U+516C, 公
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-516C

[U+516B]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+516D]

Translingual

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Stroke order
 
Stroke order
 

Han character

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(Kangxi radical 12, +2, 4 strokes, cangjie input 金戈 (CI), four-corner 80732, composition )

Derived characters

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References

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  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 126, character 28
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 1452
  • Dae Jaweon: page 277, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 242, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+516C

Chinese

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trad.
simp. #
alternative forms

𧆷

Glyph origin

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Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Spring and Autumn Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Chu slip and silk script Qin slip script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
               



References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).
 
A from the Longshan culture (also called Black Pottery Culture) [3000 – 1900 BC].

The traditional interpretation as given by Han Feizi is that is a compound of (= (“to deviate; opposite”)) and (original form of (“individual; private”)), i.e. the opposite of “private” — “public”. This theory is supported by Sun Yirang and Qiang Kaiyun, despite the somewhat different shape of the bottom component from .

This is disputed in modern times by Gao Hongjin, who thinks that the on top stands for (“to divide; to distribute”) and the bottom round component symbolises a generic object. thus represents “equally dividing resources so that they are communal”.

Another theory put forth by Zhu Fangpu is that is a pictogram (象形) , being the original form of (OC *qloːŋs, “a wide-mouthed round-bottomed jar”), and later borrowed for the meanings of “public” and “male of older generation or higher rank”.

Etymology

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"fair; impartial; public"
From Sino-Tibetan; cognate with Tibetan གུང (gung), དགུང (dgung, middle), considering that "middle" may be semantically associated with "balance" (Schuessler, 2007).
"male of older generation or higher rank; duke; male (of animals)"
This word has been connected to (OC *qloːŋ) (Wang, 1982; Unger, 1999; Baxter and Sagart, 2017). Baxter and Sagart (2017) also includes (OC *t-qoŋ, “husband's father”) in this word family.
STEDT provisionally sets up Proto-Sino-Tibetan *kaŋ (father; grandfather; honorific), also comparing it to ; compare Drung kangkang (grandpa), vkang ((my/our) grandfather), Burmese ခင် (hkang), as in မိခင် (mi.hkang, mother), ဖခင် (hpa.hkang, father). Alternatively, STEDT also compares it with Proto-Sino-Tibetan *gaŋ (penis; male), whence (OC *ɡʷɯŋ, “male”), but considers it less probable.
Schuessler (2007) suggests a Mon-Khmer origin; compare Khmer ឡូញ (louñ, title of an unidentified rank or function) and Old Khmer khloñ (head, chief) (whence ខ្លោង (khlaong)). Compare also Thai ลุง (lung), from Proto-Tai *luŋᴬ (parent's older brother), which may also be from Mon-Khmer. Tibetan ཁོང (khong) ~ གོང (gong, final syllable in dignitaries' name) may be borrowed from Chinese.

Pronunciation

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Note:
  • é̤ng - vernacular;
  • gó̤ng - literary.
Note:
  • gĕ̤ng - vernacular;
  • gŭng - literary.
Note:
  • kang - vernacular;
  • kong - literary.
Note:
  • gang1 - vernacular;
  • gong1 - literary.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /kuŋ⁵⁵/
Harbin /kuŋ⁴⁴/
Tianjin /kuŋ²¹/
Jinan /kuŋ²¹³/
Qingdao /kəŋ²¹³/
Zhengzhou /kuŋ²⁴/
Xi'an /kuŋ²¹/
Xining /kuə̃⁴⁴/
Yinchuan /kuŋ⁴⁴/
Lanzhou /kũn³¹/
Ürümqi /kuŋ⁴⁴/
Wuhan /koŋ⁵⁵/
Chengdu /koŋ⁵⁵/
Guiyang /koŋ⁵⁵/
Kunming /koŋ⁴⁴/
Nanjing /koŋ³¹/
Hefei /kəŋ²¹/
Jin Taiyuan /kuəŋ¹¹/
Pingyao /kuŋ¹³/
Hohhot /kũŋ³¹/
Wu Shanghai /koŋ⁵³/
Suzhou /koŋ⁵⁵/
Hangzhou /koŋ³³/
Wenzhou /koŋ³³/
Hui Shexian /kuʌ̃³¹/
Tunxi /kan¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /koŋ³³/
Xiangtan /kən³³/
Gan Nanchang /kuŋ⁴²/
Hakka Meixian /kuŋ⁴⁴/
Taoyuan /kuŋ²⁴/
Cantonese Guangzhou /koŋ⁵³/
Nanning /kuŋ⁵⁵/
Hong Kong /kuŋ⁵⁵/
Min Xiamen (Hokkien) /kiɔŋ⁵⁵/
/kaŋ⁵⁵/
Fuzhou (Eastern Min) /kuŋ⁴⁴/
Jian'ou (Northern Min) /kɔŋ⁵⁴/
Shantou (Teochew) /koŋ³³/
/kaŋ³³/
Haikou (Hainanese) /koŋ²³/
/kaŋ²³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (28)
Final () (1)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Baxter kuwng
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/kuŋ/
Pan
Wuyun
/kuŋ/
Shao
Rongfen
/kuŋ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/kəwŋ/
Li
Rong
/kuŋ/
Wang
Li
/kuŋ/
Bernard
Karlgren
/kuŋ/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
gōng
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
gung1
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
gōng gōng
Middle
Chinese
‹ kuwng › ‹ kuwng ›
Old
Chinese
/*C.qˁoŋ/ /*C.qˁoŋ/
English impartial, just; public father; prince

