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See also:
U+59B9, 妹
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-59B9

[U+59B8]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+59BA]

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Han characterEdit

(radical 38, +5, 8 strokes, cangjie input 女十木 (VJD), four-corner 45490, composition)

Stroke order
 

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 257, character 28
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 6138
  • Dae Jaweon: page 522, character 23
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 2, page 1034, character 6
  • Unihan data for U+59B9

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han)
Small seal script
 
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*mids
*mrɯds
*mrɯds
*mɯːds
*mɯːds
*maːds, *mɯːds
*maːds, *hmɯːds, *mɯds
*mɯds
*mɯds
*mɯds
*mɯds

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *mɯːds): semantic  (female, woman) + phonetic  (OC *mɯds).

EtymologyEdit

Probably Sino-Tibetan. Proposed etymologies:

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • Xiamen:
    • bē - vernacular;
    • bōe - literary.
  • Quanzhou:
    • bēr - vernacular;
    • mūi - literary.
  • Zhangzhou:
    • māi - vernacular;
    • moāi - literary.
  • (Teochew)
  • Wu
  • Xiang
  • Note:
    • mei5 - vernacular;
    • mei4 - literary.

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (4)
    Final () (42)
    Tone (調) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Closed
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /muʌiH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /muoiH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /muɒiH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /mwəjH/
    Li
    Rong
    /muᴀiH/
    Wang
    Li
    /muɒiH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /muɑ̆iH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    mèi
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    mèi
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ mwojH ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*C.mˁə[t]-s/
    English younger sister

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 12914
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*mɯːds/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. younger sister
    2. girl; young female
    3. (Hakka) daughter
    4. A surname​.

