U+98DF, 食
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-98DF

[U+98DE]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+98E0]
See also: , , and

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 
Stroke order
 

Alternative formsEdit

  • (when used as a left Chinese radical) 𩙿

Han characterEdit

(radical 184 +0, 9 strokes, cangjie input 人戈日女 (OIAV), four-corner 80732, composition)

  1. Kangxi radical #184, (eat).

Derived termsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 1415, character 29
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 44014
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1939, character 10
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 7, page 4440, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+98DF

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.
alt. forms 𠊊

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Large seal script Small seal script
       
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*ljɯɡs
*lɯɡs, *ɦljɯɡ
*ɦljɯɡ
*hljɯɡ
*l̥ʰɯɡ

Pictogram (象形): a mouth over a bowl of rice on a stand. While the current form is +, the lower part (bowl of rice on a stand) is cognate to , not to or . This is more visible in the form 𠊊.

Shuowen: Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *lɯɡs, *ɦljɯɡ): phonetic (OC *zub) + semantic ; see 𠊊.

Etymology 1Edit

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *m/s/g-ljak.

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • siăh*siĕh - colloquial;
  • sĭk - literary.
Note:
  • chia̍h, chiā - vernacular;
  • si̍t - vernacular (Xiamen, Zhangzhou), literary (Quanzhou, Taiwan);
  • se̍k - literary.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /ʂʐ̩³⁵/
Harbin /ʂʐ̩²⁴/
Tianjin /ʂʐ̩⁴⁵/
Jinan /ʂʐ̩⁴²/
Qingdao /ʃz̩⁴²/
Zhengzhou /ʂʐ̩⁴²/
Xi'an /ʂʐ̩²⁴/
Xining /ʂʐ̩²⁴/
Yinchuan /ʂʐ̩¹³/
Lanzhou /ʂʐ̩⁵³/
Ürümqi /ʂʐ̩⁵¹/
Wuhan /sz̩²¹³/
Chengdu /sz̩³¹/
Guiyang /sz̩²¹/
Kunming /ʂʐ̩³¹/
Nanjing /ʂʐ̩ʔ⁵/
Hefei /ʂəʔ⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /səʔ⁵⁴/
Pingyao /ʂʌʔ⁵³/
Hohhot /səʔ⁴³/
Wu Shanghai /zəʔ¹/
Suzhou /zəʔ³/
Hangzhou /zəʔ²/
Wenzhou /zei²¹³/
Hui Shexian /ɕi²²/
Tunxi /ɕi¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /ʂʐ̩²⁴/
Xiangtan /ʂʐ̩²⁴/
Gan Nanchang /sɨʔ²/
Hakka Meixian /sət̚⁵/
Taoyuan /ʃït̚⁵⁵/
Cantonese Guangzhou /sek̚²/
Nanning /sek̚²²/
Hong Kong /sik̚²/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /sik̚⁵/
/t͡siaʔ⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /siʔ⁵/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /si⁴⁴/
Shantou (Min Nan) /t͡siaʔ⁵/
Haikou (Min Nan) /sek̚⁵/
/t͡sia³³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 2/2
Initial () (27)
Final () (134)
Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ʑɨk̚/
Pan
Wuyun
/ʑɨk̚/
Shao
Rongfen
/ʑiek̚/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ʑik̚/
Li
Rong
/d͡ʑiək̚/
Wang
Li
/d͡ʑĭək̚/
Bernard
Karlgren
/d͡ʑʰi̯ək̚/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
shí
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
shí
Middle
Chinese
‹ zyik ›
Old
Chinese
/*mə-lək/
English eat

