Chinese edit

 
from; self; oneself
from; self; oneself; since
 
so; thus; like this
so; thus; like this; ‑ly; correct; right
trad. (自然)
simp. #(自然)

Etymology edit

Attested earliest in the Tao Te Ching:

Pronunciation edit


Note: zìran - only when meaning "at ease".

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1 1/1
Initial () (15) (38)
Final () (15) (77)
Tone (調) Departing (H) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open Open
Division () III III
Fanqie
Baxter dzijH nyen
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/d͡ziɪH/ /ȵiᴇn/
Pan
Wuyun
/d͡ziH/ /ȵiɛn/
Shao
Rongfen
/d͡zjɪH/ /ȵʑjæn/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/d͡ziH/ /ȵian/
Li
Rong
/d͡ziH/ /ȵiɛn/
Wang
Li
/d͡ziH/ /ȵʑĭɛn/
Bernard
Karlgren
/d͡zʱiH/ /ȵʑi̯ɛn/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
rán
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
zi6 jin4
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
rán
Middle
Chinese
‹ dzijH › ‹ nyen ›
Old
Chinese
/*s.[b]i[t]-s/ /*[n]a[n]/
English self (adv.) so, thus; (adv suffix)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1 1/1
No. 17879 10756
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1 2
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ɦljids/ /*njen/

Noun edit

自然

  1. nature; the natural world
    愛護自然爱护自然  ―  àihù zìrán  ―  to cherish nature
    親近自然亲近自然  ―  qīnjìn zìrán  ―  to get close to nature

Synonyms edit

Adjective edit

自然

  1. natural; of or relating to nature
    自然美麗自然美丽  ―  zìrán měilì  ―  natural beauty
  2. natural; at ease; without strain

Usage notes edit

To describe things literally produced by nature, use the attributive 天然 (tiānrán) instead.

Synonyms edit

Adverb edit

自然

  1. naturally; in a natural manner
  2. naturally; of course; as a matter of course

Synonyms edit

Conjunction edit

自然

  1. admittedly

Derived terms edit

Japanese edit

Kanji in this term

Grade: 2
ぜん
Grade: 4
kan’on

Pronunciation edit

Adjective edit

()(ぜん) (shizen-na (adnominal ()(ぜん) (shizen na), adverbial ()(ぜん) (shizen ni))

  1. natural
  2. spontaneous

Inflection edit

Adverb edit

()(ぜん) (shizen

  1. naturally
  2. spontaneously
  3. rarely
  4. coincidentally

Noun edit

()(ぜん) (shizen

  1. nature
    • 2016 April 23, “(じゅう)(りょく)(へん)(よう)”, in エルドラージ覚醒 [Eldrazi Awakening], Wizards of the Coast:
      エルドラージは()()めると、ゼンディカーの()(ぜん)(せい)(りょく)(すべ)てに(たい)して(おのれ)()(はい)(ひたた)()らしめようとした。
      Erudorāji wa mezameru to, Zendikā no shizen no seiryoku subete ni taishite onore no shihai o hitatabi shirashimeyō to shita.
      As they awakened, the Eldrazi reasserted their mastery over all of Zendikar’s natural forces.
  2. spontaneity

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ Matsumura, Akira, editor (2006) 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  2. ^ NHK Broadcasting Culture Research Institute, editor (1998) NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 [NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary] (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK Publishing, →ISBN
  3. ^ Kindaichi, Kyōsuke et al., editors (1997) 新明解国語辞典 [Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten] (in Japanese), Fifth edition, Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  • 2002, Ineko Kondō; Fumi Takano; Mary E Althaus; et. al., Shogakukan Progressive Japanese-English Dictionary, Third Edition, Tokyo: Shōgakukan, →ISBN.

Korean edit

Hanja in this term

Noun edit

自然 (jayeon) (hangeul 자연)

  1. Hanja form? of 자연 (nature).

Okinawan edit

Kanji in this term
Grade: 2 Grade: 4

Etymology edit

Cognate with Japanese 自然 (shizen).

Noun edit

自然(しじん) (shijin

  1. nature

Vietnamese edit

chữ Hán Nôm in this term

Noun edit

自然

  1. chữ Hán form of tự nhiên (nature).

Adjective edit

自然

  1. chữ Hán form of tự nhiên (natural).

Adverb edit

自然

  1. chữ Hán form of tự nhiên (naturally).