ChineseEdit

hundred surname; family name; name
simp. and trad.
(百姓)
Literally: “hundred surnames”.

PronunciationEdit



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1 1/1
Initial () (1) (16)
Final () (113) (121)
Tone (調) Checked (Ø) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open Open
Division () II III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/pˠæk̚/ /siᴇŋH/
Pan
Wuyun
/pᵚak̚/ /siɛŋH/
Shao
Rongfen
/pak̚/ /siæŋH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/paɨjk̚/ /siajŋH/
Li
Rong
/pɐk̚/ /siɛŋH/
Wang
Li
/pɐk̚/ /sĭɛŋH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/pɐk̚/ /si̯ɛŋH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
bo xìng
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
bǎi xìng
Middle
Chinese
‹ pæk › ‹ sjengH ›
Old
Chinese
/*pˁrak/ /*seŋ-s/
English hundred surname

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1 1/1
No. 194 11359
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0 0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*praːɡ/ /*sleŋs/

(Can we verify(+) this pronunciation?)

NounEdit

百姓

  1. the common people; the masses; ordinary citizens
    愚昧百姓  ―  yúmèi bǎixìng  ―  to keep the common people in the dark
  2. (obsolete, Classical Chinese) all kinds of government officials

SynonymsEdit

  • (common people):
  • (all kinds of government officials):

Derived termsEdit

DescendantsEdit

Sino-Xenic (百姓):

JapaneseEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Kanji in this term
ひゃく
Grade: 1
しょう
Grade: S
goon

From Middle Chinese compound 百姓 (paek sjengH, literally hundred clans). Compare modern Hakka 百姓 (pak-siang).[1]

The goon reading, so likely an earlier borrowing.

First cited to the 続日本紀 (Shoku Nihongi) in a portion dated to 701 C.E..[1]

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

百姓(ひゃくしょう) (hyakushō (historical kana ひやくしやう)

  1. [from 701] (dated) commoners, the common people; the masses; ordinary citizens
  2. [from circa 1120] (derogatory) a farmer; a peasant; the peasantry in general
  3. [from 1759] in reference to the Edo period, short for 本百姓 (honbyakushō, the hundred commoner families, a class of farmers with specific rights and responsibilities)
  4. [1731] (derogatory) country bumpkin
SynonymsEdit
IdiomsEdit
Derived termsEdit

VerbEdit

百姓(ひゃくしょう)する (hyakushō surusuru (stem 百姓(ひゃくしょう) (hyakushō shi), past 百姓(ひゃくしょう)した (hyakushō shita), historical kana ひやくしやうする)

  1. [from 1906] to farm, to till the fields
ConjugationEdit

Etymology 2Edit

Kanji in this term
はく
Grade: 1
せい
Grade: S
kan’on

Kan'on reading of both characters, influenced by later borrowing from Middle Chinese.[1]

Cited to the mid-Muromachi period, roughly the 1400s.[1]

PronunciationEdit

  • IPA(key): [ha̠kɯ̟ᵝse̞ː]

NounEdit

百姓(はくせい) (hakusei

  1. [from the 1400s] (rare) See under Etymology 1

Etymology 3Edit

Kanji in this term
ひゃく
Grade: 1
せい
Grade: S
goon kan’on

Kan'on reading of the second character, influenced by later borrowing from Middle Chinese.[1]

First cited to a text from 1776.[1]

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

百姓(ひゃくせい) (hyakusei (historical kana ひやくせい)

  1. [1776] (rare) See under Etymology 1

Etymology 4Edit

Non-palatalized variant of hyakushō reading, commonly found in writings from the Heian period through the Muromachi period.[1]

First cited to the Utsubo Monogatari of roughly 999 C.E..[1]

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

百姓(ひゃくそう) (hyakusō (historical kana ひやくさう)

  1. [from 999] (obsolete) See under Etymology 1

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN
  3. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

KoreanEdit

Hanja in this term

NounEdit

百姓 (baekseong) (hangeul 백성)

  1. Hanja form? of 백성 (The populace; the common people).

VietnameseEdit

Hán tự in this term

NounEdit

百姓

  1. Hán tự form of bá tánh (the commoners; the common folk; the citizens).