U+843D, 落
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-843D

[U+843C]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+843E]

U+F918, 落
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-F918

[U+F917]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs
[U+F919]

Translingual

edit
Stroke order
Simplified Chinese and Japanese
 

Han character

edit

(Kangxi radical 140, +9, 13 strokes in traditional Chinese and Korean, 12 strokes in simplified Chinese and Japanese, cangjie input 廿水竹口 (TEHR), four-corner 44164, composition )

References

edit
  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 1043, character 11
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 31362
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1503, character 20
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 5, page 3255, character 8
  • Unihan data for U+843D

Chinese

edit
trad.
simp. #

Glyph origin

edit

Phono-semantic compound (形聲形声, OC *ɡ·raːɡ) : semantic + phonetic (OC *ɡ·raːɡ).

Etymology

edit

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *(k/g)la-k/y/t (to fall) (STEDT, Schuessler, 2007):

within Sinitic, cognate to (OC *ɡ·raːɡs) "dew", (OC *ɡraːʔ, *ɡraːs, “down, below, to descend, to fall down”) , (OC *l'aːlʔ, *l'alʔ) "to collapse" and (OC *l'alʔ, *hljalʔ) "hillside, slope";
outsides Sinitic, cognate to Mizo tla ~ tlâk (to fall) and thla ~ thlâk (to drop), Burmese ကျ (kya., to fall) and ချ (hkya., to drop).

Schuessler attributes OC *r-, instead of expected **l-, to possible Austroasiatic influence: compare Khmer [script needed] (gra'ka, be low, debased) < [script needed] (-ra'ka, to fall, below, cover from above). However, Matisoff (2003) identifies several ST etyma which display TB *(C‑)l- vs. OC *(C‑)r‑ correspondence (e.g. *l(j)a(k/ŋ) (good, beautiful) (OC *raŋ), *g/m-liŋ (neck) (OC *reŋʔ), etc.) and TB *(C‑)r- vs. OC *(C‑)l‑ (e.g. *g-rjum (salt) (OC *ɡ·lam)); so irregularities in correspondence do not necessarily indicate foreign influences.

Contemporary southern usage possibly reinforced by a Kra-Dai term. The term has been associated with Zhuang loengx (to fall).

Zhengzhang suggested that Pronunciation 2 was a result of loss of final consonant of the retained Old Chinese Pronunciation 1.

Pronunciation 1

edit

Note:
  • luò - "drop, fall, settle";
  • lào - "go down";
  • luō - only used in 大大落落 (Mainland standard).
Note:
  • lueh4 - literary;
  • luah4, lau3 - vernacular.
Note:
  • lo̍k - literary;
  • lo̍h - colloquial (“to fall; to go down; to lower; to finish; to write down; to add; to issue; to rain or snow; down onto; classifier for a row of houses; to get along well; to go to somewhere inferior; to fell; to divide into; classifier for events”);
  • làu - colloquial (“to fall; to drop (Xiamen, Zhangzhou); to leave behind; to fade (Xiamen, Zhangzhou); to omit; to disassemble; to leak; to lose (Zhangzhou); to have diarrhea; to coax out of somebody; to unload; to show off one's skills; to gather to help; loose; to blow; to space out”);
  • lak - colloquial (“to fall; to fall behind (Taiwan); to fade (Taiwan, Singapore); to omit; to fall off; to lose”);
  • lauh, lō͘ - colloquial;
  • la̍uh/nia̍uh - possibly unrelated, used in compounds such as 交落.

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (37)
Final () (103)
Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Baxter lak
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/lɑk̚/
Pan
Wuyun
/lɑk̚/
Shao
Rongfen
/lɑk̚/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/lak̚/
Li
Rong
/lɑk̚/
Wang
Li
/lɑk̚/
Bernard
Karlgren
/lɑk̚/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
luò
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
lok6
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
luò
Middle
Chinese
‹ lak ›
Old
Chinese
/*kə.rˁak/
English fall (v.)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 3880
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ɡ·raːɡ/

