U+683C, 格
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-683C

[U+683B]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+683D]

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 75, +6, 10 strokes, cangjie input 木竹水口 (DHER), composition)

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 524, character 11
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 14749
  • Dae Jaweon: page 912, character 13
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 2, page 1203, character 6
  • Unihan data for U+683C

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
         

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *klaːɡ, *kraːɡ): semantic  (wood) + phonetic  (OC *klaːɡ).

Etymology 1Edit

to go, to come, to arrive

Possibly cognate to Tibetan འགྲོ་བ། ('gro ba, to go, walk, travel), འགྲོ་བ་པོ ('gro ba po, traveler), འགྲོན་པ ('gron pa, to go, travel), མགྲོན (mgron, guest), མགྲོན་ཁང (mgron khang, inn) (Geilich, 1994). If so, from Proto-Sino-Tibetan *grwat (to go through, to travel). However, STEDT does not compare this to Tibeto-Burman lexical items under *grwat.

Baxter (1992) proposes that this is related to (OC *ɡ·raːɡs, “road”). Confer (OC *kʰraːɡ, “guest, visitor”), (OC *ɡ·raʔ, “travel, lodge”), and (OC *ɡaːŋ, *ɡaːŋs, *ɡraːŋ, *ɡraːŋs, “to go”)

to obstruct, to hinder

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

frame, square

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

style, form, pattern, standard, personality, character

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium. Particularly: “Semantically derived from "square, frame" sense?”)

PronunciationEdit


Note: gaak3-2 - "square".
Note:
  • kak/gag5 - "square";
  • kiet/kiat/gêd5 - other senses (including "pattern", "personality").
  • Min Bei
  • Min Dong
  • Note:
    • gáh - vernacular;
    • gáik - literary.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • keh/keeh - vernacular;
    • kek/kiak - literary.
  • Wu

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    Initial () (28) (28)
    Final () (103) (113)
    Tone (調) Checked (Ø) Checked (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open Open
    Division () I II
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /kɑk̚/ /kˠæk̚/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /kɑk̚/ /kᵚak̚/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /kɑk̚/ /kak̚/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /kak̚/ /kaɨjk̚/
    Li
    Rong
    /kɑk̚/ /kɐk̚/
    Wang
    Li
    /kɑk̚/ /kɐk̚/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /kɑk̚/ /kɐk̚/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    ge ge
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ kæk ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*kˁrak/
    English go to

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    No. 3885 3894
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0 0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*klaːɡ/ /*kraːɡ/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. pattern; standard; form; style
      •   ―  biǎo  ―  table; form
      • /   ―  guī  ―  standard; norm
    2. square; frame
    3. personality; character;
      • /   ―  fēng  ―  personality; style
      •   ―  xìng  ―  temperament; nature
    4. (grammar) case
    5. (mathematics) lattice
      • /   ―  wǎng  ―  mesh; lattice
      •   ―    ―  checkers; lattice
    6. to come; to arrive
    7. to obstruct; to hinder
      1. 22nd tetragram of the Taixuanjing; "resistance" (𝌛)
    8. to investigate
    9. A surname​.

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 2Edit

    Onomatopeic.

    PronunciationEdit

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. An onomatopoeia

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 3Edit

    From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *s-ka(:)k (fork, branch, crotch). Cognate with Apatani á-ha (branch), Mizo kâk (fork of a tree), Burmese အခက် (a.hkak, tree branch).

    Attested since the Northern and Southern dynasties period. According to Schuessler (2007), the word may be much older as the graph already appeared in Zhou texts and was intended to mean "branch" (with radical).

    PronunciationEdit


    DefinitionsEdit

    1. tree branch

    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 5 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    NounEdit

    Kanji in this term
    かく
    Grade: 5
    kan’on

    (かく) (kaku

    1. status, rank
    2. (grammar) case (of a word)
    3. capacity
    4. character
    5. case (law)

    Proper nounEdit

    (いたる) (Itaru

    1. A male given name

    (かく) (Kaku

    1. A male given name

    (とおる) (Tōru

    1. A male given name

    KoreanEdit

    HanjaEdit

    (gyeok, nak) (hangeul , , revised gyeok, nak, McCune–Reischauer kyŏk, nak, Yale kyek, nak)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    (cách, ghếch)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.