U+5730, 地
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5730

[U+572F]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5731]

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 
Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 32, +3, 6 strokes, cangjie input 土心木 (GPD), four-corner 44112, composition)

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 224, character 6
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 4890
  • Dae Jaweon: page 456, character 8
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 420, character 12
  • Unihan data for U+5730

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.
alternative forms

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Shizhoupian script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
           

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *l'els): semantic  (earth) + phonetic  (OC *laːlʔ).

Etymology 1Edit

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

PronunciationEdit


Note: deng6 - usually written as .
Note:
  • Xiamen, Quanzhou:
    • tōe - vernacular;
    • tē - literary.
  • Zhangzhou, Taiwan:
    • tē/tōe/tǒe/tēre - literary.
  • Other readings:
    • tī - vernacular (may be considered literary, only used in 土地公);
    • tè/tèr - vernacular (limited, e.g. 到地, 鎮地, 掃地, possibly substitute for ).
  • (Teochew)
  • Note:
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /ti⁵¹/
    Harbin /ti⁵³/
    Tianjin /ti⁵³/
    Jinan /ti²¹/
    Qingdao /ti⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /ti³¹²/
    Xi'an /ti⁴⁴/
    Xining /t͡sz̩²¹³/
    Yinchuan /ti¹³/
    Lanzhou /ti¹³/
    Ürümqi /ti²¹³/
    Wuhan /ti³⁵/
    Chengdu /ti¹³/
    Guiyang /ti²¹³/
    Kunming /ti²¹²/
    Nanjing /ti⁴⁴/
    Hefei /t͡sz̩⁵³/
    Jin Taiyuan /ti⁴⁵/
    Pingyao /ti³⁵/
    Hohhot /ti⁵⁵/
    Wu Shanghai /di²³/
    Suzhou /di³¹/
    Hangzhou /di¹³/
    Wenzhou /dei²²/
    Hui Shexian /tʰi²²/
    Tunxi /tʰi¹¹/
    Xiang Changsha /ti⁵⁵/
    /ti¹¹/
    Xiangtan /di²¹/
    Gan Nanchang /tʰi²¹/
    Hakka Meixian /tʰi⁵³/
    Taoyuan /tʰi⁵⁵/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /tei²²/
    Nanning /ti²²/
    Hong Kong /tei²²/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /ti²²/
    /te²²/ ~理
    /tue²²/ 土~
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /tɛi²⁴²/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /ti⁴⁴/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /ti³¹/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /ʔdi³⁵/
    /ʔdi³³/
    /ʔdi²³/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (7)
    Final () (15)
    Tone (調) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /diɪH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /diH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /djɪH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /diH/
    Li
    Rong
    /diH/
    Wang
    Li
    /diH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /dʱiH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ dijH ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[l]ˁej-s/
    English earth, ground

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 14808
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    2
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*l'els/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. earth; ground
    2. land; field (Classifier: c;  c)
    3. distance; separation
    4. farmland; field
    5. (only in compounds) place; location
    6. (only in compounds) status; situation
      •   ―  xīn  ―  mind
      • /   ―  jiàn  ―  perspective, opinion
    7. (only in compounds) Short for 地球 (Dìqiú, “Earth”).

    CompoundsEdit

    DescendantsEdit

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese: () (ji); () (chi)
    • Korean: (, ji)

    Etymology 2Edit

    Possibly the same word as , the possessive marker (Wang, 1958), but scholars like Lü (1943) and Yuan et al. (1996) are hesitant about this etymology.

    Alternatively, Ōta (2003) proposes that it is a grammaticalization of etymology 1. The construction ADJ + would have semantically developed as follows: "a ADJ place" → "in a ADJ place" → "in a ADJ manner".

