U+683C, 格
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-683C

[U+683B]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+683D]

Translingual

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Stroke order
 

Han character

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(Kangxi radical 75, +6, 10 strokes, cangjie input 木竹水口 (DHER), composition )

Derived characters

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References

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  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 524, character 11
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 14749
  • Dae Jaweon: page 912, character 13
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 2, page 1203, character 6
  • Unihan data for U+683C

Chinese

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simp. and trad.

Glyph origin

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Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
         

Phono-semantic compound (形聲形声, OC *klaːɡ, *kraːɡ) : semantic (wood) + phonetic (OC *klaːɡ).

Etymology 1

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“to go; to come; to arrive”
Possibly cognate to Tibetan འགྲོ་བ། ('gro ba, to go, walk, travel), འགྲོ་བ་པོ ('gro ba po, traveler), འགྲོན་པ ('gron pa, to go, travel), མགྲོན (mgron, guest), མགྲོན་ཁང (mgron khang, inn) (Geilich, 1994). If so, from Proto-Sino-Tibetan *grwat (to go through, to travel). However, STEDT does not compare this to Tibeto-Burman lexical items under *grwat.
Baxter (1992) proposes that this is related to (OC *ɡ·raːɡs, “road”). Compare (OC *kʰraːɡ, “guest, visitor”), (OC *ɡ·raʔ, “travel, lodge”), and (OC *ɡaːŋ, *ɡaːŋs, *ɡraːŋ, *ɡraːŋs, “to go”)
“to obstruct; to hinder”
(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)
“frame; square”
(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)
“style; form; pattern; standard; personality; character”
(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium. Particularly: “Semantically derived from "square, frame" sense?”)

Pronunciation

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Note: gaak3-2 - "square".
Note:
  • kak/gag5 - "square";
  • kiet/kiat/gêd5 - other senses (including "pattern", "personality").
Note:
  • gáh - vernacular;
  • gáik - literary.
Note:
  • keh/keeh - vernacular (“pattern; frame; special property; grid; breed; classifier; to change the original structural layout (Zhangzhou); topography of a watershed”);
  • kek/kiak/kerk - literary (“to examine; to change the original structural layout (Xiamen, Quanzhou); to build by laying bricks or stones”).
Note:
  • (Suzhounese) 7kaq - vernacular;
  • (Suzhounese) 7keq - literary.

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    Initial () (28) (28)
    Final () (103) (113)
    Tone (調) Checked (Ø) Checked (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open Open
    Division () I II
    Fanqie
    Baxter kak kaek
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /kɑk̚/ /kˠæk̚/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /kɑk̚/ /kᵚak̚/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /kɑk̚/ /kak̚/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /kak̚/ /kaɨjk̚/
    Li
    Rong
    /kɑk̚/ /kɐk̚/
    Wang
    Li
    /kɑk̚/ /kɐk̚/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /kɑk̚/ /kɐk̚/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    ge ge
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    gok3 gak1
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ kæk ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*kˁrak/
    English go to

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    No. 3885 3894
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0 0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*klaːɡ/ /*kraːɡ/

    Definitions

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    1. (literary, or in compounds) pattern; standard; form; style
        ―  biǎo  ―  table; form
        ―  guī  ―  standard; norm
    2. square; frame
    3. (literary, or in compounds) special property; personality; character (Can we add an example for this sense?) (particularly for the "personality" in literary form)
        ―  fēng  ―  personality; style
        ―  xìng  ―  temperament; nature
    4. (grammar) case
        ―  gòng  ―  comitative case
        ―    ―  benefactive case
    5. (mathematics) lattice; grid; cross-hatch; checkers
        ―  wǎng  ―  mesh; lattice
        ―    ―  checkers; lattice
    6. (literary) to beat; to lash; to strike; to hit
    7. (Cantonese) partitioned cell; cubicle
      [Cantonese]  ―  cau3 gaak3 [Jyutping]  ―  holding cell (literally, “stinky cell”)
      [Cantonese]  ―  beng6 gaak3 [Jyutping]  ―  cubicle of a ward
      [Cantonese]  ―  ci3 gaak3 [Jyutping]  ―  toilet cubicle
    8. to come; to arrive; to go to
    9. to obstruct; to hinder
    10. to investigate
    11. 22nd tetragram of the Taixuanjing; "resistance" (𝌛)
    12. (Hokkien) breed; body type (of certain poultry and livestock)
    13. (Hokkien) Classifier for graduation in a measuring container.
    14. (Mainland China Hokkien) to examine; to explore; to inspect; to check out (the reason, principle, etc.)
    15. (Mainland China Hokkien) to change the original structural layout (to increase number of spaces, etc.)
    16. (Taiwanese Hokkien) Used in place names to describe the topography of a watershed.
    17. (Zhangzhou Hokkien) to build by laying bricks or stones
    18. a surname

    Synonyms

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    • (standard):
    • (special property):
    • (to beat):
    • (to build by laying bricks or stones): ()

    Compounds

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    Etymology 2

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    Onomatopoeic.

    Pronunciation

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    Definitions

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    1. An onomatopoeia.

    Compounds

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    Etymology 3

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    From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *s-ka(:)k (fork, branch, crotch). Cognate with Apatani á-ha (branch), Mizo kâk (fork of a tree), Burmese အခက် (a.hkak, tree branch).

    Attested since the Northern and Southern dynasties period. According to Schuessler (2007), the word may be much older as the graph already appeared in Zhou texts and was intended to mean "branch" (with radical).

    Pronunciation

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    Definitions

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    1. tree branch

    Etymology 4

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    simp. and trad.
    alternative forms

    Checked-tone variant of .

    Pronunciation

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    Definitions

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    (Wu)

    1. this
      啥西 [Hangzhounese, trad. and simp.]
      What is this?
    2. Alternative form of (possessive particle)
    Synonyms
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    References

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    Japanese

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    Kanji

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    (grade 5 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings

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    Compounds

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    Noun

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    Kanji in this term
    かく
    Grade: 5
    kan’on

    (かく) (kaku

    1. status, rank
    2. (grammar) case (of a word)
    3. capacity
    4. character
    5. case (law)

    Proper noun

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    (いたる) (Itaru

    1. a male given name

    (かく) (Kaku

    1. a male given name

    (とおる) (Tōru

    1. a male given name

    Korean

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    Etymology 1

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    From Middle Chinese (MC kaek).

    Hanja

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    (eumhun 바로잡을 (barojabeul gyeok))

    1. Hanja form? of (status).

    Compounds

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    Etymology 2

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    Hanja

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    (eumhun 가지 (gaji gak))

    1. (literary Chinese) Hanja form? of (tree branch).

    References

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    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [2]

    Vietnamese

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    Han character

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    : Hán Nôm readings: cách, ghếch

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.