Contents

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
客-bw.png

EtymologyEdit

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bamboo and silk script Large seal script
客-oracle.svg 客-bronze.svg 客-silk.svg 客-bigseal.svg

Ideogrammic compound (會意):  ‎(roof) +  ‎(individual) – a individual (各) under a roof (宀) – a guest. Oracle bone script used 𠯆 instead of 各.

Han characterEdit

(radical 40 +6, 9 strokes, cangjie input 十竹水口 (JHER), four-corner 30604, composition)

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 284, character 12
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 7128
  • Dae Jaweon: page 561, character 16
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 2, page 927, character 13
  • Unihan data for U+5BA2

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.

EtymologyEdit

Possibly borrowed from the hypothetical Proto-Altaic *kàra ‎(enemy, opposite).

PronunciationEdit


Dialectal pronunciations ()
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /kʰɤ⁵¹/
Harbin /t͡ɕʰiɛ²¹³/
/kʰɤ⁵³/
Tianjin /t͡ɕʰie¹³/
/kʰɤ⁵³/
Jinan /kə²¹/
/kʰei²¹³/
Qingdao /kʰə⁵⁵/
/kʰe⁵⁵/
Zhengzhou /kʰɤ²⁴/
Xi'an /kʰei²¹/
Xining /kʰɨ⁴⁴/
Yinchuan /kʰa¹³/
/kʰə¹³/
Lanzhou /kʰə¹³/
Ürümqi /kʰɤ²¹³/
/kʰei⁴⁴/
Wuhan /kʰɤ²¹³/
Chengdu /kʰe³¹/
Guiyang /kʰɛ²¹/
Kunming /kʰə³¹/
Nanjing /kʰəʔ⁵/
Hefei /kʰɐʔ⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /kʰaʔ²/
Pingyao /kʰʌʔ¹³/
/t͡ɕʰiʌʔ¹³/
Hohhot /kʰaʔ⁴³/
Wu Shanghai /kʰaʔ⁵/
Suzhou /kʰɑʔ⁵/
Hangzhou /kʰɑʔ⁵/
Wenzhou /kʰa²¹³/
Hui Shexian /kʰɛʔ²¹/
Tunxi /kʰa⁵/
Xiang Changsha /kʰə²⁴/
Xiangtan /kʰæ²⁴/
Gan Nanchang /kʰɑʔ⁵/
Hakka Meixian /hak̚¹/
Taoyuan /hɑk̚²²/
Cantonese Guangzhou /hak̚³/
Nanning /hak̚³³/
Hong Kong /hak̚³/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /kʰik̚³²/
/kʰeʔ³²/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /kʰɑʔ²³/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /kʰa²⁴/
Shantou (Min Nan) /kʰeʔ²/
Haikou (Min Nan) /xɛ⁵⁵/
Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (), Pronunciation 1/1

Initial: (29)
Final:
Division: II

Openness: Open
Tone: Checked (Ø)

Fanqie:
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/kʰɣæk̚/ /kʰɐk̚/ /kʰɐk̚/ /kʰɯak̚/ /kʰaɨjk̚/ /kʰɐk̚/ /kʰak̚/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
‹ khæk › /*kʰˤrak/ guest

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
3903 0 /*kʰraːɡ/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. guest, visitor, traveller
  2. customer

CompoundsEdit

ReferencesEdit


JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

ReadingsEdit

NounEdit

‎(hiragana きゃく, romaji kyaku)

  1. guest
  2. customer
  3. patron

Usage notesEdit

This is used as part of a form of address for a customer, like sir or ma'am. Because a customer is in a much higher social position, this word is used with the honorific prefix ‎(お, o-) and the honorific suffix さん ‎(-san) or more often さま ‎(-sama), rendering お客さん (okyakusan) or お客様 (okyakusama).


KoreanEdit

Hanja in this term

NounEdit

‎(gaek) ‎(hangeul )

  1. Hanja form? of , “guest”.

VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

(khách)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.
Read in another language