U+5982, 如
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5982

[U+5981]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5983]

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 
Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 38, +3, 6 strokes, cangjie input 女口 (VR), four-corner 46400, composition)

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 255, character 21
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 6060
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 2, page 1025, character 9
  • Unihan data for U+5982

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.
alternative forms ⿰女⿶凵人 clerical script

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
       

Ideogrammic compound (會意) and phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *nja, *njas): phonetic (OC *naʔ, *nas, woman) + semantic (mouth) – a woman obeying an order.

Etymology 1Edit

Sino-Tibetan; compare Mru [script needed] (na, to be so), Mizo na nâ nâ (it being so; since) (Schuessler, 2007). Also compare Old Mon [script needed] (ñaṅ, resembling; like) (ibid.).

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • ṳ̌ - colloquial;
  • lǔ - literary.
  • Min Dong
  • Min Nan
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /ʐu³⁵/
    Harbin /lu²⁴/
    /ʐu²⁴/
    Tianjin /iu⁴⁵/
    /ʐu⁴⁵/
    Jinan /lu⁴²/
    Qingdao /y⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /ʐʉ⁴²/
    Xi'an /vu²⁴/
    Xining /v̩²⁴/
    Yinchuan /ʐu⁵³/
    Lanzhou /vu¹³/
    Ürümqi /ʐu²¹³/
    /vu²¹³/
    Wuhan /y²¹³/
    Chengdu /zu³¹/
    Guiyang /zu²¹/
    Kunming /ʐu³¹/
    Nanjing /ʐu²⁴/
    Hefei /ʐu⁵⁵/
    Jin Taiyuan /zu¹¹/
    Pingyao /zz̩ʷ¹³/
    Hohhot /ʐu³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /zz̩²³/
    Suzhou /zz̩ʷ¹³/
    Hangzhou /zz̩ʷ²¹³/
    Wenzhou /zz̩³¹/
    Hui Shexian /y⁴⁴/
    Tunxi /y⁴⁴/
    Xiang Changsha /y¹³/
    Xiangtan /y¹²/
    Gan Nanchang /ɵ⁴⁵/
    Hakka Meixian /i¹¹/
    Taoyuan
    Cantonese Guangzhou /jy²¹/
    Nanning /y²¹/
    Hong Kong /jy²¹/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /lu³⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /y⁵³/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /y²¹/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /zu⁵⁵/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /zu³¹/
    /zi³¹/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    Initial () (38) (38)
    Final () (22) (22)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Open Open
    Division () III III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ȵɨʌ/ /ȵɨʌH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ȵiɔ/ /ȵiɔH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ȵʑiɔ/ /ȵʑiɔH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ȵɨə̆/ /ȵɨə̆H/
    Li
    Rong
    /ȵiɔ/ /ȵiɔH/
    Wang
    Li
    /ȵʑĭo/ /ȵʑĭoH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ȵʑi̯wo/ /ȵʑi̯woH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    jyu4 jyu6
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ nyo ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*na/
    English as, like, if

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    No. 9623 9631
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0 0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*nja/ /*njas/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. to be like; as; as if; as though
    2. to comply with; to agree with; to fit
        ―    ―  accordingly; according to this
    3. such as; for example; for instance
        ―    ―  for instance
    4. (chiefly in the negative) to be as good as; to be comparable to
      自愧不用功成績也是理所當然 [MSC, trad.]
      自愧不用功成绩也是理所当然 [MSC, simp.]
      Wǒ zìkuì bù nǐ yònggōng, chéngjì bù nǐ yěshì lǐsuǒdāngrán. [Pinyin]
      I admit, regrettably, that I did not work as hard as you did. It's only proper that my grades were nowhere as good as yours.
    5. than; more than
      Synonym: ()
    6. if; supposing
      作者水平有限錯漏大家指正 [MSC, trad.]
      作者水平有限错漏大家指正 [MSC, simp.]
      Zuòzhě shuǐpíng yǒuxiàn, yǒu cuòlòu, wàng dàjiā zhǐzhèng. [Pinyin]
      The author's ability has its limits; feedback regarding errors and omissions is welcome.
    7. postposition indicating an appearance, a state, or a condition; having the characteristic of
      其來 / 其来  ―  qílái  ―  all of a sudden (literally, "it comes, like charging")
      空空  ―  kōngkōng  ―  empty
    8. A surname​.
    SynonymsEdit

    Etymology 2Edit

    May be related to (OC *hljaŋs, *hlaŋs, “to face; to turn towards”) (Schuessler, 2007).

