See also:
U+7261, 牡
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-7261

[U+7260]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+7262]

Translingual

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Han character

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(Kangxi radical 93, +3, 7 strokes, cangjie input 竹手土 (HQG), four-corner 24510, composition )

Derived characters

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References

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  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 697, character 11
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 19933
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1110, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 3, page 1801, character 2
  • Unihan data for U+7261

Chinese

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simp. and trad.

Glyph origin

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Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
       

Ideogrammic compound (會意会意) : (cattle) + . Various explanations exist, some propose 丄 (here unrelated to ) depicts a penis to represent “male”. Later 丄 came to be written . See also the etymology of this character.

Etymology

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Austroasiatic (Schuessler, 2007). Compare Proto-Mon-Khmer *ɟm(oo)l (male) (whence Khmer ឈ្មោល (chmool, to be male)), Old Mon jmūr ~ jmur (male (elephant)), Proto-Waic *(k)mɔj ((wild) ox; buffalo), Proto-Vietic *mɔːlʔ (person; human being) (whence Vietnamese mọi (savage; barbarian), Muong mõl (human being)).

An oracle bone graph for this word shows a vertical stick on a horizontal ground, possibly because it had been intended for an obsolete homophone cognate with Proto-Vietic *c-mɔːlʔ (digging stick), which alongside "male" may derive from a stem represented in Old Khmer cval (to enter; to penetrate; (of animals) to copulate), Khmu [script needed] (cmɔɔl, to plant (rice) with a digging stick), [script needed] (crmɔɔl, digging stick) (ibid.; Ferlus, 1987). Schuessler (2007) further proposes a relationship with (OC *mɯʔ, “cropland; mu (a Chinese measuring unit for area)”) (ibid.); see there for more.

Pronunciation

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Note: mau5 - dated variant.
Note:
  • mū - vernacular;
  • mēu - literary.

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (4)
Final () (137)
Tone (調) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Baxter muwX
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/məuX/
Pan
Wuyun
/məuX/
Shao
Rongfen
/məuX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/məwX/
Li
Rong
/muX/
Wang
Li
/məuX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/mə̯uX/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
mǒu
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
mau5
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ muwX ›
Old
Chinese
/*m(r)uʔ/
English male

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 9321
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
2
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*mɯwʔ/

Definitions

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  1. (obsolete) male of animals
    Synonyms: (xióng), (gōng)
    Antonym: (pìn)
  2. (obsolete) male genitals
  3. (obsolete) bolt of door
  4. (obsolete) hill; hump
  5. Used in 牡蠣牡蛎 (mǔlì, “oyster”).

Compounds

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References

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Japanese

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Kanji

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(“Jinmeiyō” kanji used for names)

  1. male
  2. oyster

Readings

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Etymology

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Kanji in this term
おす
Jinmeiyō
kun’yomi
For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry.
おすS
[noun] a male (plant or animal)
Alternative spelling
オス
(This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above term.)

Korean

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Hanja

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(mo) (hangeul , revised mo, McCune–Reischauer mo, Yale mo)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Vietnamese

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Han character

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: Hán Nôm readings: mẫu

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.