See also:
U+91CE, 野
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-91CE

[U+91CD]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+91CF]

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 166, +4, 11 strokes, cangjie input 田土弓戈弓 (WGNIN), four-corner 67122, composition)

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 1291, character 5
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 40133
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1793, character 2
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 6, page 3683, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+91CE

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.
alternative forms

Glyph originEdit

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *laːʔ, *ɦljaʔ): semantic  (field) + semantic  (earth) + phonetic  (OC *la, *laʔ).

Etymology 1Edit

Various etymologies have been proposed:

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • Meixian:
    • ya1 - vernacular;
    • ya3 - literary.
  • Jin
  • Min Bei
  • Note:
    • iǎ - literary;
    • ià - vernacular.
  • Min Dong
  • Min Nan
  • Wu
  • Xiang
  • Note:
    • ia3 - vernacular;
    • ie3 - literary.

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /iɛ²¹⁴/
    Harbin /iɛ²¹³/
    Tianjin /ie¹³/
    Jinan /iə⁵⁵/
    Qingdao /iə⁵⁵/
    Zhengzhou /iɛ⁵³/
    Xi'an /iɛ⁵³/
    Xining /i⁵³/
    Yinchuan /ie⁵³/
    Lanzhou /iə⁴⁴²/
    Ürümqi /iɤ⁵¹/
    Wuhan /ie⁴²/
    Chengdu /ie⁵³/
    Guiyang /ie⁴²/
    Kunming /iɛ⁵³/
    Nanjing /ie²¹²/
    Hefei /i²⁴/
    Jin Taiyuan /ie⁵³/
    Pingyao /ie̞⁵³/
    Hohhot /ie⁵³/
    Wu Shanghai /ɦia²³/
    Suzhou /ɦiɑ³¹/
    Hangzhou /ʔie̞⁵³/
    /ʔi⁵³/
    Wenzhou /i³⁵/
    Hui Shexian /ie³⁵/
    /ia³⁵/
    Tunxi /ia²⁴/
    Xiang Changsha /ie⁴¹/
    /ia⁴¹/
    Xiangtan /iɒ⁴²/
    Gan Nanchang /iɑ²¹³/
    Hakka Meixian /ia⁴⁴/
    /ia³¹/
    Taoyuan /ʒɑ²⁴/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /jɛ²³/
    Nanning /jɛ²⁴/
    Hong Kong /jɛ¹³/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /ia⁵³/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /ia³²/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /ia²¹/
    /ia⁴²/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /ia⁵³/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /ze²¹³/
    /ia²¹³/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Initial () (36)
    Final () (100)
    Tone (調) Rising (X)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /jiaX/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /jiaX/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /iaX/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /jiaX/
    Li
    Rong
    /iaX/
    Wang
    Li
    /jĭaX/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /i̯aX/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ X ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*lAʔ/
    English open country

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    No. 15722
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*laːʔ/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. countryside; field; outskirts; wilderness
    2. plain; open country; open space
    3. area; region; boundary
    4. (among) the people; not in power; out of office
    5. unadorned; unaffected; simple; plain
    6. wild; not domesticated; stray
    7. feral; untamed; unrestrained
    8. rough; coarse; violent; boorish; rude
    9. unofficial; informal; illegal
    10. (literary or Min Dong, Xiamen and Quanzhou Hokkien, Wu) very; quite
    SynonymsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 2Edit

    PronunciationEdit



    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Initial () (25)
    Final () (22)
    Tone (調) Rising (X)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /d͡ʑɨʌX/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /d͡ʑiɔX/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /d͡ʑiɔX/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /d͡ʑɨə̆X/
    Li
    Rong
    /ʑiɔX/
    Wang
    Li
    /ʑĭoX/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ʑi̯woX/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    shù
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    No. 15729
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ɦljaʔ/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. Original form of (shù, “field; field hut; detached residence”).

    Etymology 3Edit

    For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“thing; matter; stuff; goods; article; etc.”).
    (This character, , is a variant form of .)

    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. field, plain
    2. natural, pristine
    3. rough
    4. bare, open
    5. extant, scope, sphere
    6. civil, non-governmental
    7. baseball ground
    8. Shimotsuke Province

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    Alternative formsEdit

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    Etymology 1Edit

    ⟨no1/nʷo//no/

    From Old Japanese.

    Appears to be distinct from (/no2/ → no, possessive/case-marker particle) and (/no2/ → no, arrow shaft).

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    () (no

    1. an area, field
      Synonyms: 野原 (nohara), 野っ原 (noppara), 野良 (nora)
    2. the hidden part of a structure
      Antonym: 化粧 (keshō)
    Derived termsEdit

    PrefixEdit

    () (no-

    1. wild
      ()(うさぎ)
      nousagi
      wild rabbit
    2. rustic, unsophisticated
    Derived termsEdit
    IdiomsEdit
    ProverbsEdit

    Etymology 2Edit

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    */nʷə//nu/

    The Eastern Old Japanese pronunciation, attested in poems of the Man'yōshū (c. 759 CE).

    NounEdit

    () (nu

    1. (regional, obsolete) Same with (​no) above
      • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 20, poem 4387), text here
        知波乃(ちばの)()()古乃弖加之波能(このてかしはの)保々麻例等(ほほまれど)阿夜尓加奈之美(あやにかなしみ)於枳弖他加枳奴(おきてたがきぬ) [Man'yōgana]
        千葉(ちば)()児手(このて)(がしは)のほほまれどあやに(かな)しみ()きて()() [Modern spelling]
        chiba no nu no konote-gashiwa no hohomaredo aya ni kanashimi okite ta ga kinu
        (please add an English translation of this example)
    2. (historical) Misspelling of (no), from the view of an Edo-period scholar of the Man'yōshū and other waka poetry
    Derived termsEdit

    Etymology 3Edit

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 2
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese (MC jiaX).

    NounEdit

    () (ya

    1. an area, field
      Synonyms: 野原 (nohara), 野っ原 (noppara), 野良 (nora)
    2. a private or civil matter
      Synonym: 民間 (minkan)
    IdiomsEdit

    Adjectival nounEdit

    () (ya-nari

    1. (archaic) rustic, unsophisticated

    ReferencesEdit

    1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

    KoreanEdit

    HanjaEdit

    (eum (ya))

    1. Hanja form? of (wild; savage; untamed).

    CompoundsEdit


    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    : Hán Việt readings: (()(giả)(thiết))[1][2][3][4][5]
    : Nôm readings: [2][4][6], nhả[1][2], [1]

    1. Hán tự form of (wild; savage).

    CompoundsEdit

    ReferencesEdit