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U+5144, 兄
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5144

[U+5143]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5145]

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 10, +3, 5 strokes, cangjie input 口竹山 (RHU), four-corner 60210, composition)

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 123, character 9
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 1343
  • Dae Jaweon: page 259, character 3
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 266, character 4
  • Unihan data for U+5144

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
         





References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*hmaŋʔ
*hmaŋs
*hmaŋs
*hmaŋs
*hmraŋ

Ideogrammic compound (會意):  + .

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *maŋ (big; old; elder (brother, uncle)) (Sagart, 1999; STEDT). Related to (OC *mraːŋs, “great; eldest brother; first”); see there for more.

Schuessler (2007), instead, connects it to Proto-Lolo-Burmese *ʔwyik (elder sibling), which is from Proto-Sino-Tibetan *ʔik (elder brother).

Alternatively, Benedict (1972) relates it to Proto-Sino-Tibetan *bʷaŋ ~ *pʷaŋ ((paternal) uncle; elder brother), which is possibly also related to (OC *praːɡ, “paternal uncle; eldest brother”).

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • hiaⁿ - vernacular;
  • heng - literary.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /ɕioŋ⁵⁵/
Harbin /ɕioŋ⁴⁴/
Tianjin /ɕioŋ²¹/
Jinan /ɕioŋ²¹³/
Qingdao /ɕiŋ²¹³/
Zhengzhou /ɕyoŋ²⁴/
Xi'an /ɕioŋ²¹/
Xining /ɕyə̃⁴⁴/
Yinchuan /ɕyoŋ/
Lanzhou /xỹn³¹/
Ürümqi /ɕioŋ⁴⁴/
Wuhan /ɕioŋ⁵⁵/
Chengdu /ɕyoŋ⁵⁵/
Guiyang /ɕioŋ⁵⁵/
Kunming /ɕioŋ/
Nanjing /ɕioŋ³¹/
Hefei /xiŋ²¹/
Jin Taiyuan /ɕyəŋ¹¹/
Pingyao /ɕioŋ¹³/
/ɕy¹³/ ~弟
Hohhot /ɕỹŋ³¹/
Wu Shanghai /ɕioŋ⁵³/
Suzhou /ɕioŋ⁵⁵/
Hangzhou /ɕioŋ³³/
Wenzhou /ɕoŋ³³/
Hui Shexian /ɕyʌ̃³¹/
Tunxi /ɕyɛ¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /ɕioŋ³³/
Xiangtan /ɕin³³/
Gan Nanchang /ɕiɑŋ⁴²/
/ɕiuŋ⁴²/ 弟~
Hakka Meixian /hiuŋ⁴⁴/
Taoyuan /hioŋ²⁴/
Cantonese Guangzhou /heŋ⁵³/
Nanning /heŋ⁵⁵/
Hong Kong /hiŋ⁵⁵/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /hiŋ⁵/
/hia⁵⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /hiŋ⁴⁴/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /xœyŋ⁵⁴/
/xiaŋ⁵⁴/
Shantou (Min Nan) /hiã³³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /hia²³/
/hia⁵⁵/ ~兄

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (32)
Final () (112)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Closed
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/hˠwiæŋ/
Pan
Wuyun
/hʷᵚiaŋ/
Shao
Rongfen
/xiuaŋ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/hwiajŋ/
Li
Rong
/xiuɐŋ/
Wang
Li
/xĭwɐŋ/
Bernard
Karlgren
/xi̯wɐŋ/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
xiōng
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
xiōng
Middle
Chinese
‹ xjwæng ›
Old
Chinese
/*m̥raŋ/
English elder brother

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 13905
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*hmraŋ/
Notes

DefinitionsEdit

  1. elder brother
  2. elder male cousin
      ―  tángxiōng  ―  father’s brother’s son older than oneself
  3. brother (male friend of the same generation)

SynonymsEdit

Dialectal synonyms of 哥哥 (“elder brother”) [map]
Variety Location Words
Classical Chinese
Formal (Written Standard Chinese) 哥哥兄長
Mandarin Beijing 哥哥
Taiwan 哥哥
Shenyang 哥哥
Jinan 哥哥
Xi'an
Wuhan 哥哥
Chengdu 哥哥哥老倌兒
Kunming 哥哥
Yangzhou 哥哥
Hefei 哥哥
Cantonese Guangzhou 大佬阿哥哥哥
Hong Kong 大佬阿哥哥哥
Taishan
Yangjiang 大佬阿哥
Gan Nanchang 哥哥
Hakka Meixian 阿哥
Xingning 阿哥
Huidong 阿哥
Qujiang 哥哥
Xiaosanjiang 阿哥
Changting 老伯
Pingyu
Wuping 老伯
Liancheng 老伯
Ninghua 老伯
Ruijin 哥哥老兄
Shicheng 老伯
Shangyou 老伯
Miaoli (N. Sixian) 阿哥
Liudui (S. Sixian) 阿哥
Hsinchu (Hailu) 阿哥
Dongshi (Dabu) 阿哥
Hsinchu (Raoping) 阿哥
Yunlin (Zhao'an) 阿哥
Sabah 阿哥
Jin Taiyuan 哥哥
Min Bei Jian'ou 哥仔哥哥
Min Dong Fuzhou 依哥
Min Nan Xiamen 阿兄阿哥兄哥俺兄
Quanzhou 阿兄
Zhangzhou 阿兄
Taipei 阿兄兄哥哥哥
Penang 哥哥
Philippines (Manila) 阿兄
Chaozhou 阿兄
Wu Shanghai 阿哥哥哥
Suzhou 阿哥
Wenzhou 阿大哥哥
Xiang Changsha 老兄哥哥
Shuangfeng 老兄哥哥

