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See also:
U+984D, 額
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-984D

[U+984C]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+984E]

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Han characterEdit

(radical 181, +9, 18 strokes, cangjie input 十口一月金 (JRMBC), four-corner 31686, composition)

DescendantsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 1406, character 40
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 43586
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1924, character 17
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 7, page 4384, character 4
  • Unihan data for U+984D

ChineseEdit

trad.
simp.
variant forms

Glyph originEdit

Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*kʰraːɡs
*ɡ·raːɡs
*ɡ·raːɡs
*ɡ·raːɡs
*ɡ·raːɡs
*ɡ·raːɡs
*raːɡs
*raːɡs
*raːɡs
*raːɡs
*ɡ·raːɡs
*ɡ·raːɡ
*ɡ·raːɡ
*ɡ·raːɡ
*ɡ·raːɡ
*ɡ·raːɡ
*ɡ·raːɡ
*ɡ·raːɡ
*ɡ·raːɡ
*ɡ·raːɡ, *klaːɡ
笿 *ɡ·raːɡ
*ɡ·raːɡ, *kraːɡ
*ɡ·raːɡ
*ɡ·raːɡ, *kraːɡ
*ɡ·raːɡ, *kraːɡ
*ɡ·raːɡ
*klaːɡ
*klaːɡ
*klaːɡ
*klaːɡ, *kraːɡ
*klaːɡ
*kʰlaːɡ
*kʰaːɡ
*ɡlaːɡ, *mɡraːɡ
*ɡlaːɡ
*ɡlaːɡ
*ɡ·raɡ
*kraːɡ
*kraːɡ
*kraːɡ
*kraːɡ
*kraːɡ
*kʰraːɡ
*kʰraːɡ
*kʰraːɡ
*ŋɡraːɡ
*ŋɡraːɡ
*ŋɡraːɡ
*ŋɡraːɡ
*ɡraːɡ
*ɡraːɡ

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *ŋɡraːɡ): phonetic  (OC *kʰraːɡ) + semantic  (head).

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *s-ŋa-k (forehead; cockscomb).

This word is only attested during Han and later. Wang (1982) suggested that it is cognate with (OC *ŋraːn, “face”), whereas Schuessler (2007) considers it a semantic extension of (OC *ŋɡraːɡ, “to face”).

The relationship to Proto-Mon-Khmer *[t₁]ʔah (forehead), whence Khmer ថ្ងាស (thngah), is unclear.

PronunciationEdit


Note: ngaak6-2 - “top part, board, amount”.
Note:
  • ngiăh>ngiĕh - “forehead”;
  • ngiăh - “top part, board, amount”.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • hia̍h - vernacular (“forehead, top part, board”);
    • gia̍h - vernacular (“amount”);
    • ge̍k/gia̍k - literary.
  • Wu

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (31)
    Final () (113)
    Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () II
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ŋˠæk̚/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ŋᵚak̚/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ŋak̚/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ŋaɨjk̚/
    Li
    Rong
    /ŋɐk̚/
    Wang
    Li
    /ŋɐk̚/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ŋɐk̚/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    è
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    é
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ ngæk ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*C.ŋˁrak/ (no pre-Qín exx?)
    English forehead

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 3906
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ŋɡraːɡ/
    Notes

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. (anatomy) forehead
    2. (figuratively) top part
    3. (figuratively) horizontal inscribed board; tablet; plaque
    4. amount; quantity; number