    PronunciationEdit


    Note: di is used in poetry, songs.
    Note:
    • dei6 - literary;
    • dei6-2 - vernacular, only used after reduplicated words.
  • Min Nan
  • DefinitionsEdit

    1. (chiefly Mandarin) Particle indicating the word preceding it is used as an adverb.
        ―  hěn kuài de  ―  very quickly
      偷偷 [Cantonese, trad. and simp.]
      Keoi5 tau1 tau1 dei6-2 zau2 zo2 laa3. [Jyutping]
      He secretly left.
      alt. forms: , obsolete
    Usage notesEdit
    • The use of this particle is always optional after polysyllabic adverbs.
      非常  ―  fēicháng duǎn  ―  very short
      非常  ―  fēicháng de duǎn  ―  very short
    • On the contrary, monosyllabic adverbs are compulsorily used with or without .
      漂亮  ―  hěn piàoliang  ―  very beautiful (where *很地漂亮 is unacceptable)
      不見 / 不见  ―  shū de bùjiàn  ―  to disappear suddenly (where *倏不見 is unacceptable in Modern Standard Chinese)
    • However, there is an exception:
      回頭 / 回头  ―  měng huítóu  ―  to turn the head back suddenly
      回頭 / 回头  ―  měng de huítóu  ―  to turn the head back suddenly

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 3Edit

    (This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium. Particularly: “related to etymology 2?”)

    PronunciationEdit


    DefinitionsEdit

    1. (Cantonese) Placed after a reduplicated adjective or stative verb to lessen its intensity.
      / [Cantonese]  ―  hung4 hung4-2 dei6-2 [Jyutping]  ―  kind of red
      [Cantonese]  ―  bok6 bok6-2 dei6-2 [Jyutping]  ―  kind of thin
      / [Cantonese]  ―  geng1 geng1 dei6-2 [Jyutping]  ―  to be kind of scared
      [Cantonese]  ―  ai2 ai2 dei6-2 [Jyutping]  ―  kind of short
    Usage notesEdit
    • This suffix is accompanied by a tone change in the reduplicated word, where the second occurrence is changed to the second tone (unless its original tone is the first or second tone), as seen in the examples above.

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 4Edit

    For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“Cantonese plurality marker”).
    (This character, , is a variant form of .)

    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. earth; ground

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 2
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese (dijH). The goon reading, so likely the initial borrowing. Compare modern Mandarin .

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    () (ji (historical kana )

    1. earth, dirt
    2. fabric, cloth
      • :
        いくらか(うす)()には相違(そうい)なくっても(あつ)いには(きま)ってる。
        Ikura ka usui ji ni wa sōi nakutte mo atsui ni wa kimatteru.
        However thin the cloth, flannel is flannel and must have been pretty warm at that time of the year.
    3. (game of Go) territory

    Etymology 2Edit

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 2
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese (dijH). The kan'on reading, so likely a later borrowing. The devoicing of the initial consonant might indicate a dialectal source. Compare modern Hakka thi, Min Nan .

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    () (chi

    1. earth, land, ground
    2. a place, a region, a piece of land
    3. territory, dominion
    4. (of a crate, etc.) the bottom

    SuffixEdit

    () (-chi

    1. place, area

    Etymology 3Edit

    Kanji in this term
    つち
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    From Old Japanese.[2][1]

    PronunciationEdit

    Alternative formsEdit

    • (more common for this reading)

    NounEdit

    (つち) (tsuchi

    1. earth, dirt, mud, soil
    2. the ground
    3. the earth (as opposed to the heavens)
    4. the ground or bottom of something (as of a price range)

    ReferencesEdit

    1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    2. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan

    KoreanEdit

    EtymologyEdit

    From Middle Chinese (MC diɪH). Recorded as Middle Korean 디〮 (Yale: ti) in Hunmong Jahoe (訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회), 1527.

    HanjaEdit

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun (ttang ji))

    1. Hanja form? of (earth; land; ground).

    CompoundsEdit

    ReferencesEdit

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [2]

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    : Hán Việt readings: địa[1][2][3]
    : Nôm readings: địa[1][2][3][4], đĩa[1][2], gịa[1], đất[2], rịa[3]

    1. Hán tự form of địa (earth; ground; land).

    CompoundsEdit

    ReferencesEdit