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 4092
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*kloːŋ/

Definitions

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  1. public; communal
    Antonym: ()
  2. fair; equitable
  3. to make public; to announce
  4. international; universal
      ―  gōnghǎi  ―  international waters
      ―  gōng  ―  kilometer
      ―  gōngchǐ  ―  meter
  5. duke
  6. (of animals) male
    Antonyms: (), (Cantonese) ()
      ―  gōng  ―  rooster
  7. (figuratively, of instruments, tools, or connectors) male
    Antonyms: (), (Cantonese) ()
  8. (honorific) old man or a man of high status
    大文 [MSC, trad.]
    大文 [MSC, simp.]
    Chén gōng Dàwén zhī mù [Pinyin]
    Tomb of Mr. Chen Dawen (written on a tombstone)
      ―  Jiǎng gōng  ―  Chiang Kai-shek (honorific form)
  9. grandfather
  10. father-in-law (husband's father)
      ―  gōng  ―  parents-in-law (husband's parents)
  11. (Cantonese) heads (side of a coin)
  12. (Hakka) A noun suffix
    [Sixian Hakka]  ―  phi-kûng [Pha̍k-fa-sṳ]  ―  nose
    [Meixian Hakka]  ―  miau4 gung1 [Hakka Transliteration Scheme]  ―  cat
  13. a surname

Synonyms

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Compounds

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Descendants

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Sino-Xenic ():
  • Japanese: (こう) (, duke)
  • Korean: 공(公) (gong, duke)
  • Vietnamese: công (, duke)

Others:

  • Mongolian: гүн (gün)
  • Manchu: ᡤᡠᠩ (gung)
  • Thai: กง (gong, grandfather) (said by Chinese race)

Japanese

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Shinjitai

Kyūjitai

Kanji

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(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings

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Compounds

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Etymology 1

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Kanji in this term
おおやけ
Grade: 2
kun’yomi
For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry.
おおやけ
[noun] public
[noun] official, governmental
(This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above term.)

Etymology 2

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Kanji in this term
こう
Grade: 2
on’yomi

From Middle Chinese (MC kuwng).

Pronunciation

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Noun

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(こう) (

  1. (honorific) a European sovereign prince
    モナコ(こう)
    Monako
    the Prince of Monaco
    ウェールズ(こう)チャールズ
    Wēruzu Chāruzu
    Charles, Prince of Wales
  2. (honorific) a duke; in China and Vietnam, an alternative to (ō, prince), used by certain dynasties for princes
    Holonym: 五爵
    Coordinate terms: , 公爵, , ,
    (しゅう)(こう)(たん)
    Shūkō Tan
    Dan, Duke of Zhou
    (とう)(きゅう)(こう)
    Tō Kyūkō
    the Ninth Deng Duke; the Ninth Duke of the Dengs/Deng family
    (こう)()
    kōshi
    a duke's son
    (こう)(じょ)
    kōjo
    a duke's daughter
    (こう)(そん)
    kōson
    a duke's grandchild
    エディンバラ(こう)フィリップ(おう)(はい)
    Edinbara Firippu Ōhai
    Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh
  3. (familiar) used as suffix to denote familiarity with or disdain for someone or an animal
    • 1997 September 1 [1996 October 10], Fujiko F. Fujio, “どこかでだれかが の(まき) [Anyone, Anywhere]”, in エスパー魔美 [Esper Mami], 4th edition, volume 1 (fiction), Tokyo: Shogakukan, →ISBN, page 245:
      マミ(こう)‼どこへいったんだ。しようがないなあ‼モデルという(じゅう)(よう)なしごとを、こづかいかせぎぐらいにしか、かんがえていないんだから。
      Mami-kō‼ Doko e itta n da. Shiyō ga nai nā‼ Moderu to iu jūyō na shigoto o, kozukai kasegigurai ni shika, kangaete inai n da kara.
      Mami!! Where the hell’d she go? This is unacceptable!! She treats serious modeling as nothing but a way to get pocket money.

Etymology 3

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Kanji in this term
きみ
Grade: 2
kun’yomi
For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry.
きみ3
[noun] a ruler of a country
[noun] an emperor
[noun] a lord
[noun] a master
[noun] a nobleman or other person of high(er) rank
[noun] (historical, archaic) a prostitute
[noun] (historical) one of the hereditary titles bestowed to local chiefs in ancient Japan
[pronoun] (informal, chiefly men's speech) second-person personal pronoun: you
[pronoun] (after a (ga) or (no) particle) term of respect to another person
Alternative spelling
キミ
ぎみ3
[suffix] indicates respect
(This term, , is an alternative spelling (uncommon) of the above term.)

References

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  1. ^ Matsumura, Akira, editor (2006), 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tokyo: Sanseidō, →ISBN

Korean

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Etymology

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From Middle Chinese (MC kuwng). Recorded as Middle Korean 고ᇰ (kwong) (Yale: kwong) in Hunmong Jahoe (訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회), 1527.

Hanja

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Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun 공평할 (gongpyeonghal gong))

  1. Hanja form? of (fair; official).

Compounds

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References

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  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [1]

Vietnamese

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Han character

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: Hán Nôm readings: công

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.