See also: , , , and
U+4F59, 余
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4F59

[U+4F58]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+4F5A]

Translingual

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Japanese 余 余 余
Simplified 余 余
Traditional
Stroke order
 

Han character

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(Kangxi radical 9, +5, 7 strokes, cangjie input 人一木 (OMD), four-corner 80904, composition )

Derived characters

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References

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  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 99, character 2
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 515
  • Dae Jaweon: page 208, character 9
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 128, character 4
  • Unihan data for U+4F59

Usage notes

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  • This character is not to be confused with visually similar but unrelated .
  • Note that is also the simplified form of in mainland China and Japan. However, in traditional Chinese, and are two distinct characters.

Chinese

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Glyph origin

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Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Spring and Autumn Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Chu slip and silk script Qin slip script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
               



References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).

Pictogram (象形) – thatched cottage; house. Original form of (OC *hljaːʔ, *hljaːs, “house”).

Etymology 1

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For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“to remain; to have left; time after an event; etc.”).
(This character is the simplified form of ).
Notes:

Etymology 2

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simp. and trad.
alternative forms 𠎳
“I; me”
Related to (OC *la, “I”), (OC *lɯ, “I”) and (OC *l'ɯmʔ, “my; I”), forming the *l- series of first-person Old Chinese personal pronouns. This series is commonly used by Shang Dynasty kings to refer to themselves.
In contrast, Old Chinese also had the *ŋ- series of first-person pronouns, represented by (OC *ŋaːlʔ, “I”) and (OC *ŋraː, *ŋaː, “I”), which became more widely used over time.
Further etymology is obscure (Schuessler, 2007).

Pronunciation

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Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2
Initial () (36)
Final () (22)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Baxter yo
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/jɨʌ/
Pan
Wuyun
/jiɔ/
Shao
Rongfen
/iɔ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/jɨə̆/
Li
Rong
/iɔ/
Wang
Li
/jĭo/
Bernard
Karlgren
/i̯wo/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
jyu4
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ yo ›
Old
Chinese
/*la/
English 1sg., prob. a polite form

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 15798
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*la/
Notes

Definitions

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  1. (literary) I; me
  2. (obsolete) the fourth month of the Chinese calendar
  3. a surname: Yu
      ―  Huá  ―  Yu Hua (Chinese author)
Synonyms
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  • (I):

Compounds

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Etymology 3

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For pronunciation and definitions of – see .
(This character is a variant form of ).

Etymology 4

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Pronunciation

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Definitions

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  1. Only used in 接余 and 檮余 (Chóutú).

Etymology 5

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Pronunciation

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Definitions

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  1. Only used in 余吾.

Etymology 6

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Pronunciation

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Definitions

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  1. Only used in 褒余.

Etymology 7

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For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“big elephant”).
(This character is a variant form of ).

Japanese

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Kanji

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(grade 5 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. a personal pronoun

Readings

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Kanji

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Shinjitai

Kyūjitai

Glyph origin

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Simplified from (elimination of 𩙿).

(grade 5 “Kyōiku” kanjishinjitai kanji, kyūjitai form )

  1. over, too much
  2. extraneous, remainder

Readings

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Compounds

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Etymology 1

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Kanji in this term

Grade: 5
on’yomi
Alternative spelling
(kyūjitai)

From Middle Chinese (MC yo).

Pronunciation

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Noun

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() (yo

  1. over, more than, a little more than, plus, upwards of
    Synonyms: 余り (amari), 有余 (yūyo), 以上 (ijō)
    • 1950, 坂口安吾, 肝臓先生[1], 青空文庫:
      遠洋(えんよう)(りょう)にでると、(いっ)(げつ)、マグロなら()(げつ)()も、(うみ)(うえ)(くら)すのである。
      En'yō e ryō ni deru to, ikkagetsu, maguro nara nikagetsu no yo mo, umi no ue de kurasu no de aru.
      When they go out to the open sea to fish, they live on the sea for one month, more than two months if fishing for tuna.
  2. other
    Synonyms: (hoka), (ta)
  3. remainder
    Synonyms: 余り (amari), 残り (nokori), 残余 (zan'yo), 余分 (yobun)

Suffix

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() (-yo

  1. over, more than, a little more than, plus, upwards of
    Synonyms: 余り (amari), 有余 (yūyo), 以上 (ijō)
    二十(にじゅう)()(ねん)
    nijū-yonen
    over twenty years
    • 1889, 福澤諭吉, 福翁自伝[2], 青空文庫:
      その時私(ときわたし)鉄砲洲(てっぽうず)(すまっ)()て、鉄砲洲(てっぽうず)から小石川(こいしかわ)まで(やが)二里(にり)()もありましょう
      sono toki watashi wa Teppōzu ni sumatte ite, Teppōzu kara Koishikawa made yagate niri-yo mo arimashō
      I was living in Teppōzu then, and there is likely around two plus ri from Teppōzu to Koishikawa
    • 1926, 南部修太郎, 寫眞と思ひ出 ――私の写真修行――[3], 青空文庫:
      しかし、いろ/\(あは)せて、もう(せん)()(まい)(かぞ)へる印畫(いんぐわ)のアルバムを時折繰眺(ときをりくりなが)めるのは、(たのし)愉快(ゆくわい)である。
      Shikashi, iroiro awasete, mō sen-yomai o kazoeru inga no arubamu o tokiori kuri nagameru no wa, tanoshiku yukai de aru.
      However, it is fun and delightful to flip through and gaze at my album of prints from time to time, which now number more than one thousand altogether.

Etymology 2

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Kanji in this term

Grade: 5
on’yomi
Alternative spelling

From Middle Chinese (MC yo).

Pronunciation

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Pronoun

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() (yo

  1. I, me (first-person pronoun)
    • 1909, Isikawa Takuboku, Romazi Nikki
      Yo wa Sai wo aisiteru; aisiteru kara koso kono Nikki wo yomase taku nai no da.
      I love my Wife; it is precisely because I love her that I do not want her to read this Diary.

Korean

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Etymology

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(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium. Particularly: “Middle Korean readings, if any”)

Pronunciation

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Hanja

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Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eum (yeo))

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Vietnamese

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Han character

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: Hán Nôm readings: , dờ

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

References

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