    SynonymsEdit

    Dialectal synonyms of 前額 (“forehead”) [map]
    Variety Location Words
    Classical Chinese , ,
    Formal (Written Standard Chinese) 前額, 額頭, 額門, 眉宇
    Mandarin Beijing 腦門兒, 腦門子, 頁勒蓋兒
    Taiwan 額頭
    Harbin 腦門子, 腦門兒
    Shenyang 腦門子, 腦門兒
    Hailar 額頭
    Ulan Hot 奔兒嘍, 奔兒嘍頭
    Tongliao 奔兒嘍, 奔兒嘍頭
    Chifeng 腦門兒
    Bayanhot 天門
    Jinan 額拉蓋兒
    Muping 額楞蓋
    Luoyang 額樓, 額樓頭
    Wanrong 額頭
    Wanrong (Ronghe) 腦門子
    Xi'an 額顱
    Zhengzhou 囟門頭
    Xining 額目頭
    Xuzhou 額頭子, 腦門子
    Yinchuan 腦門子
    Lanzhou 崩樓
    Ürümqi 崩樓
    Wuhan 額殼
    Huanggang 腦殼
    Chengdu 額顱
    Guiyang 額頭
    Liuzhou 額頭
    Kunming 腦門
    Yangzhou 額頭
    Nanjing 額腦殼
    Hefei 額腦頭
    Sokuluk (Gansu Dungan) 奔顱, 腦門子
    Masanchin (Shaanxi Dungan) 額顱
    Cantonese Guangzhou 額頭
    Hong Kong 額頭
    Hong Kong (San Tin Weitou) , 額頭
    Foshan 額頭
    Shunde 額頭
    Zhongshan (Shiqi) 額頭
    Doumen (Shangheng Tanka) 額頭
    Taishan 眉頭
    Kaiping (Chikan) 眉頭
    Dongguan
    Shaoguan 額頭
    Yunfu 前額
    Yangjiang 額頭
    Xinyi 額頭
    Lianjiang 額頭
    Danzhou
    Kuala Lumpur 額頭
    Ho Chi Minh City 額頭
    Gan Nanchang 天門
    Lichuan 額角,
    Pingxiang 額殼
    Hakka Meixian 額角
    Xingning 額角
    Huidong 額角, 額門
    Qujiang 額角
    Xiaosanjiang 額門
    Changting 額角, 額頭
    Pingyu 額角
    Wuping 額頭, 額門
    Liancheng 額角
    Ninghua 額早, 額角
    Yudu 額頭, 天門
    Ruijin 額膛
    Shicheng 額角,
    Shangyou 額門
    Miaoli (N. Sixian) 額頭
    Liudui (S. Sixian) 額頭
    Hsinchu (Hailu) 額頭
    Dongshi (Dabu) 額頭
    Hsinchu (Raoping) 額頭
    Yunlin (Zhao'an) 額頭
    Hong Kong 額門頭
    Senai 額門頭
    Huizhou Jixi 花額, 牛頭前
    Jin Taiyuan 崩兒顱, 崩頭, 前崩顱
    Baochang 腦門
    Jining 眉頭, 眉棱骨
    Hohhot 眉棱骨
    Baotou 眉頭, 眉棱骨
    Dongsheng
    Linhe 崩臚
    Haibowan 崩臚
    Min Bei Jian'ou 額頭
    Dikou 頭囟
    Zhenqian 額頭
    Shibei 額頭
    Min Dong Fuzhou 額頭
    Fuqing , 頭額
    Fu'an 額頭舷
    Ningde 頭額頭
    Min Nan Xiamen 頭額, 天平, 額𩉍, 眉額, 前擴
    Quanzhou 頭額, 天平, 前擴
    Zhangzhou 頭額, 天平, 額𩉍, 天額, 前擴
    Taipei 頭額
    Kaohsiung 頭殼額仔
    Tainan 頭額
    Taichung 頭額, 額頭
    Hsinchu 頭額
    Lukang 天平
    Sanxia 頭額
    Yilan 頭額
    Kinmen , 頭額
    Magong 頭額
    Penang , 頭額
    Philippines (Manila) 頭額
    Chaozhou 額門神
    Shantou 額頭, 額門神
    Haifeng 前枕
    Johor Bahru
    Wenchang 頭額, 囟額
    Haikou 頭額
    Leizhou 頭額
    Puxian Min Putian 額頭前
    Xianyou 額頭
    Pinghua Nanning 額前頭
    Wu Shanghai 額角頭
    Suzhou 額角頭
    Wuxi 額角頭
    Hangzhou 額骨頭, 額角頭
    Wenzhou 額頭, 門前額
    Chongming 額骨頭
    Danyang 額角頭, 額頭
    Jinhua 頭角, 額骨頭, 額角頭
    Ningbo 腦殼頭, 額角頭
    Xiang Changsha 額殼, 額角, 額頭
    Shuangfeng 額頭
    Loudi 額頭

    CompoundsEdit


    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 5 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

    Kanji in this term
    ひたい
    Grade: 5
    kun’yomi

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana ひたい, rōmaji hitai, historical hiragana ひたひ)

    1. forehead
    SynonymsEdit
    Derived termsEdit

    Etymology 2Edit

    Kanji in this term
    がく
    Grade: 5
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese (MC ŋˠæk̚).

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana がく, rōmaji gaku)

    1. framed picture
    2. sum, amount
    Derived termsEdit

    Etymology 3Edit

    Kanji in this term
    ぬか
    Grade: 5
    kun’yomi

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana ぬか, rōmaji nuka)

    1. forehead
    2. kowtowing
    Derived termsEdit

    ReferencesEdit

    1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    2. 2.0 2.1 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

    KoreanEdit

    HanjaEdit

    (aek) (hangeul , revised aek, McCune–Reischauer aek, Yale ayk)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    (ngạch, nghệch, nghách, nghạch)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.