U+5BA2, 客
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5BA2

[U+5BA1]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5BA3]

Translingual

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Stroke order
 

Han character

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(Kangxi radical 40, +6, 9 strokes, cangjie input 十竹水口 (JHER), four-corner 30604, composition )

Derived characters

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References

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  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 284, character 12
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 7128
  • Dae Jaweon: page 561, character 16
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 2, page 927, character 13
  • Unihan data for U+5BA2

Chinese

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simp. and trad.

Glyph origin

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Historical forms of the character
Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Chu slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
       

Phono-semantic compound (形聲形声, OC *kʰraːɡ) : semantic (roof) + phonetic (OC *klaːɡ) – a guest.

Etymology

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Probably belongs to the word family of (OC *klaːɡ, *kraːɡ, “to go, to come”). Schuessler (2007) cites Tibetan དགྲ (dgra, enemy) as a possible cognate.

Pronunciation

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Note:
  • hak/hag5 - vernacular;
  • khiet/kêd5 - literary.
Note:
  • káh - vernacular;
  • káik - literary.
Note:
  • kheh/kheeh - vernacular;
  • khek/khiak/kherk - literary.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /kʰɤ⁵¹/
Harbin /t͡ɕʰiɛ²¹³/
/kʰɤ⁵³/
Tianjin /t͡ɕʰie¹³/
/kʰɤ⁵³/
Jinan /kə²¹/
/kʰei²¹³/
Qingdao /kʰə⁵⁵/
/kʰe⁵⁵/
Zhengzhou /kʰɤ²⁴/
Xi'an /kʰei²¹/
Xining /kʰɨ⁴⁴/
Yinchuan /kʰa¹³/
/kʰə¹³/
Lanzhou /kʰə¹³/
Ürümqi /kʰɤ²¹³/
/kʰei⁴⁴/
Wuhan /kʰɤ²¹³/
Chengdu /kʰe³¹/
Guiyang /kʰɛ²¹/
Kunming /kʰə³¹/
Nanjing /kʰəʔ⁵/
Hefei /kʰɐʔ⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /kʰaʔ²/
Pingyao /kʰʌʔ¹³/
/t͡ɕʰiʌʔ¹³/
Hohhot /kʰaʔ⁴³/
Wu Shanghai /kʰaʔ⁵/
Suzhou /kʰɑʔ⁵/
Hangzhou /kʰɑʔ⁵/
Wenzhou /kʰa²¹³/
Hui Shexian /kʰɛʔ²¹/
Tunxi /kʰa⁵/
Xiang Changsha /kʰə²⁴/
Xiangtan /kʰæ²⁴/
Gan Nanchang /kʰɑʔ⁵/
Hakka Meixian /hak̚¹/
Taoyuan /hɑk̚²²/
Cantonese Guangzhou /hak̚³/
Nanning /hak̚³³/
Hong Kong /hak̚³/
Min Xiamen (Hokkien) /kʰik̚³²/
/kʰeʔ³²/
Fuzhou (Eastern Min) /kʰɑʔ²³/
Jian'ou (Northern Min) /kʰa²⁴/
Shantou (Teochew) /kʰeʔ²/
Haikou (Hainanese) /xɛ⁵⁵/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (29)
Final () (113)
Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () II
Fanqie
Baxter khaek
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/kʰˠæk̚/
Pan
Wuyun
/kʰᵚak̚/
Shao
Rongfen
/kʰak̚/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/kʰaɨjk̚/
Li
Rong
/kʰɐk̚/
Wang
Li
/kʰɐk̚/
Bernard
Karlgren
/kʰɐk̚/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
ke
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
hak1
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ khæk ›
Old
Chinese
/*kʰˁrak/
English guest

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 3903
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*kʰraːɡ/

Definitions

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  1. guest; visitor
      ―  Wǒ jiā lái le.  ―  A guest has come to visit my home.
  2. customer; client; consumer (Classifier: c;  c)
    滿  ―  mǎn  ―  to have a full house
    今日鋪頭麻煩 [Cantonese, trad.]
    今日铺头麻烦 [Cantonese, simp.]
    gam1 jat6 pou3 tau4-2 jau5 go3 haak3 hou2 maa4 faan4 aa3. [Jyutping]
    There was a really annoying customer at the store today.
  3. to treat with guest etiquette; to receive friendly
  4. minor; less major; less important
  5. Agent suffix, indicating “one that engages in ...”.
      ―  zhèng  ―  politician
      ―    ―  assassin
  6. one who sponges on a wealthy family; hanger-on; sponger
  7. traveller; passenger; one who lives away from home
  8. to live away from home; to live abroad
  9. (in general) people; person
  10. objective; beyond human consciousness
      ―  guān  ―  objective
  11. Hakka
    [Sixian Hakka]  ―  Hak-fa [Pha̍k-fa-sṳ]  ―  Hakka language
      ―  chúnxiàn  ―  county whose residents are all Hakka people
  12. Classifier for units of food sold.
  13. (literary, obsolete) last; previous
      ―  suì  ―  last year
      ―  dōng  ―  last winter
  14. a surname

Synonyms

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Compounds

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Descendants

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Sino-Xenic ():
  • Japanese: (きゃく) (kyaku)
  • Korean: 객(客) (gaek)
  • Vietnamese: khách ()

Others:

  • English: Khek (Hakka)
  • Proto-Hmong-Mien: *khæk (guest)
    • White Hmong: qhua (guest)
  • Lao: ແຂກ (khǣk, guest)
  • Thai: แขก (kɛ̀ɛk, guest), แคะ (kɛ́, Hakka)
  • Vietnamese: Hẹ (Hakka)
  • Zhuang: hek (guest; tourist), hak (government official)

References

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Japanese

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Kanji

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(grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Readings

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Pronunciation

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Noun

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(きゃく) (kyaku

  1. guest; visitor
  2. customer; client
  3. patron

Usage notes

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This is used as part of a form of address for a customer, like sir or ma'am. Because a customer is in a much higher social position, this word is used with the honorific prefix () (o-) and the honorific suffix さん (-san) or more often (さま) (-sama), rendering (きゃく)さん (okyaku-san) or (きゃく)(さま) (okyaku-sama).

References

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  1. ^ Matsumura, Akira, editor (2006), 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tokyo: Sanseidō, →ISBN

Korean

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Etymology

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From Middle Chinese (MC khaek). Recorded as Middle Korean ᄀᆡᆨ〮 (kóyk) (Yale: koyk) in Hunmong Jahoe (訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회), 1527.

Hanja

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Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun (son gaek))

  1. Hanja form? of (guest).

Compounds

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References

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  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [2]

Vietnamese

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Han character

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: Hán Nôm readings: khách

  1. chữ Hán form of khách (visitor; guest).