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U+516C, 公
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-516C

[U+516B]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+516D]

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 
Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 12, +2, 4 strokes, cangjie input 金戈 (CI), four-corner 80732, composition)

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 126, character 28
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 1452
  • Dae Jaweon: page 277, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 242, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+516C

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.
variant forms

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
       





References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*qroːŋʔ
*kluːnʔ
*kluːnʔ
*kluːnʔ
*kluːnʔ
*sʰloːŋ
*sqʰloːŋs, *sqʰluːŋ, *skʰloŋ, *sqʰloŋ
*sqʰloːŋs, *sqʰloŋ, *sɢloŋ
*kloːŋ
*kloːŋ, *kljoŋ
*qloːŋ
*qloːŋ
*qloːŋ, *qloːŋʔ
*qloːŋ
*qloːŋʔ
*qloːŋʔ
*qloːŋʔ
*qloːŋʔ
*qloːŋs
*sqʰluŋ
*sqʰluŋ
*sqʰluŋ
*sqʰloŋ, *sɢloŋ
*sqʰloŋ
*sqʰloŋ
*sɢloŋ
*sɢloŋ, *sɢloŋs
*sɢloŋs, *loŋ
*kljoŋ
*kljoŋ
*kljoŋ
*kljoŋ
*kljoŋ
*kljoŋ
*kljoŋ, *lon
 
A from the Longshan culture (also called Black Pottery Culture) [3000 – 1900 BC].

The traditional interpretation as given by Han Feizi is that is a compound of (= (“to deviate; opposite”)) and (original form of (“individual; private”)), i.e. the opposite of “private” — “public”. This theory is supported by Sun Yirang and Qiang Kaiyun, despite the somewhat different shape of the bottom component from .

This is disputed in modern times by Gao Hongjin, who thinks that the on top stands for (“to divide; to distribute”) and the bottom round component symbolises a generic object. thus represents “equally dividing resources so that they are communal”.

Another theory put forth by Zhu Fangpu is that is a pictogram (象形), being the original form of (OC *qloːŋs, “a wide-mouthed round-bottomed jar”), and later borrowed for the meanings of “public” and “male of older generation or higher rank”.

EtymologyEdit

"fair; impartial; public"
From Sino-Tibetan; cognate with Tibetan གུང (gung), དགུང (dgung, middle), considering that "middle" may be semantically associated with "balance" (Schuessler, 2007).
"male of older generation or higher rank; duke; male (of animals)"
This word has been connected to (OC *qloːŋ) (Wang, 1982; Unger, 1999; Baxter and Sagart, 2017). Baxter and Sagart (2017) also includes (OC *t-qoŋ, “husband's father”) in this word family.
STEDT provisionally sets up Proto-Sino-Tibetan *kaŋ (father; grandfather; honorific), also comparing it to ; compare Drung kangkang (grandpa), vkang ((my/our) grandfather), Burmese ခင် (hkang), as in မိခင် (mi.hkang, mother), ဖခင် (hpa.hkang, father). Alternatively, STEDT also compares it with Proto-Sino-Tibetan *gaŋ (penis; male), whence (OC *ɡʷɯŋ, “male”), but considers it less probable.
Schuessler (2007) suggests a Mon-Khmer origin; compare Khmer ឡូញ (louñ, title of an unidentified rank or function) and Old Khmer khloñ (head, chief) (whence ខ្លោង (khlaong)). Compare also Thai ลุง (lung), from Proto-Tai *luŋᴬ (parent's older brother), which may also be from Mon-Khmer. Tibetan [script needed] (khong) ~ [script needed] (gong, final syllable in dignitaries' name) may be borrowed from Chinese.