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 2/2
No. 11477
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ɦljɯɡ/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. (Cantonese, Hakka, Min) to eat; to have a meal; to take in
    [Cantonese, trad.]
    [Cantonese, simp.]
    Nei5 sik6 zo2 faan6 mei6 aa3? [Jyutping]
    Have you eaten yet?
  2. (Hakka, Min) to drink
    [Teochew]  ―  ziah85 [Peng'im]  ―  to drink tea
  3. (Cantonese, Hakka, Min) to smoke
    / [Cantonese]  ―  sik6 jin1 [Jyutping]  ―  to smoke
  4. (Cantonese, chess, etc.) to capture
  5. meal; food
  6. edible
  7. Alternative form of (shí, “to eat away; to erode”).
  8. Alternative form of (shí, “eclipse (of the Sun or Moon)”).
Usage notesEdit
  • Cantonese, Hakka, and Min regularly uses to mean “to eat”, whereas Mandarin uses (chī).
  • Mandarin uses () for “to smoke”.
SynonymsEdit
Dialectal synonyms of (“to eat”)
Variety Location Words
Classical Chinese
Formal (Written Standard Chinese)
Mandarin Beijing
Taiwan
Jinan
Xi'an
Wuhan
Chengdu
Yangzhou
Hefei
Cantonese Guangzhou
Hong Kong
Taishan
Yangjiang
Gan Nanchang
Hakka Meixian
Miaoli (N. Sixian)
Liudui (S. Sixian)
Hsinchu (Hailu)
Dongshi (Dabu)
Zhuolan (Raoping)
Yunlin (Zhao'an)
Jin Taiyuan
Min Bei Jian'ou
Min Dong Fuzhou
Min Nan Xiamen
Taipei
Chaozhou
Wu Shanghai
Suzhou
Wenzhou
Xiang Changsha
Shuangfeng
Dialectal synonyms of (“to drink”)
Variety Location Words
Classical Chinese
Formal (Written Standard Chinese)
Mandarin Beijing
Taiwan
Jinan
Xi'an
Wuhan
Chengdu
Yangzhou
Hefei
Cantonese Guangzhou
Hong Kong
Taishan
Yangjiang
Gan Nanchang
Hakka Meixian
Miaoli (N. Sixian)
Liudui (S. Sixian)
Hsinchu (Hailu)
Dongshi (Dabu)
Zhuolan (Raoping)
Yunlin (Zhao'an)
Jin Taiyuan
Min Bei Jian'ou
Min Dong Fuzhou
Min Nan Xiamen
Quanzhou
Zhangzhou
Taipei
Kaohsiung
Tainan
Taichung
Yilan
Lukang
Sanxia
Kinmen
Magong
Hsinchu
Malaysia
Chaozhou
Wu Suzhou
Wenzhou
Xiang Changsha
Shuangfeng

CompoundsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

The *s- causative of Etymology 1. See for more.

PronunciationEdit


Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 2/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ ziH ›
Old
Chinese
/*s-m-lək-s/
English feed (v.)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.

DefinitionsEdit

  1. Alternative form of (, “to feed; to make ... eat or cause ... to eat”).

Etymology 3Edit

PronunciationEdit


Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2
Initial () (36)
Final () (19)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/jɨH/
Pan
Wuyun
/jɨH/
Shao
Rongfen
/ieH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/jɨH/
Li
Rong
/iəH/
Wang
Li
/jĭəH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/iH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2
No. 11476
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*lɯɡs/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. Only used in names.
    /   ―    ―  Li Yiji (an advisor to Liu Bang)

JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. to eat
  2. a meal

ReadingsEdit

CompoundsEdit

Usage notesEdit

This character has a simplified form of when used to compose larger characters, as seen in . This character is not simplified when used as itself. It can also appear in an alternative form as in .

Etymology 1Edit

Unbound apophonic form uke.

NounEdit

‎(hiragana うか, romaji uka)

  1. food
  2. grain

Etymology 2Edit

uka + i → uke2 → uke. Bound apophonic form (uka).

NounEdit

‎(hiragana うけ, romaji uke)

  1. food

Etymology 3Edit

Cognate with (ke).

NounEdit

‎(hiragana , romaji ke)

  1. food

NounEdit

‎(hiragana , romaji shi)

  1. food

NounEdit

‎(hiragana しょく, romaji shoku)

  1. a meal
  2. foodstuff
  3. an eclipse

KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

‎(sik)
Eumhun:

  • Sound (hangeul):  (revised: sik, McCune-Reischauer: sik, Yale: sik)
  • Name (hangeul): ()
  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

(thực, tự)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.