    SynonymsEdit

    Dialectal synonyms of 妹妹 (“younger sister”) [map]
    Variety Location Words
    Classical Chinese , 女弟
    Formal (Written Standard Chinese) 妹妹
    Mandarin Beijing 妹妹
    Taiwan 妹妹
    Harbin 妹妹, 妹子
    Shenyang 妹妹
    Hailar 老妹兒
    Ulanhot 老妹兒
    Tongliao 老妹兒
    Chifeng 妹妹
    Bayanhot 妹妹
    Jinan 妹妹
    Muping
    Luoyang
    Wanrong 妹子
    Xi'an 妹子, 妹妹
    Zhengzhou 妹妹
    Xining 妹子
    Xuzhou 妹妹
    Yinchuan 妹妹
    Lanzhou 妹妹
    Ürümqi 妹妹
    Wuhan 妹妹
    Huanggang 妹兒
    Chengdu 妹兒, 妹妹,
    Guiyang
    Liuzhou 妹子, , 老妹
    Kunming 妹子, 妹妹
    Yangzhou 妹妹
    Nanjing 妹妹, 妹子
    Hefei 妹妹
    Nantong 妹子, 妹妹
    Sokuluk (Gansu Dungan) 妹妹
    Cantonese Guangzhou 妹妹, 細妹, 阿妹,
    Hong Kong 妹妹, 細妹, 阿妹,
    Hong Kong (San Tin Weitou) 阿妹
    Foshan 細妹,
    Shunde
    Zhongshan (Shiqi)
    Doumen (Shangheng Tanka) 阿妹
    Doumen 阿妹
    Taishan 阿妹
    Kaiping (Chikan) 阿妹
    Dongguan
    Shaoguan 阿妹
    Yunfu 阿妹
    Yangjiang 小妹
    Xinyi 老妹
    Lianjiang 老妹, 阿妹
    Danzhou 老姑
    Kuala Lumpur 阿妹
    Ho Chi Minh City 細妹
    Gan Nanchang 妹子
    Lichuan
    Pingxiang 老妹, 妹老子
    Hakka Meixian 老妹, 老妹仔
    Xingning 老妹
    Huidong (Daling) 老妹
    Qujiang 老妹
    Lianshan (Xiaosanjiang) 老妹
    Changting 老妹
    Pingyu 老妹
    Wuping 老妹
    Liancheng 老妹
    Ninghua 老妹
    Yudu 妹子
    Ruijin 老妹
    Shicheng 老妹,
    Shangyou 老妹
    Miaoli (N. Sixian) 老妹
    Liudui (S. Sixian) 老妹
    Hsinchu (Hailu) 老妹
    Dongshi (Dabu) 老妹
    Hsinchu (Raoping) 老妹
    Yunlin (Zhao'an) 阿妹
    Hong Kong 老妹
    Sabah (Bao'an) 老妹
    Sabah (Longchuan) 老妹
    Senai 老妹
    Singkawang 阿妹, 老妹
    Huizhou Jixi
    Shexian 妹妹, 女妹
    Tunxi 令妹兒
    Xiuning 令妹, 令妹兒
    Yixian 奶妹兒
    Qimen 妹吶
    Wuyuan 女妹仂, 女妹,
    Fuliang 小妹, 妹哩
    Dexing 妹子
    Jin Taiyuan 妹妹
    Pingyao 妹妹, 妹子
    Xinzhou 姊妹
    Baochang 妹妹
    Jining 妹妹
    Hohhot 妹妹
    Baotou 妹妹
    Dongsheng 妹妹
    Linhe 妹妹
    Haibowan 妹妹
    Min Bei Jian'ou 妹仔
    Dikou 妹仔
    Songxi 妹仔
    Zhenghe
    Zhenqian
    Jianyang 妹仔
    Wuyishan 妹仔
    Shibei 妹仔
    Min Dong Fuzhou 依妹,
    Changle 依妹
    Fuqing 阿妹
    Yongtai 依妹
    Gutian
    Fu'an
    Ningde
    Shouning 姊妹
    Zhouning 阿妹
    Fuding 阿妹
    Matsu 依妹
    Min Nan Xiamen 小妹, 阿妹 face-to-face
    Quanzhou 小妹, 阿妹 face-to-face
    Zhangzhou 小妹, 阿妹 face-to-face
    Taipei 小妹
    Kaohsiung 小妹
    Tainan 小妹
    Sanxia 小妹
    Yilan 小妹
    Kinmen 小妹
    Magong 小妹
    Penang 小妹
    Singapore 小妹
    Philippines (Manila) 小妹
    Chaozhou 阿妹
    Shantou
    Haifeng , 妹妹
    Johor Bahru 阿妹
    Wenchang 姑𡠤 of a male, 姨𡠤 of a female
    Haikou 姑𡠤 of a male, 姨𡠤 of a female
    Leizhou 尼妹,
    Puxian Min Putian 阿妹
    Xianyou 阿妹, 小妹
    Pinghua Nanning
    Shehua Fu'an
    Fuding 阿妹
    Luoyuan
    Sanming
    Shunchang 阿妹
    Hua'an
    Guixi
    Cangnan
    Jingning
    Lishui
    Longyou
    Chaozhou
    Fengshun
    Wu Shanghai 阿妹, 妹妹
    Suzhou 妹子, 妹妹
    Wuxi 妹子, 妹妹
    Hangzhou 阿妹, 妹妹
    Wenzhou 阿妹
    Chongming 姊妹
    Danyang 妹子
    Jinhua , 妹妹
    Ningbo 阿妹, 妹妹
    Xiang Changsha 老妹, 妹妹
    Shuangfeng 妹妹
    Xiangtan 老妹
    Loudi 妹妹
    Dialectal synonyms of 女兒 (“daughter”) [map]
    Variety Location Words
    Classical Chinese
    Formal (Written Standard Chinese) 女兒
    Mandarin Beijing 女兒, 女花兒, 閨女, 姑娘, 丫頭
    Taiwan 女兒
    Tianjin 女兒, 閨女
    Harbin 女兒, 姑娘, 閨女, 閨娘, 丫頭
    Shenyang 姑娘, 丫頭
    Hailar 女兒
    Bayanhot 丫頭
    Jinan 閨女