CompoundsEdit

DescendantsEdit


JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. elder/older brother
  2. honorific referencing an older brother figure

ReadingsEdit

CompoundsEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Kanji in this term
けい
Grade: 2
kan’on

*/kˠwæi//kʷæi//keː/

From Middle Chinese (MC hˠwiæŋ).

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

(hiragana けい, rōmaji kei)

  1. an elder brother
    Synonym: (tei)
IdiomsEdit

PronounEdit

(hiragana けい, rōmaji kei)

  1. pronoun referencing an older brother figure: you, he

SuffixEdit

(hiragana けい, rōmaji -kei)

  1. attaches to a name referencing an older brother figure: Mister, Mr.

Etymology 2Edit

Kanji in this term
あに
Grade: 2
kun’yomi

From Old Japanese of unclear derivation:

  • Probably originally a compound of (a, Eastern Old Japanese first-person pronoun) +‎ (no, possessive particle) +‎ (ye → e, eldest sibling, see below):
    ⟨a no2 ye⟩ → */anʉʲɨe//ani/
  • Alternatively, an apophonic form of (ane, elder sister), itself from the same derivation above, possibly by fusion with empathic particle (i).

(Can this(+) etymology be sourced?)

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

(hiragana あに, rōmaji ani)

  1. one's own elder brother
    Antonym: (otōto)
  2. one's own elder sister's husband
    Synonym: 義兄 (gikei)
  3. Short for 花の兄 (hana no ani): alternative name for the (ume), the Japanese plum (Prunus mume)
Derived termsEdit

Etymology 3Edit

Kanji in this term

Grade: 2
kun’yomi

/je//e/

From Old Japanese.

NounEdit

(hiragana , rōmaji e)

  1. (archaic) the eldest sibling
    • 711-712, Kojiki (poem 16), text here
       () () () () () () () () () () () () (𛀁) () () () () () [Man'yōgana]
      かつがつもいや先立 (さきだ)てる ()をし ()かむ [Modern spelling]
      katsugatsu mo iya sakidateru e o shi makamu
      If I have to choose, the one standing there in front―the eldest one I'll wed.[3]
    Antonym: (oto)
Derived termsEdit

Etymology 4Edit

Kanji in this term

Grade: 2
kun’yomi

From Old Japanese.

Alternative formsEdit

NounEdit

(hiragana , rōmaji se)

  1. (archaic) a woman's brother (regardless of age difference)
  2. (archaic) a woman's lover or husband
  3. (archaic) a familiar man
AntonymsEdit
Derived termsEdit

Etymology 5Edit

Kanji in this term
このかみ
Grade: 2
kun’yomi

From Old Japanese.

Originally a compound of (ko, child) +‎ (no, possessive particle) +‎ (kami, upper).[1][4]

Alternative formsEdit

NounEdit

(hiragana このかみ, rōmaji konokami)

  1. eldest son
    Synonyms: 長兄 (chōkei), 長男 (chōnan)
  2. a senior
    Synonym: 年長者 (nenchōsha)
  3. (by extension) an elder sibling
  4. the head of a clan
  5. a skilled craftsman
    Synonym: (kashira)
Derived termsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  2. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN
  3. ^ Edwin A. Cranston (1998) The Gem-Glistening Cup (Volume 1 of A Waka Anthology)‎[Stanford University Press], illustrated, reprint edition, →ISBN, page 17
  4. ^ 1995, 大辞泉 (Daijisen) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN

KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

(hyeong, hwang)

  • Eumhun:
    • Sound (hangeul): , (revised: hyeong, hwang, McCune–Reischauer: hyŏng, hwang, Yale: hyeng, hwang)
    • Name (hangeul): , 두려워하다 (revised: hyeong, duryeowohada, McCune–Reischauer: hyŏng, turyŏwŏhada, Yale: hyeng, twuryewehata)
  1. elder brother
  2. fear, dread, be afraid of, stand in fear of, be frightened at, have a horror of

VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

(huynh)

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