Definitions

edit

  1. to fall; to drop
      ―  luòlèi  ―  to shed tears
    隕石為什麼總是隕石坑 [MSC, trad.]
    陨石为什么总是陨石坑 [MSC, simp.]
    Yǔnshí wèishénme zǒngshì luò zài yǔnshíkēng lǐ? [Pinyin]
    Why do meteors always fall right into craters? (a joke question)
      ―  luòshuǐ  ―  to fall into the water
  2. (intransitive) (to go to a lower place)
    1. to go down; to descend; to set
        ―  luò  ―  sunset
      潮水  ―  Cháoshuǐ luò le.  ―  The tide is low.
      鳥兒樹枝 [MSC, trad.]
      鸟儿树枝 [MSC, simp.]
      Niǎo'ér luò zài shùzhī shàng. [Pinyin]
      The bird lands on the branch
      1. (Cantonese, Southern Min) to go down; to descend (of a person, animal, etc.)
        樓梯楼梯 [Cantonese]  ―  lok6 lau4 tai1 [Jyutping]  ―  to go down the stairs
        樓下 [Cantonese, trad.]
        楼下 [Cantonese, simp.]
        ngo5 lok6 jat1 lok6 lau4 haa6. [Jyutping]
        I will go downstairs for a while.
    2. to decline; to sink; to come down
        ―  shuāiluò  ―  to decline; to go downhill
      家道中  ―  jiādàozhōngluò  ―  the family fortunes has declined
      田地田地  ―  luò dào zhè bù tiándì  ―  to come down to such a plight
    3. to fall onto; to rest with (of responsibility, power, position, etc.)
      大權旁大权旁  ―  dàquánpángluò  ―  power has fallen into the hands of others
      這個任務身上 [MSC, trad.]
      这个任务身上 [MSC, simp.]
      Zhège rènwù luò dào le wǒ shēnshàng. [Pinyin]
      This task falls onto our shoulders.
    4. (Cantonese, Southern Min, Wu) to get off; to alight; to exit; to disembark (a vehicle)
      [Guangzhou Cantonese]  ―  lok6 syun4 [Jyutping]  ―  to disembark from a boat
      [Guangzhou Cantonese]  ―  lok6 ce1 [Jyutping]  ―  to alight; to exit a car
      [Hokkien]  ―  lo̍h-chhia [Pe̍h-ōe-jī]  ―  to alight; to exit a car
    5. (Cantonese, Eastern Min, Southern Min, dialectal Wu) to finish; to complete (class or work)
        ―  lo̍h  ―  to finish class
    6. (Cantonese) to go to a more lively and bustling area (especially downtown)
    7. (Cantonese, Eastern Min, Mainland China Hokkien) to go to somewhere inferior or subordinate
      [Hokkien]  ―  lo̍h-hiuⁿ [Pe̍h-ōe-jī]  ―  to go to the countryside
    8. (Cantonese, Hokkien, Teochew) down [onto; to]
      地下 [Cantonese]  ―  daa2 lok6 dei6 haa6-2 dou6 [Jyutping]  ―  to hit something and cause it to fall to the ground
  3. (transitive) (to move something to a lower place)
    1. to lower; to let fall; to let down
      簾子下來 [MSC, trad.]
      帘子下来 [MSC, simp.]
      Wǒ bǎ liánzi luò xiàlái. [Pinyin]
      I lowered the blinds.
      [Hokkien]  ―  lo̍h-kè [Pe̍h-ōe-jī]  ―  to fall in price
    2. (literary) to write down (with a pen)
    3. (Cantonese, Gan, Hakka, Huizhou, Min, Southern Pingxiang Gan, Wu, Xiang) to fall down; to rain or snow
      已經喺度 [Cantonese, trad.]
      已经喺度𫽋 [Cantonese, simp.]
      di1 jyu5 jat1 dik1 dou1 mei6 lok6 keoi5 ji5 ging1 hai2 dou6 lo2 zyu6 baa2 ze1 haang4. [Jyutping]
      He had already started to carry an umbrella before the rain even began to fall.
    4. (Cantonese, Southern Min) to add; to put in (into food, a mixture, etc.)
      味精 [Cantonese]  ―  lok6 mei6 zing1 [Jyutping]  ―  to add MSG
      石屎 [Cantonese]  ―  lok6 sek6 si2 [Jyutping]  ―  to pour concrete
    5. (Cantonese, Hokkien) to give or issue something to an inferior person
      [Cantonese]  ―  lok6 zi2 [Jyutping]  ―  to issue a decree
      叉廚叉厨 [Hong Kong Cantonese]  ―  lok6 caa1 cyu4 [Jyutping]  ―  to issue a charge
      公文 [Hokkien]  ―  lo̍h kong-bûn [Pe̍h-ōe-jī]  ―  to issue an official document
    6. (Cantonese) to abort (a fetus)
      狠心 [Cantonese, trad. and simp.]
      nei5 gam3 han2 sam1 lok6 zo2 keoi5. [Jyutping]
      How cruel of you to abort it.
    7. (Xiamen and Taiwanese Hokkien) to fell; to lop; to cut down; to hew (trees)
  4. to stop; to cease
      ―  luòjiǎo  ―  to stop over; to put up
    話音话音  ―  huàyīn wèi luò  ―  before one has finished speaking
  5. to lag behind; to fall behind
      ―  luòxuǎn  ―  to lose an election
      ―  luò  ―  to be behind the times
  6. to leave behind; to stay behind
    痕跡痕迹  ―  luòhénjì  ―  to leave no trace
  7. place where one stays; whereabouts
      ―  xiàluò  ―  whereabouts
  8. settlement; place to gather together
      ―  cūnluò  ―  village
  9. small area; short part
      ―  duànluò  ―  paragraph
  10. to get; to receive; to have
    不是  ―  làobùshi  ―  to get blamed
    褒貶褒贬  ―  làobāobiǎn  ―  to receive praise and criticism
    埋怨  ―  làomáiyuàn  ―  to take the blame
  11. (Eastern Min) Classifier for residences.
  12. (Hainanese, Leizhou Min, Xiamen, Zhangzhou, Singapore and Taiwanese Hokkien, Teochew) to fade (of color)
  13. (Hokkien) Classifier for a row of houses.
  14. (Hokkien) to omit; to leave out
  15. (Hokkien) to disassemble; to dismantle
  16. (Hokkien) to have diarrhea
  17. (Hokkien) to leak (of water or gas)
  18. (Hokkien) to coax out of somebody; to trick somebody into telling (of a secret, information, the truth, etc.)
  19. (Hokkien) to fall off; to drop off (from somewhere)
  20. (Hokkien) to lose; to misplace
  21. (Mainland China Hokkien) to get along well
  22. (Xiamen, Zhangzhou and Taiwanese Hokkien) loose; about to fall off (often reduplicated)
  23. (Xiamen and Zhangzhou Hokkien) Classifier for events, deals, etc..
  24. (Xiamen Hokkien) to divide into; to split up into
  25. (Zhangzhou and Taiwanese Hokkien) to unload (cargo, etc.)
  26. (Taiwanese Hokkien) to show off one's skills in speaking (a certain language)
  27. (Taiwanese Hokkien) to gather (one's own men) to help (used to gather a crowd for a fight)
  28. (Zhangzhou Hokkien) to shake a container to let something fall out
  29. (Zhangzhou Hokkien, of wind) to blow
  30. (Zhangzhou Hokkien) to space out; to leave distances in between
  31. (Cantonese) added after a verb to express a reassessment after doing or experiencing something for a certain period of time
    靚仔 [Cantonese, trad.]
    靓仔 [Cantonese, simp.]
    keoi5 tai2 lok6 gei2 leng3 zai2. [Jyutping]
    He seems to be quite handsome.
  32. (Cantonese) This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.
    原來 [Cantonese, trad.]
    原来 [Cantonese, simp.]
    zou6 lok6 sin1 zi1 jyun4 loi4 gam3 naan4. [Jyutping]
    Only after doing it for a while do you realize how difficult it is.
    [Cantonese, trad.]
    [Cantonese, simp.]
    fei4 dou3 zoek3 m4 lok6 tiu4 fu3 [Jyutping]
    too fat to put on the pair of pants
  33. a surname