    PronunciationEdit



    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /ʐu³⁵/
    Harbin /lu²⁴/
    /ʐu²⁴/
    Tianjin /iu⁴⁵/
    /ʐu⁴⁵/
    Jinan /lu⁴²/
    Qingdao /y⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /ʐʉ⁴²/
    Xi'an /vu²⁴/
    Xining /v̩²⁴/
    Yinchuan /ʐu⁵³/
    Lanzhou /vu¹³/
    Ürümqi /ʐu²¹³/
    /vu²¹³/
    Wuhan /y²¹³/
    Chengdu /zu³¹/
    Guiyang /zu²¹/
    Kunming /ʐu³¹/
    Nanjing /ʐu²⁴/
    Hefei /ʐu⁵⁵/
    Jin Taiyuan /zu¹¹/
    Pingyao /zz̩ʷ¹³/
    Hohhot /ʐu³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /zz̩²³/
    Suzhou /zz̩ʷ¹³/
    Hangzhou /zz̩ʷ²¹³/
    Wenzhou /zz̩³¹/
    Hui Shexian /y⁴⁴/
    Tunxi /y⁴⁴/
    Xiang Changsha /y¹³/
    Xiangtan /y¹²/
    Gan Nanchang /ɵ⁴⁵/
    Hakka Meixian /i¹¹/
    Taoyuan
    Cantonese Guangzhou /jy²¹/
    Nanning /y²¹/
    Hong Kong /jy²¹/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /lu³⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /y⁵³/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /y²¹/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /zu⁵⁵/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /zu³¹/
    /zi³¹/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Initial () (38)
    Final () (22)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ȵɨʌ/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ȵiɔ/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ȵʑiɔ/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ȵɨə̆/
    Li
    Rong
    /ȵiɔ/
    Wang
    Li
    /ȵʑĭo/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ȵʑi̯wo/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    jyu4
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ nyo ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*na/
    English go to

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    No. 9623
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*nja/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. to go to
      /   ―    ―  to go to the toilet

    CompoundsEdit

    ReferencesEdit


    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (common “Jōyō” kanji)

    1. likeness; such as; to seem; as if

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

    Kanji in this term
    にょ
    Grade: S
    goon

    From Middle Chinese (MC ȵɨʌ, “as if; as though”).

    PronunciationEdit

    Derived termsEdit

    Terms derived from (にょ) (nyo):

    Etymology 2Edit

    Kanji in this term
    じょ
    Grade: S
    kan’on

    PronunciationEdit

    Derived termsEdit

    Terms derived from (じょ) (jo):

    KoreanEdit

    HanjaEdit

    (eumhun 같을 (gateul yeo))

    1. Hanja form? of (to be like; as; as if; as though).

    CompoundsEdit


    Old KoreanEdit

    Glyph originEdit

    A semantically adopted phonogram, or 훈가자(訓假字) (hungaja), representing the syllable *ta by matching the sense of the Chinese character ("to be like") with an otherwise unattested Old Korean root ancestral to Middle Korean 답다 (ta-p-ta, to be like) and 닿다 (ta-h-ta, to be like).

    Etymology 1Edit

    First attested in the 신라촌락문서 / 新羅村落文書 (Silla village registers), 695 CE.

    Alternative formsEdit

    • , (possibly, logogramic forms attested in very early sources; may simply be misunderstandings of Chinese grammar)
    • (alternative phonogramic form found in some Silla sources)

    SuffixEdit

    (*-ta)

    1. The declarative mood sentence-final verbal suffix.
    Reconstruction notesEdit

    Conventionally reconstructed as *-ta after the Middle Korean reflex. There is no evidence in Old Korean of the Middle Korean [ta ~ ɾa] allomorphy; for more on this phenomenon, see Appendix:Koreanic reconstructions.

    DescendantsEdit
    • Middle Korean: 다〮 (-tá, declarative suffix)
      • Korean: (-da, id.)
    • Middle Korean: 라〮 (-lá, declarative suffix)
      • Korean: (-ra, id.)

    Etymology 2Edit

    SuffixEdit

    (*-ta)

    1. The imperfective aspect verb-internal suffix.
    Reconstruction notesEdit

    Sometimes reconstructed as *-te to match the Middle Korean form, but it is probably more prudent to take the Old Korean orthography at face value and reconstruct *-ta (Park 2018, p. 68). As with the declarative suffix, there is no evidence in Old Korean of the Middle Korean [tə ~ ɾə] allomorphy.

    DescendantsEdit
    • Middle Korean: 더〮 (-té, imperfective aspect marker)
      • Korean: (-deo, retrospective marker)

    ReferencesEdit

    • 박부자 (Park Bu-ja) (2018), “시상형태 {더}의 쟁점과 전망 [Points of discussion and prospective developments in the study of the tense/aspect-marking -te-]”, in Gugeosa yeon-gu, volume 27, pages 53—79
    • 이병기 (Yi Byeong-gi) (2019), “고대국어 종결어미 연구의 현황과 과제 [The current situation and future tasks in the study of Old Korean sentence enders]”, in Gugyeol yeon-gu, volume 43, pages 5—53

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    : Hán Việt readings: như ((nhân)(chư)(thiết))[1][2][3][4][5]
    : Nôm readings: nhơ[1][2][3][6], như[1][2][4][7], nhờ[1][2], nha[1], nhừ[3], dừ[3], rừ[3]

    1. Hán tự form of như (to be like; as if; as though).

    CompoundsEdit

    ReferencesEdit