U+843D, 落
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-843D

[U+843C]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+843E]

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
Simplified Chinese and Japanese
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 140, +9, 13 strokes in traditional Chinese and Korean, 12 strokes in simplified Chinese and Japanese, cangjie input 廿水竹口 (TEHR), four-corner 44164, composition)

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 1043, character 11
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 31362
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1503, character 20
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 5, page 3255, character 8
  • Unihan data for U+843D

ChineseEdit

trad.
simp. #

Glyph originEdit

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *ɡ·raːɡ): semantic + phonetic (OC *ɡ·raːɡ).

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *(k/g)la-k/y/t (to fall) (STEDT, Schuessler, 2007):

within Sinitic, cognate to (OC *ɡ·raːɡs) "dew", (OC *ɡraːʔ, *ɡraːs, “down, below, to descend, to fall down”) , (OC *l'aːlʔ, *l'alʔ) "to collapse" and (OC *l'alʔ, *hljalʔ) "hillside, slope";
outsides Sinitic, cognate to Mizo tla ~ tlâk (to fall) and thla ~ thlâk (to drop), Burmese ကျ (kya., to fall) and ချ (hkya., to drop).

Schuessler attributes OC *r-, instead of expected **l-, to possible Austroasiatic influence: compare Khmer [script needed] (gra'ka, be low, debased) < [script needed] (-ra'ka, to fall, below, cover from above). However, Matisoff (2003) identifies several ST etyma which display TB *(C‑)l- vs. OC *(C‑)r‑ correspondence (e.g. *l(j)a(k/ŋ) (good, beautiful) (OC *raŋ), *g/m-liŋ (neck) (OC *reŋʔ), etc.) and TB *(C‑)r- vs. OC *(C‑)l‑ (e.g. *g-rjum (salt) (OC *ɡ·lam)); so irregularities in correspondence do not necessarily indicate foreign influences.

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • luò - "drop, fall, settle";
  • là - "leave behind";
  • lào - "go down";
  • luō - only used in 大大落落 (Mainland standard).
  • Cantonese
  • Hakka
  • Min Bei
  • Min Dong
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • lo̍k - literary;
    • lak/lo̍h/lauh/lō͘/làu/lo̍h - vernacular;
    • la̍uh - possibly unrelated.
  • Wu

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (37)
    Final () (103)
    Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /lɑk̚/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /lɑk̚/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /lɑk̚/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /lak̚/
    Li
    Rong
    /lɑk̚/
    Wang
    Li
    /lɑk̚/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /lɑk̚/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    luò
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    lok6
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    luò
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ lak ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*kə.rˁak/
    English fall (v.)

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 3880
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ɡ·raːɡ/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. to fall; to drop
        ―  luò  ―  sunset; sundown
    2. to leave out
    3. to leave behind
    4. to lag; to fall behind
    5. to be on the wane; to write down; to settle
    6. (Cantonese, Min Nan) to go down; to descend
      樓梯 / 楼梯 [Cantonese]  ―  lok6 lau4 tai1 [Jyutping]  ―  to go down the stairs
    7. (Cantonese, Min Nan) to get off (a vehicle)
      [Guangzhou Cantonese]  ―  lok6 syun4 [Jyutping]  ―  to disembark from a boat
      / [Guangzhou Cantonese]  ―  lok6 ce1 [Jyutping]  ―  to alight; to exit a car
      / [Hokkien]  ―  lo̍h-chhia [Pe̍h-ōe-jī]  ―  to alight; to exit a car
    8. (Cantonese, Min Nan) to fall down; to rain or snow
      已經喺度 [Cantonese, trad.]
      已经喺度𫽋 [Cantonese, simp.]
      di1 jyu5 jat1 dik1 dou1 mei6 lok6 keoi5 ji5 ging1 hai2 dou6 lo2 zyu6 baa2 ze1 haang4. [Jyutping]
      He had already started to carry an umbrella before the rain even began to fall.
    9. (Cantonese, Min Nan) to put in
      味精 [Cantonese]  ―  lok6 mei6 zing1 [Jyutping]  ―  to add MSG
    10. (Cantonese, Hokkien, Teochew) down [onto; to]
      地下 [Cantonese]  ―  daa2 lok6 dei6 haa6-2 dou6 [Jyutping]  ―  to hit something and cause it to fall to the ground
    11. to come down
    12. to fall down
    13. into
    14. (Min Dong) a classifier for residences

    SynonymsEdit

    See alsoEdit

    • (jiā, “to add”)
    • (diào)

    DescendantsEdit

    • Ai-Cham: lau⁵
    • Thai: โละ () (via Teochew loh8)
    • Vietnamese: lạc

    CompoundsEdit


    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. to fall
    2. to leave behind
    3. to drop
    4. to come down

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    See alsoEdit


    KoreanEdit

    EtymologyEdit

    From Middle Chinese (MC lɑk̚). Recorded as Middle Korean 락〮 (Yale: lak) in Hunmong Jahoe (訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회), 1527.

    HanjaEdit

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun 떨어질 (tteoreojil rak), South Korea 떨어질 (tteoreojil nak))

    1. Hanja form? of / (fall).

    CompoundsEdit

    ReferencesEdit

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [1]

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    : Hán Nôm readings: lạc, lác, lát, nhác, rác, rạc, xạc

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.