TranslingualEdit

Han characterEdit

(radical 172 +4, 12 strokes, cangjie input 大戈人土 (KIOG), four-corner 40014, composition)

  1. Noun: male.chieftain.head.chief, Metaphor of strength.victory
  2. Adjective: manly,full power and grandeur
  3. Verb: bully

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 1365, character 12
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 41972
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1869, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 6, page 4093, character 3
  • Unihan data for U+96C4

ChineseEdit

-
simp. and trad.

PronunciationEdit


Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (雄), Pronunciation 1/1

Initial: 云 (35)
Final: 東
Division: III

Openness: Open
Tone: Level (Ø)

Fanqie: 羽弓切
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/ɦɨuŋ/ /i̯uŋ/ /ɣiuŋ/ /ɦiuŋ/ /ɦuwŋ/ /ɣĭuŋ/ /ɣiuŋ/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
xióng ‹ hjuwng › /*[ɢ]ʷəŋ/ male

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
4140 0 /*ɡʷɯŋ/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. (formal) male (describing an animal)

Usage notesEdit

  • Commonly used for animals for the meaning of male in academic context, less commonly used for non-academic context (use "公" instead, for non-academic context), and not used for human (use "男" instead, for human). For example:
    /   ―  xióng  ―  cock
      ―  xióngniú  ―  bull

CompoundsEdit


JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(common “Jōyō” kanji)

ReadingsEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Kanji in this term
ゆう
Grade: S
on'yomi

From Middle Chinese ‎(hjuwng, male).

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

‎(hiragana ゆう, romaji )

  1. male
  2. something or someone excellent (male)
    一世 (いっせい) (ゆう)
    issei no
    one of the greatest men of his generation
Derived termsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

Kanji in this term

Grade: S
kun'yomi

/wo//o/

From Old Japanese. Persists in compounds, such as the first element o- in the modern Japanese term ‎(otoko, man).[2][1]

PronunciationEdit

Alternative formsEdit

NounEdit

‎(hiragana , romaji o, historical hiragana )

  1. (obsolete in isolation) man, male
    • 711-712, Kojiki (上巻 [Kamitsumaki])
       ()こそは ()にいませば
      na koso wa o ni imaseba
      As you yourself be male / a man...
  2. (obsolete) husband
    • 711-712, Kojiki (上巻 [Kamitsumaki])
       ()はもよ ()にしあれば () () () () () () (つま) ()
      wa wa moyo me ni shiareba na o kite o wa nashi na o kite tsuma wa nashi
      As I am a woman, without you, there are no husbands. Without you, there are no wives...
  3. something large, powerful, or otherwise masculine
     () (たけ)び/ () (だき) (ますら) ()
    otakebi/odaki/masurao
    a war cry / the larger of two waterfalls / manliness
  4. yang (as opposed to yin)
     () () () ()
    meo, meo
    yin-yang (two different kanji spellings, same reading and derivation)
Usage notesEdit

Not used in isolation in modern Japanese.

Derived termsEdit
AntonymsEdit

Etymology 3Edit

Kanji in this term
おす
Grade: S
kun'yomi

/wosu//osu/

Compound of ‎(o, male) +‎ ‎(su), but the derivation of the su element is unknown.

PronunciationEdit

Alternative formsEdit

NounEdit

‎(hiragana おす, katakana オス, romaji osu, historical hiragana をす)

  1. male
Usage notesEdit

This is the most common reading of this term in modern Japanese when used as a standalone noun.

Only used to refer to non-human male organisms. As with many terms that name organisms, this term is often spelled in katakana in biological contexts, as オス.

SynonymsEdit

AntonymsEdit

Etymology 4Edit

Kanji in this term
おん
Grade: S
kun'yomi

/won//on/

Compound of ‎(o, male) +‎ ‎(n). The latter -n element might be a contraction of the possessive particle ‎(no).

PronunciationEdit

Alternative formsEdit

NounEdit

‎(hiragana おん, romaji on, historical hiragana をん)

  1. male
Usage notesEdit

Not used in isolation in modern Japanese.

Derived termsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  2. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan

KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

‎(ung) (hangeul , revised ung, McCune-Reischauer ung, Yale wung)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

(hùng)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.
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