See also:
U+984D, 額
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-984D

[U+984C]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+984E]

Translingual

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Han character

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(Kangxi radical 181, +9, 18 strokes, cangjie input 十口一月金 (JRMBC), four-corner 31686, composition )

Derived characters

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Descendants

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References

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  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 1406, character 40
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 43586
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1924, character 17
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 7, page 4384, character 4
  • Unihan data for U+984D

Chinese

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trad.
simp. *
alternative forms

Glyph origin

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Phono-semantic compound (形聲形声, OC *ŋɡraːɡ) : phonetic (OC *kʰraːɡ) + semantic (head).

Etymology 1

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From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *s-ŋa-k (forehead; cockscomb).

This word is only attested during Han and later. Wang (1982) suggested that it is cognate with (OC *ŋraːn, “face”), whereas Schuessler (2007) considers it a semantic extension of (OC *ŋɡraːɡ, “to face”).

The relationship to Proto-Mon-Khmer *[t₁]ʔah (forehead), whence Khmer ថ្ងាស (thngaah), is unclear.

Pronunciation

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Note: ngaak6-2 - “top part, board, amount”.
Note:
  • ngiăh>ngiĕh - “forehead”;
  • ngiăh - “top part, board, amount”.
Note:
  • hia̍h - vernacular (“forehead, top part, board”);
  • gia̍h - vernacular (“amount”);
  • ge̍k/gia̍k - literary.

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (31)
Final () (113)
Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () II
Fanqie
Baxter ngaek
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ŋˠæk̚/
Pan
Wuyun
/ŋᵚak̚/
Shao
Rongfen
/ŋak̚/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ŋaɨjk̚/
Li
Rong
/ŋɐk̚/
Wang
Li
/ŋɐk̚/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ŋɐk̚/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
è
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
ngak6
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
é
Middle
Chinese
‹ ngæk ›
Old
Chinese
/*C.ŋˁrak/ (no pre-Qín exx?)
English forehead

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 3906
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ŋɡraːɡ/
Notes

Definitions

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  1. (anatomy) forehead
  2. top part
  3. horizontal inscribed board; tablet; plaque
  4. amount; quantity; number
  5. a surname
Synonyms
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  • (forehead):
  • (top part): 頂部顶部 (dǐngbù)
  • (horizontal inscribed board):

Compounds

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Etymology 2

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Pronunciation

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Definitions

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  1. (Shanghainese) Alternative form of (possessive particle)
Usage notes
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  • This is a Mandarin influenced form of the character often used in Shanghainese. Due to ’s expected pronunciation starting with /k/, it is often mistakenly analysed to be unrelated to this sense.
  • This cannot be used in other Northern Wu languages, such as Suzhounese, due to their retention of the /k/ initial.

References

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Etymology 3

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Pronunciation

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Definitions

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  1. (Mandarin) Alternative form of (an interjection said when hesitating in speech)

Japanese

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Kanji

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(grade 5 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. forehead
  2. amount
  3. frame

Readings

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Compounds

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Etymology 1

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Kanji in this term
ひたい
Grade: 5
kun’yomi
For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry.
ひたい
[noun] forehead
(This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above term.)

Etymology 2

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Kanji in this term
がく
Grade: 5
on’yomi

From Middle Chinese (MC ngaek).

Pronunciation

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Noun

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(がく) (gaku

  1. framed picture
  2. sum, amount
Derived terms
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Etymology 3

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Kanji in this term
ぬか
Grade: 5
kun’yomi
For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry.
ぬか
[noun] forehead
[noun] kowtowing
(This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above term.)

References

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  1. 1.0 1.1 Matsumura, Akira, editor (2006), 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tokyo: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  2. ^ NHK Broadcasting Culture Research Institute, editor (1998), NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 [NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary] (in Japanese), Tokyo: NHK Publishing, Inc., →ISBN

Korean

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Etymology

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From Middle Chinese (MC ngaek). Recorded as Middle Korean ᄋᆡᆨ (oyk) (Yale: oyk) in Hunmong Jahoe (訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회), 1527.

Pronunciation

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Hanja

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Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun 이마 (ima aek))

  1. Hanja form? of (forehead).
  2. Hanja form? of (amount).

Compounds

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References

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  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [2]

Vietnamese

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Han character

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: Hán Nôm readings: ngạch, nghệch, nghách, nghạch

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.