    Muping 閨娘, 閨娘子, 女兒
    Wanrong 女子
    Xi'an , 女兒
    Qingdao 閨女
    Zhengzhou 閨女,
    Xining 姑娘, 丫頭
    Xuzhou 女兒, 閨女
    Yinchuan 女兒, 丫頭
    Lanzhou 女兒
    Ürümqi 女兒, 丫頭
    Wuhan 姑娘, 丫頭
    Huanggang 女兒
    Chengdu 女兒, , 姑娘兒
    Guiyang 姑娘, 女娃娃, 女娃兒, 幺女, 幺姑娘, 小丫頭, 小姑娘
    Guilin 女兒
    Liuzhou , 丫頭
    Kunming 囡兒, 姑娘
    Yangzhou 女兒, 姑娘
    Nanjing 女兒, 姑娘
    Hefei 女兒, 丫頭
    Nantong 丫頭
    Sokuluk (Gansu Dungan) 女兒, 姑娘兒
    Cantonese Guangzhou
    Hong Kong , 女女, 阿女
    Hong Kong (San Tin Weitou) , 妹仔
    Hong Kong (Kam Tin Weitou)
    Hong Kong (Ting Kok) 阿女
    Hong Kong (Tung Ping Chau) 阿女
    Macau
    Panyu
    Huadu (Huashan)
    Conghua
    Zengcheng
    Foshan
    Nanhai (Shatou)
    Shunde
    Sanshui
    Gaoming (Mingcheng)
    Zhongshan (Shiqi)
    Zhuhai (Qianshan)
    Doumen (Shangheng Tanka)
    Doumen
    Jiangmen (Baisha)
    Xinhui
    Taishan
    Kaiping (Chikan)
    Enping (Niujiang)
    Heshan (Yayao)
    Dongguan
    Bao'an (Shajing)
    Dapeng 阿女
    Shaoguan
    Yunfu
    Yangjiang 桓仔
    Xinyi
    Lianjiang
    Nanning
    Wuzhou
    Yulin
    Hepu
    Danzhou
    Kuala Lumpur
    Ho Chi Minh City
    Gan Nanchang , 姑娘
    Lichuan
    Pingxiang , 妹仔
    Hakka Meixian 妹仔
    Xingning 妹哩
    Huidong (Daling) 妹仔
    Qujiang 妹子
    Lianshan (Xiaosanjiang) 妹仔
    Luchuan
    Changting 妹子
    Pingyu 妹子
    Wuping 妹子
    Liancheng 妹子娘
    Ninghua
    Yudu , 女子
    Ruijin , 女子
    Shicheng
    Shangyou
    Miaoli (N. Sixian) 妹仔, 妹子
    Liudui (S. Sixian) 妹仔, 妹子
    Hsinchu (Hailu) 妹仔, 妹子
    Dongshi (Dabu) , 妹子
    Hsinchu (Raoping) 妹仔, 妹子
    Yunlin (Zhao'an) 阿女
    Hong Kong 妹子
    Sabah (Bao'an) 妹子
    Sabah (Longchuan) 妹哩
    Senai 妹子
    Singkawang 妹子
    Huizhou Jixi
    Shexian
    Tunxi , 囡囝
    Xiuning 囡兒
    Yixian 囡兒
    Qimen , 女兒
    Wuyuan , 女兒,
    Fuliang 女崽
    Dexing 𡚴姑
    Jingde 女伲
    Xianyu (formerly Zhanda) 女兒
    Jin Taiyuan 閨女, 姑娘, 妮子
    Pingyao 閨女, 女子
    Xinzhou 閨女
    Hohhot 閨女, 女子
    Min Bei Jian'ou 阿娘囝
    Dikou 娘囝
    Songxi 阿娘囝
    Zhenghe 阿娘囝
    Zhenqian 娘囝
    Jianyang 阿娘囝
    Wuyishan 阿娘囝
    Shibei 阿娘囝
    Min Dong Fuzhou 諸娘囝
    Changle 諸娘囝
    Fuqing 諸娘囝
    Yongtai 諸娘囝
    Gutian 諸娘囝
    Fu'an 諸娘囝
    Ningde 諸母囝
    Shouning 諸母囝
    Zhouning 諸娘囝
    Fuding 諸母囝
    Matsu 諸娘囝
    Min Nan Xiamen 查某囝, 查某仔
    Quanzhou 查某仔
    Yongchun 查某囝
    Zhangzhou 查某仔, 灶雞
    Changtai 查某仔
    Pinghe 查某囝, 查某仔 Xiazhai, Jiufeng, Luxi
    Zhangpu 查某仔
    Dongshan 查囝
    Taipei 查某囝
    Kaohsiung 查某囡仔, 查某囝
    Tainan 查某囝
    Taichung 查某囝
    Wuqi 查某囝
    Hsinchu 查某囝
    Taitung 查某囝
    Lukang 查某囝
    Sanxia 查某囝
    Yilan 查某囝
    Kinmen 查某囡仔
    Magong 查某囝
    Penang 查某囝, 查某仔
    Singapore 查某囝
    Philippines (Manila) 查某仔
    Longyan 查某仔
    Zhangping 查某仔
    Zhangping (Yongfu) 查某仔
    Datian 阿使
    Pingnan
    Chaozhou 查某囝
    Shantou 查某囝
    Haifeng 查某囝
    Johor Bahru 查某囝
    Wenchang 查某囝
    Haikou 查某囝, 查囝
    Puxian Min Putian 嬸娘囝
    Xianyou 子囝
    Pinghua Nanning
    Guilin
    Shehua Fu'an
    Fuding
    Luoyuan
    Sanming
    Shunchang
    Hua'an 妹仔
    Guixi
    Cangnan
    Jingning
    Lishui
    Longyou
    Chaozhou
    Fengshun
    Wu Shanghai 囡兒, dated, 囡兒大細 dated
    Suzhou 囡兒
    Wuxi 囡兒
    Hangzhou 女兒
    Wenzhou 奶兒
    Chongming 丫頭
    Danyang 女兒
    Jinhua 囡兒, , 女兒
    Ningbo
    Xiang Changsha , 妹子
    Shuangfeng
    Xiangtan , 妹唧
    Loudi
    Quanzhou 女崽