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • kang - vernacular;
  • kong - literary.
Note:
  • gang1 - vernacular;
  • gong1 - literary.
  • Wu

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /kuŋ⁵⁵/
    Harbin /kuŋ⁴⁴/
    Tianjin /kuŋ²¹/
    Jinan /kuŋ²¹³/
    Qingdao /kəŋ²¹³/
    Zhengzhou /kuŋ²⁴/
    Xi'an /kuŋ²¹/
    Xining /kuə̃⁴⁴/
    Yinchuan /kuŋ⁴⁴/
    Lanzhou /kũn³¹/
    Ürümqi /kuŋ⁴⁴/
    Wuhan /koŋ⁵⁵/
    Chengdu /koŋ⁵⁵/
    Guiyang /koŋ⁵⁵/
    Kunming /koŋ/
    Nanjing /koŋ³¹/
    Hefei /kəŋ²¹/
    Jin Taiyuan /kuəŋ¹¹/
    Pingyao /kuŋ¹³/
    Hohhot /kũŋ³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /koŋ⁵³/
    Suzhou /koŋ⁵⁵/
    Hangzhou /koŋ³³/
    Wenzhou /koŋ³³/
    Hui Shexian /kuʌ̃³¹/
    Tunxi /kan¹¹/
    Xiang Changsha /koŋ³³/
    Xiangtan /kən³³/
    Gan Nanchang /kuŋ⁴²/
    Hakka Meixian /kuŋ⁴⁴/
    Taoyuan /kuŋ²⁴/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /koŋ⁵³/
    Nanning /kuŋ⁵⁵/
    Hong Kong /kuŋ⁵⁵/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /kiɔŋ⁵⁵/
    /kaŋ⁵⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /kuŋ⁴⁴/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /kɔŋ⁵⁴/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /koŋ³³/
    /kaŋ³³/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /koŋ²³/
    /kaŋ²³/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (28)
    Final () (1)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /kuŋ/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /kuŋ/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /kuŋ/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /kəwŋ/
    Li
    Rong
    /kuŋ/
    Wang
    Li
    /kuŋ/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /kuŋ/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    gōng
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    gōng gōng
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ kuwng › ‹ kuwng ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*C.qˁoŋ/ /*C.qˁoŋ/
    English impartial, just; public father; prince

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 4092
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*kloːŋ/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. public; communal
      Antonyms: ()
    2. fair; equitable
    3. to make public; to announce
    4. international; universal
        ―  gōnghǎi  ―  international waters
        ―  gōng  ―  kilometer
        ―  gōngchǐ  ―  meter
    5. duke
    6. (of animals) male
      Antonyms: ()
      /   ―  gōng  ―  rooster
    7. A surname​.

    CompoundsEdit

    DescendantsEdit

    Sino-Xenic ():

    Others:


    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

      This entry lacks etymological information. If you are familiar with the origin of this term, please add it to the page per etymology instructions, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.
    Particularly: “大家, 大宅?”

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana おおやけ, rōmaji ōyake, historical hiragana おほやけ)

    1. official, governmental

    Etymology 2Edit

    From Middle Chinese (MC kuŋ).

    PronunciationEdit

    SuffixEdit

    (hiragana こう, rōmaji -kō)

    1. (honorific) ruling prince; duke
    2. (familiar) denotes familiarity with or disdain for someone or an animal
      • 1997 September 1 [Oct 10 1996], Fujiko F. Fujio, “どこかでだれかが のまき [Anyone, Anywhere]”, in エスパー魔美 [Esper Mami], volume 1 (fiction), 4th edition, Tokyo: Shogakukan, →ISBN, page 245:
        マミ (こう)‼どこへいったんだ。しようがないなあ‼モデルという (じゅう) (よう)なしごとを、こづかいかせぎぐらいにしか、かんがえていないんだから。
        Mami-kō‼ Doko e itta n da. Shiyō ga nai nā‼ Moderu to iu jūyō na shigoto o, kozukai kasegigurai ni shika, kangaete inai n da kara.
        Mami‼ Where the hell’d she go? This is unacceptable‼ She treats serious modeling as nothing but a way to get pocket money.

    Etymology 3Edit

    PronounEdit

    (hiragana きみ, rōmaji kimi)

    1. Alternative form of

    ReferencesEdit

    1. 1.0 1.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

    KoreanEdit

    HanjaEdit

    (eumhun 공평할 (gongpyeonghal gong))

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    (công)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.