Synonyms
edit
  • (to omit):
  • (to leak): ()
  • (to coax out of somebody): (tào); (Hokkien) (tioh)
  • (classifier for events): (zhuāng)
  • (to blow): (guā)
See also
edit
  • (jiā, “to add”)
  • (diào)
Descendants
edit
  • Ai-Cham: lau⁵
  • Thai: โละ () (via Teochew loh8)
  • Vietnamese: lạc
Compounds
edit

Pronunciation 2

edit
trad.
simp. #
alternative forms Cantonese

Note:
  • lo̍k - literary;
  • lak - vernacular.

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (37)
Final () (103)
Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Baxter lak
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/lɑk̚/
Pan
Wuyun
/lɑk̚/
Shao
Rongfen
/lɑk̚/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/lak̚/
Li
Rong
/lɑk̚/
Wang
Li
/lɑk̚/
Bernard
Karlgren
/lɑk̚/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
luò
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
lok6
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
luò
Middle
Chinese
‹ lak ›
Old
Chinese
/*kə.rˁak/
English fall (v.)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 3880
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ɡ·raːɡ/

Definitions

edit

  1. (colloquial) to leave out; to be missing; to omit
  2. (colloquial) to leave behind; to forget to bring
    鑰匙家裡 [MSC, trad.]
    钥匙家里 [MSC, simp.]
    Wǒ bǎ yàoshi jiālǐ le. [Pinyin]
    I left my key(s) at home.
    又試自己一個屋企 [Cantonese, trad.]
    又试自己一个屋企 [Cantonese, simp.]
    keoi5 jau6 si3 laai6 dai1 go3 neoi5-2 zi6 gei2 jat1 go3 hai2 uk1 kei2. [Jyutping]
    He has once again left his daughter behind at home alone by herself.
  3. (colloquial) to fall behind; to lag behind

Compounds

edit

Japanese

edit

Kanji

edit

(grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. to fall
  2. to leave behind
  3. to drop
  4. to come down

Readings

edit

Compounds

edit

See also

edit

Korean

edit

Etymology

edit

From Middle Chinese (MC lak). Recorded as Middle Korean 락〮 (lák) (Yale: lak) in Hunmong Jahoe (訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회), 1527.

Hanja

edit
Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun 떨어질 (tteoreojil rak), word-initial (South Korea) 떨어질 (tteoreojil nak))

  1. Hanja form? of / (fall).

Compounds

edit

References

edit
  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [1]

Tày

edit

Han character

edit

(transliteration needed)

  1. Nôm form of lảc.

References

edit
  • Lục Văn Pảo, Hoàng Tuấn Nam (2003) Hoàng Triều Ân, editor, Từ điển chữ Nôm Tày [A Dictionary of (chữ) Nôm Tày]‎[2] (in Vietnamese), Hanoi: Nhà xuất bản Khoa học Xã hội

Vietnamese

edit

Han character

edit

: Hán Nôm readings: lạc, lác, lát, nhác, rác, rạc, xạc

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.