See also:
U+7565, 略
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-7565

[U+7564]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+7566]
U+F976, 略
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-F976

[U+F975]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs
[U+F977]

Translingual edit

Stroke order
Japan
 

Han character edit

(Kangxi radical 102, +6, 11 strokes, cangjie input 田竹水口 (WHER), four-corner 67064, composition )

Derived characters edit

References edit

  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 762, character 9
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 21839
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1172, character 8
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 4, page 2541, character 11
  • Unihan data for U+7565

Chinese edit

simp. and trad.
alternative forms

Glyph origin edit

Historical forms of the character
Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han)
Small seal script
 

Phono-semantic compound (形聲形声, OC *ɡ·raɡ) : semantic (field) + phonetic (OC *klaːɡ) – to walk around a field (to outline it).

Etymology edit

"to plunder, to pillage"
Possibly Sino-Tibetan (Schuessler, 2007). Compare Mizo rawk (to loot, to raid (not to kill)). STEDT provisionally sets up Proto-Sino-Tibetan *ʔ-m-(p)rawk, which is likely an allofam of Proto-Kuki-Chin *m-ru:k "to steal".
(lüè) is a graphic variant of this sense.
"sharp"
"From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *(m/b)rak (to cut, tear, maul, lacerate). Cognate with Burmese မြက် (mrak, to cut keenly) and မြ (mra., sharp), Jingpho mya (torn, ragged), Dimasa [script needed] (džə brau, to scratch, maul, claw), Drung pra (to cut (with sharp instruments)).
"to trace out; to measure (an area); to plan; plan, method; boundary, frontier"
Possible allofams are (OC *ras, “outline, sketch”) and possibly (OC *raŋ, *raŋs, “to measure (v.), a measure (n.)”)
"outline, sketch, strategy, summary, brief"
Possibly same etymon as sense "to trace out, to plan". Possibly cognate with (OC *ɡ·raːɡs, “road”)
"to omit, to leave out"

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Pronunciation edit


Note:
  • lio̍k/lia̍k - literary;
  • lio̍h - vernacular.
Note:
  • liag8 - literary;
  • lioh8/liêh8 - vernacular (liêh8 - Chaozhou).

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /lyɛ⁵¹/
Harbin /liau⁵³/
/lyɛ⁵³/
Tianjin /lye⁵³/
Jinan /luə²¹/
Qingdao /lyə⁴²/
Zhengzhou /lyo²⁴/
Xi'an /luo⁵³/
Xining /lyu⁵³/
Yinchuan /lye¹³/
Lanzhou /lyə¹³/
Ürümqi /lyɤ²¹³/
Wuhan /nio²¹³/
Chengdu /nyo³¹/
Guiyang /nio²¹/
Kunming /lio³¹/
Nanjing /loʔ⁵/
Hefei /lyɐʔ⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /lyəʔ²/
Pingyao /liʌʔ¹³/
Hohhot /liaʔ⁴³/
Wu Shanghai /liaʔ¹/
Suzhou /liɑʔ³/
Hangzhou /liɑʔ²/
Wenzhou /liɛ²¹³/
Hui Shexian /liɔ²²/
Tunxi
Xiang Changsha /lio²⁴/
Xiangtan /nio²⁴/
Gan Nanchang /liɔʔ⁵/
Hakka Meixian /liok̚⁵/
Taoyuan /liok̚⁵⁵/
Cantonese Guangzhou /lœk̚²/
Nanning /lœk̚²²/
Hong Kong /lœk̚²/
Min Xiamen (Hokkien) /liɔk̚⁵/
Fuzhou (Eastern Min) /luoʔ⁵/
Jian'ou (Northern Min) /liɔ²⁴/
Shantou (Teochew) /liak̚⁵/
/lioʔ⁵/
Haikou (Hainanese) /liɔk̚³/
/lio³³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (37)
Final () (107)
Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Baxter ljak
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/lɨɐk̚/
Pan
Wuyun
/liɐk̚/
Shao
Rongfen
/liɑk̚/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/lɨak̚/
Li
Rong
/liak̚/
Wang
Li
/lĭak̚/
Bernard
Karlgren
/li̯ak̚/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
lüè
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
loek6
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
lüè
Middle
Chinese
‹ ljak ›
Old
Chinese
/*[r]ak/
English draw a boundary; outline

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 3892
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ɡ·raɡ/

Definitions edit

  1. to draw boundaries; to outline; to trace out
  2. boundary; outline; border
  3. plan; strategy; summary; outline
  4. brief; abbreviated
  5. to omit; to leave out
  6. slightly; marginally
  7. approximately; roughly
  8. to plunder; to pillage
  9. sharp; keen (Shi)

Compounds edit

Japanese edit

Kanji edit

(grade 5 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. plan, strategy
  2. to omit
  3. to abbreviate
  4. to invade

Readings edit

Compounds edit

Pronunciation edit

Kanji in this term
りゃく
Grade: 5
on’yomi

Noun edit

(りゃく) (ryaku

  1. omission
    以下(いか)(りゃく)
    ikaryaku
    as above
  2. abbreviation; short for
    (とっ)(きゅう)(とく)(べつ)(きゅう)(こう)(りゃく)
    Tokkyū wa tokubetsukyūkō no ryaku.
    Tokkyū is the abbreviation of tokubetsukyūkō.

References edit

  1. 1.0 1.1 Matsumura, Akira, editor (2006), 大辞林 (in Japanese), Third edition, Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

Korean edit

Hanja edit

(eumhun 간략할 (gallyakhal ryak), South Korea 간략할 (gallyakhal yak))

  1. Hanja form? of / (brief, concise).

(eumhun 다스릴 (daseuril ryak), South Korea 다스릴 (daseuril yak))

  1. Hanja form? of / (approximately, roughly).
  2. Hanja form? of / (outline).

Vietnamese edit

Han character edit

: Hán Nôm readings: lược, trước

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.