Contents

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
公-bw.png
Stroke order
公-order.gif

Han characterEdit

(radical 12 +2, 4 strokes, cangjie input 金戈 (CI), four-corner 80732, composition)

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 126, character 28
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 1452
  • Dae Jaweon: page 277, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 242, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+516C

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Large seal script Small seal script
公-oracle.svg 公-bronze.svg 公-bigseal.svg 公-seal.svg





References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (large seal) and
  • Xu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).
A from the Longshan culture (also called Black Pottery Culture) [3000 – 1900 BC].

The traditional interpretation as given by Han Feizi is that is a compound of (= (“to deviate; opposite”)) and (original form of (“individual; private”)), i.e. the opposite of “individual”; public. This theory is supported by Sun Yirang and Qiang Kaiyun, despite the somewhat different shape of the top component from .

This is disputed in modern times by Gao Hongjin, who thinks that the on top stands for (“to divide; to distribute”) and the bottom round component of symbolises the general object. thus represents “equally dividing resources so that they are communal”.

Another theory put forth by Zhu Fangpu is that is a pictogram (象形), being the original form of (OC *qloːŋs, “a wide-mouthed round-bottomed jar”), and later borrowed for the meaning of “public”.

PronunciationEdit



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /kuŋ⁵⁵/
Harbin /kuŋ⁴⁴/
Tianjin /kuŋ²¹/
Jinan /kuŋ²¹³/
Qingdao /kəŋ²¹³/
Zhengzhou /kuŋ²⁴/
Xi'an /kuŋ²¹/
Xining /kuə̃⁴⁴/
Yinchuan /kuŋ⁴⁴/
Lanzhou /kũn³¹/
Ürümqi /kuŋ⁴⁴/
Wuhan /koŋ⁵⁵/
Chengdu /koŋ⁵⁵/
Guiyang /koŋ⁵⁵/
Kunming /koŋ/
Nanjing /koŋ³¹/
Hefei /kəŋ²¹/
Jin Taiyuan /kuəŋ¹¹/
Pingyao /kuŋ¹³/
Hohhot /kũŋ³¹/
Wu Shanghai /koŋ⁵³/
Suzhou /koŋ⁵⁵/
Hangzhou /koŋ³³/
Wenzhou /koŋ³³/
Hui Shexian /kuʌ̃³¹/
Tunxi /kan¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /koŋ³³/
Xiangtan /kən³³/
Gan Nanchang /kuŋ⁴²/
Hakka Meixian /kuŋ⁴⁴/
Taoyuan /kuŋ²⁴/
Cantonese Guangzhou /koŋ⁵³/
Nanning /kuŋ⁵⁵/
Hong Kong /kuŋ⁵⁵/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /kiɔŋ⁵⁵/
/kaŋ⁵⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /kuŋ⁴⁴/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /kɔŋ⁵⁴/
Shantou (Min Nan) /koŋ³³/
/kaŋ³³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /koŋ²³/
/kaŋ²³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (28)
Final () (1)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/kuŋ/
Pan
Wuyun
/kuŋ/
Shao
Rongfen
/kuŋ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/kəwŋ/
Li
Rong
/kuŋ/
Wang
Li
/kuŋ/
Bernard
Karlgren
/kuŋ/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
gōng
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
gōng gōng
Middle
Chinese
‹ kuwng › ‹ kuwng ›
Old
Chinese
/*C.qˤoŋ/ /*C.qˤoŋ/
English impartial, just; public father; prince

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 4092
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*kloːŋ/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. public; communal
    Antonyms: ()
  2. fair; equitable
  3. duke
  4. (unit) of the International System
      ―  gōng  ―  kilometer
      ―  gōngchǐ  ―  meter
  5. (of animals) male
    Antonyms: ()

CompoundsEdit


JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

ReadingsEdit

CompoundsEdit

  • 公安 ‎(こうあん, kōan)
  • 公演 ‎(こうえん, kōen)
  • 公園 ‎(こうえん, kōen)
  • 公開 ‎(こうかい, kōkai)
  • 公共 ‎(こうきょう, kōkyō)
  • 公私 ‎(こうし, kōshi)
  • 公爵 ‎(こうしゃく, kōshaku)
  • 公衆 ‎(こうしゅう, kōshū)
  • 公認 ‎(こうにん, kōnin)
  • 公判 ‎(こうはん, kōhan)
  • 公募 ‎(こうぼ, kōbo)
  • 公報 ‎(こうほう, kōhō)
  • 公式 ‎(こうしき, kōshiki)

NounEdit

‎(hiragana おおやけ, romaji ōyake, historical hiragana おほやけ)

  1. official, governmental

‎(hiragana こう, romaji )

  1. prince, duke

PronounEdit

‎(hiragana きみ, romaji kimi)

  1. Alternative form of

KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

‎(gong)
Eumhun:

  • Sound (hangeul):  (McCune-Reischauer: kong)
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VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

(công)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.
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