    CompoundsEdit


    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

    Kanji in this term
    いも
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    ⟨imo1 → */imʷo//imo/

    From Old Japanese.

    The medial /-m-/ means "woman, female", found in a number of related terms such as (me, onna, woman), (omina, elderly woman), and (omo, mother, archaic).

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana いも, rōmaji imo)

    1. (archaic, said from a male speaker) a close female companion
      1. one's sister regardless of age difference
      2. one's lover or sweetheart who is the subject of marriage or is already married
        • 905914, Kokin Wakashū (book 11, poem 485)
          かりごもの (おも) (みだ)れて (われ) ()ふといも ()るらめや (ひと) ()げずは
          karigomo no omoimidarete ware kou to imo shirurame ya hito shi tsugezu wa
          (please add an English translation of this example)
    2. (archaic, said from a female speaker) a close female companion
    AntonymsEdit
    Derived termsEdit

    Etymology 2Edit

    /imo ɸito//imowito/ → */imowuto//imoːto/

    Originally a compound of (imo, sister, close female companion) +‎ (hito, person).[2][3]

    This is an instance of ウ音便 (u onbin, u sound shift), found in terms with bilabial consonants (/m/, /b/, /w/) followed by i; commonly seen in terms such as 玄人 (kurōto, professional), 素人 (shirōto, amateur), or possibly, 相撲 (sumō, sumo).

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana いもうと, rōmaji imōto)

    1. one's own younger sister
      • 2005 January 10, Izawa, Hiroshi; Yamada, Kotaro, “だい34 ふくしゅうやり [Chapter 34: The Lance of Vengeance]”, in ファイアーエムブレム 覇者の剣 [Fire Emblem: Sword of Champions], volume 9 (fiction), Tokyo: Shueisha, →ISBN, page 60:
         (いもうと) (かたき)だ! (なん) (まん) (にん)だろうが () (ごく) (おく)ってやる‼
        Imōto no kataki da! Nanmannin darō ga jigoku e okutte yaru‼
        This is for my sister! Keep coming, all of you! I’ll send you all straight to hell‼
      Antonym: (ane)
    2. the wife of one's younger brother; one's sister-in-law
      Synonym: 義妹 (gimai)
    3. a younger female
    4. (archaic, said from a male speaker) one's sister regardless of age difference
      Antonym: 兄人 (shōto)

    (alternative reading hiragana いもっ, romaji imo')

    1. (Kagoshima) younger sister
    Derived termsEdit

    Etymology 3Edit

    Kanji in this term
    いもと
    Grade: 2
    Irregular

    Appears in The Tale of Heiji, written around the mid-12th century.

