰaŋʔ, “to imitate”). Perhaps cognate with Tibetan བྱང་བ (byang ba, skill; experience), Tibetan སྦྱངས (sbyangs, trained; exercised studied) (Schuessler, 2007). Alternatively, it may belong to Khmer ព្រាង (priəng, to draft; to sketch) < Khmer រាង (riəng, shape; form; figure). If so, it belongs to an Austroasiatic allofam which includes (OC *zraŋs, “form; appearance”). "Law; norm; standard" is a common extension of "form; shape".

Pronunciation 1

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Note:
  • huŏng - literary;
  • bung - vernacular (“piece“).
Note:
  • hng - vernacular (“prescription; place”);
  • png/puiⁿ - vernacular (surname);
  • hong - literary;
  • pang - in 四方 (sì-pang).
    • (Teochew)
      • Peng'im: bang1 / hng1 / bung1 / beng1 / huang1
      • Pe̍h-ōe-jī-like: pang / hng / pung / pṳng / huang
      • Sinological IPA (key): /paŋ³³/, /hŋ³³/, /puŋ³³/, /pɯŋ³³/, /huaŋ³³/
Note:
  • bang1 - vernacular (“square; power; unit of measurement”);
  • hng1 - vernacular (“prescription”);
  • bung1/beng1 - vernacular (surname) (beng1 - Jieyang);
  • huang1 - literary.

Rime
Character
Reading # 2/2
Initial () (1)
Final () (106)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Closed
Division () III
Fanqie
Baxter pjang
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/pʉɐŋ/
Pan
Wuyun
/pʷiɐŋ/
Shao
Rongfen
/piuɑŋ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/puaŋ/
Li
Rong
/piuaŋ/
Wang
Li
/pĭwaŋ/
Bernard
Karlgren
/piwaŋ/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
fāng
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
fong1
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/3 2/3 3/3
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
fāng fāng fāng
Middle
Chinese
‹ pjang › ‹ pjang › ‹ pjang ›
Old
Chinese
/*C-paŋ/ /*paŋ/ /*paŋ/
English square method just, then

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2
No. 3023
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*paŋ/
Notes
Definitions
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  1. (obsolete) parallel; side by side
  2. (obsolete) parallel boats; raft made of bamboo
  3. (obsolete) to match; to be equal to
  4. (obsolete) to compare; to set side by side
  5. (obsolete) to differentiate; to discriminate
  6. (obsolete) to occupy; to take up
  7. (mathematics) square; rectangle; cube
      ―  zhèngfāngxíng  ―  square
      ―  chángfāngxíng  ―  rectangle
      ―  fāngzhuō  ―  square table
  8. side; aspect; party
      ―  jiǎ fāng  ―  Party A
      ―  fāngmiàn  ―  aspect; side
  9. place; region; locality
      ―  yuǎnfāng  ―  faraway place
      ―  fāngyán  ―  dialect; regional variety
  10. orientation; direction
      ―  dōngfāng  ―  east
      ―  qiánfāng  ―  front
  11. (obsolete) law; rule; reason
  12. method; way
    百計百计  ―  qiānfāngbǎijì  ―  by every conceivable means
    教導教导  ―  jiàodǎo yǒufāng  ―  to teach with the right method
  13. (obsolete) sort; category; kind
  14. (obsolete) moral principle and knowledge; learning
  15. (obsolete) earth; solid earth; ground
  16. (traditional Chinese medicine) prescription
      ―  fāng  ―  ancient prescription
      ―  piānfāng  ―  folk prescription
  17. (mathematics) power
    238  ―  2 de 3 cìfāng shì 8.  ―  2 to the third power is 8.
  18. (mathematics) Short for 平方米 (píngfāngmǐ, “Classifier for square metre.”).
  19. (mathematics) Short for 立方米 (lìfāngmǐ, “Classifier for cubic metre.”).
  20. Classifier for square objects.
    手帕  ―  fāng shǒupà  ―  one handkerchief
    圖章图章  ―  liǎng fāng túzhāng  ―  two seal
  21. (literary, preceding a measurement of length to indicate area) area surrounding (something); surroundings; vicinity
  22. upright; honest; irreproachable
      ―  fāngzhèng  ―  upright; righteous
    品行  ―  pǐnxíng duānfāng  ―  righteous
  23. just; just when; at the time when; just now; now
    興未艾兴未艾  ―  fāngxìngwèi'ài  ―  to be now rising or flourishing and have not yet stopped
  24. just; only
    書到用時恨少书到用时恨少  ―  shū dào yòng shí fāng hèn shào  ―  to regret not acquiring enough knowledge only when it comes time to apply it
    Synonym: (cái)
  25. at (a specific time); when
  26. will; going to
  27. (lexicography) Short for 方言 (fāngyán, “dialect”).
  28. a surname
      ―  Fāng Xiàorú  ―  Fang Xiaoru (Confucian scholar-bureaucrat of the Ming Dynasty)
Descendants
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Sino-Xenic ():
  • Japanese: (ほう) ()
  • Korean: 방(方) (bang)
  • Vietnamese: phương ()

