Open main menu

ChineseEdit

 
from; self; oneself; since
 
so; thus; like this; ‑ly; correct; right
simp. and trad.
(自然)

EtymologyEdit

Wasei kango (和製漢語), orthographically borrowed from Japanese  () (ぜん) (shizen), which was in turn a semantic readaptation of Chinese 自然 (zìrán, “like self”).

PronunciationEdit


Note: zìran - only when meaning "at ease".

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1 1/1
Initial () (15) (38)
Final () (15) (77)
Tone (調) Departing (H) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open Open
Division () III III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/d͡ziɪH/ /ȵiᴇn/
Pan
Wuyun
/d͡ziH/ /ȵiɛn/
Shao
Rongfen
/d͡zjɪH/ /ȵʑjæn/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/d͡ziH/ /ȵian/
Li
Rong
/d͡ziH/ /ȵiɛn/
Wang
Li
/d͡ziH/ /ȵʑĭɛn/
Bernard
Karlgren
/d͡zʱiH/ /ȵʑi̯ɛn/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
rán
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
rán
Middle
Chinese
‹ dzijH › ‹ nyen ›
Old
Chinese
/*s.[b]i[t]-s/ /*[n]a[n]/
English self (adv.) so, thus; (adv suffix)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1 1/1
No. 17879 10756
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1 2
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ɦljids/ /*njen/

NounEdit

自然

  1. nature; the natural world
    愛護自然 / 爱护自然  ―  àihù zìrán  ―  to cherish nature
    親近自然 / 亲近自然  ―  qīnjìn zìrán  ―  to get close to nature

AdjectiveEdit

自然

  1. natural; of or relating to nature
    自然美麗 / 自然美丽  ―  zìrán měilì  ―  natural beauty
  2. natural; at ease; without strain

Usage notesEdit

To describe things literally produced by nature, use the attributive 天然 (tiānrán) instead.

AdverbEdit

自然

  1. naturally; in a natural manner
  2. naturally; of course; as a matter of course

ConjunctionEdit

自然

  1. admittedly

Derived termsEdit


JapaneseEdit

Kanji in this term

Grade: 2
ぜん
Grade: 4
on’yomi

PronunciationEdit

Adjectival nounEdit

自然 (-na inflection, hiragana しぜん, rōmaji shizen)

  1. natural
  2. spontaneous

InflectionEdit

AdverbEdit

自然 (hiragana しぜん, rōmaji shizen)

  1. naturally
  2. spontaneously
  3. rarely
  4. coincidentally

NounEdit

自然 (hiragana しぜん, rōmaji shizen)

  1. nature
    • 2016 April 23, “じゅうりょくへんよう [Gravitational Shift]”, in エルドラージ覚醒 [Eldrazi Awakening], Wizards of the Coast:
      エルドラージは () ()めると、ゼンディカーの () (ぜん) (せい) (りょく) (すべ)てに (たい)して (おのれ) () (はい) (ひたた) ()らしめようとした。
      Erudorāji wa mezameru to, Zendikā no shizen no seiryoku subete ni taishite onore no shihai o hitatabi shirashimeyō to shita.
      As they awakened, the Eldrazi reasserted their mastery over all of Zendikar’s natural forces.
  2. spontaneity

See alsoEdit

DescendantsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  2. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN
  • 2002, Ineko Kondō; Fumi Takano; Mary E Althaus; et. al., Shogakukan Progressive Japanese-English Dictionary, Third Edition, Tokyo: Shōgakukan, →ISBN.

KoreanEdit

Hanja in this term

NounEdit

自然 (jayeon) (hangeul 자연)

  1. Hanja form? of 자연 (nature).

OkinawanEdit

EtymologyEdit

NounEdit

自然 (hiragana しじん, romaji shijin)

  1. nature

VietnameseEdit

Hán tự in this term

NounEdit

自然

  1. Hán tự form of tự nhiên (nature).

AdjectiveEdit

自然

  1. Hán tự form of tự nhiên (natural).

AdverbEdit

自然

  1. Hán tự form of tự nhiên (naturally).