    Likely a variant shift from compound (imo, sister, close female companion) +‎ (hito, person) or a further shift from imōto above. (Can this(+) etymology be sourced?)

    NounEdit

    (hiragana いもと, rōmaji imoto)

    1. (rare) Same as いもうと (imōto) above

    Proper nounEdit

    (hiragana いもと, rōmaji Imoto)

    1. a placename

    Etymology 4Edit

    Kanji in this term
    まい
    Grade: 2
    goon

    From Middle Chinese (MC muʌiH).

    AffixEdit

    (hiragana まい, rōmaji mai)

    1. Same as いもうと (imōto) above

    Proper nounEdit

    (hiragana まい, rōmaji Mai)

    1. a female given name

    ReferencesEdit

    1. 1.0 1.1 1974, 新明解国語辞典 (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Second Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō
    2. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    3. ^ 1995, 大辞泉 (Daijisen) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN
    4. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    5. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

    KoreanEdit

    HanjaEdit

    (mae) (hangeul )

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    Old JapaneseEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

    The medial /-m-/ means "woman, female", found in a number of related terms such as (me1, womi1na, woman), (omi1na, elderly woman), and (omo1, mother).

    NounEdit

    (imo1 → imo) (kana いも)

    1. said from a male speaker:
      1. one's sister regardless of age difference
        • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 6, poem 1007), text here
          言不問木尚與兄有云乎直獨子尓有之苦者
          ko2to2 to1panu ki2 sura imo to2 se ari to2 ipu wo tada pi1to2riko1 ni aru ga kurusisa
          (please add an English translation of this usage example)
      2. one's lover or sweetheart who is the subject of marriage or is already married
        • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 3, poem 464), text here
          秋去者見乍思跡之殖之屋前乃石竹開家流香聞
          aki1 saraba mi1tutu sino1pe1 to2 imo ga uwesi nipa no2 nadesiko1 saki1nike1ru ka mo
          (please add an English translation of this usage example)
    2. said from a female speaker:
      1. a close female companion
        • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 4, poem 782), text here
          風高邊者雖吹為袖左倍所沾而苅流玉藻焉
          kaze takaku pe1 ni pa pukedo2mo imo ga tame2 so1de sape2 nurete kareru tamamo so2
          (please add an English translation of this usage example)
      2. one's sister regardless of age difference
    3. a daughter
      • 711712, Kojiki (poem 51)
        ...母登弊波岐美袁淤母比傅須恵幣波伊毛袁淤母比傅...
        ...mo2to2pe1 pa ki1mi1 wo omo2pi1de suwepe1 pa imo1 wo omo2pi1de...
        (please add an English translation of this usage example)
    AntonymsEdit
    Derived termsEdit
    DescendantsEdit
    • Japanese: (imo)

    Etymology 2Edit

    Shift from imo1 above, due to either for poetic reasons, haplology, or reduction of vowel clusters; the latter which seen in 吾妹 (wagi1mo1).

    NounEdit

    (mo1 → mo) (kana )

    1. Same as いも (imo1) above
      • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 20, poem 4388), text here
        多妣等弊等麻多妣爾奈理奴以弊乃加枳世之己呂母爾阿加都枳爾迦理
        tabi1 to2 pe1do2 ma-tabi1 ni narinu ipe1 no2 mo ga ki1sesi ko2ro2mo ni aka tuki1nikari
        (please add an English translation of this usage example)

    Etymology 3Edit

    NounEdit

    (imu) (kana いむ)

    1. (regional, Eastern Old Japanese) Same as いも (imo1) above
      • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 20, poem 4321), text here
        可之古伎夜美許等加我布理阿須由利也加曳我牟多祢牟伊牟奈之爾志弖
        kasiko1ki1 ya mi1-ko2to2 kagapuri asu yuri ya kaye ga muta nemu imu nasi ni site
        (please add an English translation of this usage example)

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    (muội)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.