Others:

Pronunciation 2

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Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2
Initial () (3)
Final () (106)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Closed
Division () III
Fanqie
Baxter bjang
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/bʉɐŋ/
Pan
Wuyun
/bʷiɐŋ/
Shao
Rongfen
/biuɑŋ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/buaŋ/
Li
Rong
/biuaŋ/
Wang
Li
/bĭwaŋ/
Bernard
Karlgren
/bʱiwaŋ/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
fáng
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
fong4
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 2/2
No. 3056
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*baŋ/
Definitions
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  1. Only used in 方輿方舆 (Fángyù, “an ancient county in modern Shandong”).
  2. to disobey
  3. Alternative form of
  4. Alternative form of (fáng)

Etymology 2

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Rendering of a dialectal pronunciation of (huāng).

Pronunciation

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Definitions
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(Mainland China, neologism, slang)

  1. The template Template:zh-pronunciation spelling of does not use the parameter(s):
gloss=to panic

Please see Module:checkparams for help with this warning.

Pronunciation spelling of (huāng).

  1.   ―  fāng le!  ―  I panic!
  2. The template Template:zh-pronunciation spelling of does not use the parameter(s):
gloss=panicky

Please see Module:checkparams for help with this warning.

Pronunciation spelling of (huāng).

  1.   ―  Hǎo fāng!  ―  So panicky!

Etymology 3

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For pronunciation and definitions of – see 仿 (“to imitate; to resemble; to be similar; etc.”).
(This character is a variant form of 仿).

Etymology 4

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Pronunciation

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Definitions

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  1. Used in 方羊 and 方洋.
  2. Used in 方皇.
  3. Alternative form of

Etymology 5

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Pronunciation

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Definitions

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  1. Only used in 方良.

Etymology 6

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Borrowed from English phon.

Pronunciation

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Definitions

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  1. phon (unit of apparent loudness)

Compounds

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References

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Japanese

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Kanji

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(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. direction
  2. person
  3. alternative
  4. (algebra, geometry) square

Readings

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Compounds

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Etymology 1

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Kanji in this term
ほう
Grade: 2
on’yomi

From Middle Chinese (MC bjang|pjang).

Pronunciation

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Noun

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(ほう) (はう (fau)?

  1. direction, way, side
    (おに)さんこちら()()(ほう)
    oni-san kochira, te no naru e
    hey, "it", over here, to (the direction of) the clapping of the hands (phrase said in tag)
  2. more so (preceded by ~の, often followed by ~が)
    この時計(とけい)(ほう)そっちより(たか)です
    Kono tokei no ga sotchi yori takai desu.
    This watch is more expensive than that one.

Etymology 2

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Kanji in this term
かた
Grade: 2
kun’yomi

Pronunciation

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Noun

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(かた) (kata

  1. (polite) person
    あの(かた)
    Ano kata.
    That person. (polite)
    あの(かた)どなたです
    Ano kata wa donata desu ka.
    Who is that gentleman? (formal)
Synonyms
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Suffix

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(かた) (-kata

  1. way, method (of doing)
    ()(かた)
    kakikata
    way of writing something; how to write something
    使(つか)(かた)
    tsukaikata
    way of using something; how to use something
See also
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Etymology 3

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pe > ɸe > we > e.

Suffix

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() (-e (fe)?

  1. a suffix expressing location, direction, or time
Derived terms
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Etymology 4

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Kanji in this term
さま
Grade: 2
irregular

From Old Japanese. Originally a compound of (sa, that, pronominal indicating a person, place, thing, or direction in the middle distance) +‎ (ma, likeness, way, similarity, suffix indicating a quality).[3]

Alternative forms

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Pronunciation

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Noun

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(さま) (sama

  1. a person's appearance (as of body, or style, or face, etc.)
  2. the state or situation of a thing
  3. the general trend, tenor, or feel of a thing
  4. one's social station, status, or quality
  5. the way or means of doing something, how one does something
  6. the reason or circumstances for something

References

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  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Matsumura, Akira, editor (2006), 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tokyo: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 NHK Broadcasting Culture Research Institute, editor (1998), NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 [NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary] (in Japanese), Tokyo: NHK Publishing, Inc., →ISBN
  3. ^ Shōgaku Tosho (1988) 国語大辞典(新装版) [Unabridged Dictionary of Japanese (Revised Edition)] (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN

Korean

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Etymology

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(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium. Particularly: “Middle Korean readings, if any”)

Pronunciation

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Hanja

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Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun (mo bang))

  1. Hanja form? of (direction).

Compounds

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Vietnamese

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Han character

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: Hán Việt readings: phương ((phủ)(lương)(thiết))[1][2][3]
: Nôm readings: phương[1][2][3], vuông[1][3][4], phăng[1]

  1. chữ Hán form of phương (way; direction; means; method).

Compounds

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References

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