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U+516C, 公
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-516C

[U+516B]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+516D]

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 
Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 12, +2, 4 strokes, cangjie input 金戈 (CI), four-corner 80732, composition)

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 126, character 28
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 1452
  • Dae Jaweon: page 277, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 242, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+516C

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.
variant forms

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
       





References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*qroːŋʔ
*kluːnʔ
*kluːnʔ
*kluːnʔ
*kluːnʔ
*sʰloːŋ
*sqʰloːŋs, *sqʰluːŋ, *skʰloŋ, *sqʰloŋ
*sqʰloːŋs, *sqʰloŋ, *sɢloŋ
*kloːŋ
*kloːŋ, *kljoŋ
*qloːŋ
*qloːŋ
*qloːŋ, *qloːŋʔ
*qloːŋ
*qloːŋʔ
*qloːŋʔ
*qloːŋʔ
*qloːŋʔ
*qloːŋs
*sqʰluŋ
*sqʰluŋ
*sqʰluŋ
*sqʰloŋ, *sɢloŋ
*sqʰloŋ
*sqʰloŋ
*sɢloŋ
*sɢloŋ, *sɢloŋs
*sɢloŋs, *loŋ
*kljoŋ
*kljoŋ
*kljoŋ
*kljoŋ
*kljoŋ
*kljoŋ
*kljoŋ, *lon
 
A from the Longshan culture (also called Black Pottery Culture) [3000 – 1900 BC].

The traditional interpretation as given by Han Feizi is that is a compound of (= (“to deviate; opposite”)) and (original form of (“individual; private”)), i.e. the opposite of “individual”; public. This theory is supported by Sun Yirang and Qiang Kaiyun, despite the somewhat different shape of the top component from .

This is disputed in modern times by Gao Hongjin, who thinks that the on top stands for (“to divide; to distribute”) and the bottom round component of symbolises the general object. thus represents “equally dividing resources so that they are communal”.

Another theory put forth by Zhu Fangpu is that is a pictogram (象形), being the original form of (OC *qloːŋs, “a wide-mouthed round-bottomed jar”), and later borrowed for the meaning of “public”.

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • kang - vernacular;
  • kong - literary.
Note:
  • gang1 - vernacular;
  • gong1 - literary.
  • Wu

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /kuŋ⁵⁵/
    Harbin /kuŋ⁴⁴/
    Tianjin /kuŋ²¹/
    Jinan /kuŋ²¹³/
    Qingdao /kəŋ²¹³/
    Zhengzhou /kuŋ²⁴/
    Xi'an /kuŋ²¹/
    Xining /kuə̃⁴⁴/
    Yinchuan /kuŋ⁴⁴/
    Lanzhou /kũn³¹/
    Ürümqi /kuŋ⁴⁴/
    Wuhan /koŋ⁵⁵/
    Chengdu /koŋ⁵⁵/
    Guiyang /koŋ⁵⁵/
    Kunming /koŋ/
    Nanjing /koŋ³¹/
    Hefei /kəŋ²¹/
    Jin Taiyuan /kuəŋ¹¹/
    Pingyao /kuŋ¹³/
    Hohhot /kũŋ³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /koŋ⁵³/
    Suzhou /koŋ⁵⁵/
    Hangzhou /koŋ³³/
    Wenzhou /koŋ³³/
    Hui Shexian /kuʌ̃³¹/
    Tunxi /kan¹¹/
    Xiang Changsha /koŋ³³/
    Xiangtan /kən³³/
    Gan Nanchang /kuŋ⁴²/
    Hakka Meixian /kuŋ⁴⁴/
    Taoyuan /kuŋ²⁴/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /koŋ⁵³/
    Nanning /kuŋ⁵⁵/
    Hong Kong /kuŋ⁵⁵/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /kiɔŋ⁵⁵/
    /kaŋ⁵⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /kuŋ⁴⁴/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /kɔŋ⁵⁴/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /koŋ³³/
    /kaŋ³³/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /koŋ²³/
    /kaŋ²³/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (28)
    Final () (1)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /kuŋ/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /kuŋ/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /kuŋ/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /kəwŋ/
    Li
    Rong
    /kuŋ/
    Wang
    Li
    /kuŋ/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /kuŋ/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    gōng
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    gōng gōng
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ kuwng › ‹ kuwng ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*C.qˁoŋ/ /*C.qˁoŋ/
    English impartial, just; public father; prince

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 4092
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*kloːŋ/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. public; communal
      Antonyms: ()
    2. fair; equitable
    3. duke
    4. (unit) of the International System
        ―  gōng  ―  kilometer
        ―  gōngchǐ  ―  meter
    5. (of animals) male
      Antonyms: ()

    CompoundsEdit


    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana おおやけ, rōmaji ōyake, historical hiragana おほやけ)

    1. official, governmental

    (hiragana こう, rōmaji )

    1. prince, duke

    PronounEdit

    (hiragana きみ, rōmaji kimi)

    1. Alternative form of

    KoreanEdit

    HanjaEdit

    (eumhun 공평할 (gongpyeonghal gong))

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    (công)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.