See also: and

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Han characterEdit

(radical 140 +7, 13 strokes, cangjie input 廿人一木 (TOMD), four-corner 44904, composition)

  1. bitter vegetable
  2. thistle
  3. common sowthistle (Sonchus oleraceus)
  4. bitter (taste)
  5. cruel
  6. flowering grass in profusion

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 1032, character 21
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 31008
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1492, character 8
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 5, page 3221, character 11
  • Unihan data for U+837C

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.

PronunciationEdit


Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (), Pronunciation 1/3

Initial: (7)
Final:
Division: I

Openness: Open
Tone: Level (Ø)

Fanqie:
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/duo/ /dʱuo/ /do/ /duo/ /dɔ/ /du/ /do/
Character (), Pronunciation 2/3

Initial: (27)
Final:
Division: III

Openness: Open
Tone: Level (Ø)

Fanqie:
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/ʑia/ /d͡ʑʰi̯a/ /d͡ʑia/ /ʑia/ /ʑia/ /d͡ʑĭa/ /ʑia/
Character (), Pronunciation 3/3

Initial: (11)
Final:
Division: II

Openness: Open
Tone: Level (Ø)

Fanqie:
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/ɖɣa/ /ȡʱa/ /ȡa/ /ɖɯa/ /ɖaɨ/ /ȡa/ /ȡa/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
chá ‹ dræ › /*lˤra/ (name of a plant)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
15748 0 𡨀 /*rlaː/
15761 0 /*ɦlja/
15776 0 /*l'aː/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. (archaic) Sonchus oleraceus
  2. (archaic) Ixeris chinensis
  3. (archaic) Ixeris denticulata

Usage notesEdit

  • can refer to one of several types of bitter tasting vegetables. Early Chinese texts are rather vague in their description. This makes it difficult to determine which species it originally referred to.

ReferencesEdit

  • “國語辭典”, in (Please provide the title of the work)[1] (in Chinese), accessed 2007
  • “苦菜”, in (Please provide the title of the work)[2] (in Mandarin), Baidu.com, accessed 2007
  • “Ixeris chinensis”, in (Please provide the title of the work)[3] (in English), accessed 2007

JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(uncommon “Hyōgai” kanji)

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ReadingsEdit


VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

(đồ, dưa, giưa)

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