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TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 
Stroke order
 

Alternative formsEdit

  • (U+2FB7) (Kangxi radical)
  • (when used as a left Chinese radical) 𩙿

Han characterEdit

(radical 184, +0, 9 strokes, cangjie input 人戈日女 (OIAV), four-corner 80732, composition)

  1. Kangxi radical #184, .

Derived termsEdit

Further readingEdit

  • KangXi: page 1415, character 29
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 44014
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1939, character 10
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 7, page 4440, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+98DF

ChineseEdit

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Spring and Autumn Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Qin slip script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
               
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*ljɯɡs
*lɯɡs, *ɦljɯɡ
*ɦljɯɡ
*hljɯɡ
*l̥ʰɯɡ

Pictogram (象形): a mouth over a bowl of rice on a stand. While the current form is +, the lower part (bowl of rice on a stand) is cognate to , not to or . This is more visible in the form 𠊊.

Shuowen: Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *lɯɡs, *ɦljɯɡ): phonetic  (OC *zub) + semantic ; see 𠊊.

Etymology 1Edit

simp. and trad.
variant forms 𠊊

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *m/s/g-ljak.

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • sĭk - literary;
  • siĕk - vernacular.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • si̍t - vernacular (Xiamen, Zhangzhou), literary (Quanzhou, Taiwan);
    • se̍k - literary.
  • Wu

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /ʂʐ̩³⁵/
    Harbin /ʂʐ̩²⁴/
    Tianjin /ʂʐ̩⁴⁵/
    Jinan /ʂʐ̩⁴²/
    Qingdao /ʃz̩⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /ʂʐ̩⁴²/
    Xi'an /ʂʐ̩²⁴/
    Xining /ʂʐ̩²⁴/
    Yinchuan /ʂʐ̩¹³/
    Lanzhou /ʂʐ̩⁵³/
    Ürümqi /ʂʐ̩⁵¹/
    Wuhan /sz̩²¹³/
    Chengdu /sz̩³¹/
    Guiyang /sz̩²¹/
    Kunming /ʂʐ̩³¹/
    Nanjing /ʂʐ̩ʔ⁵/
    Hefei /ʂəʔ⁵/
    Jin Taiyuan /səʔ⁵⁴/
    Pingyao /ʂʌʔ⁵³/
    Hohhot /səʔ⁴³/
    Wu Shanghai /zəʔ¹/
    Suzhou /zəʔ³/
    Hangzhou /zəʔ²/
    Wenzhou /zei²¹³/
    Hui Shexian /ɕi²²/
    Tunxi /ɕi¹¹/
    Xiang Changsha /ʂʐ̩²⁴/
    Xiangtan /ʂʐ̩²⁴/
    Gan Nanchang /sɨʔ²/
    Hakka Meixian /sət̚⁵/
    Taoyuan /ʃït̚⁵⁵/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /sek̚²/
    Nanning /sek̚²²/
    Hong Kong /sik̚²/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /sik̚⁵/
    /t͡siaʔ⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /siʔ⁵/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /si⁴⁴/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /t͡siaʔ⁵/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /sek̚⁵/
    /t͡sia³³/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Initial () (27)
    Final () (134)
    Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ʑɨk̚/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ʑɨk̚/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ʑiek̚/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ʑik̚/
    Li
    Rong
    /d͡ʑiək̚/
    Wang
    Li
    /d͡ʑĭək̚/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /d͡ʑʰi̯ək̚/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    shí
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    shí
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ zyik ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*mə-lək/
    English eat

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    No. 11477
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ɦljɯɡ/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. (Cantonese, Hakka) to eat; to have a meal; to take in
      [Cantonese, trad.]
      [Cantonese, simp.]
      Nei5 sik6 zo2 faan6 mei6 aa3? [Jyutping]
      Have you eaten yet?
    2. (Hakka) to drink
    3. (Cantonese, Hakka) to smoke
      / [Cantonese]  ―  sik6 jin1 [Jyutping]  ―  to smoke
    4. (Cantonese, chess, etc.) to capture
    5. meal; food
    6. edible
    7. Alternative form of (shí, “to eat away; to erode”).
    8. Alternative form of (shí, “eclipse (of the Sun or Moon)”).
    Usage notesEdit
    • Cantonese and Hakka regularly use to mean “to eat”, whereas Mandarin uses (chī).
    • Mandarin uses () for “to smoke”.
    SynonymsEdit
    Dialectal synonyms of (“to eat”) [map]
    Variety Location Words
    Classical Chinese
    Formal (Written Standard Chinese)
    Mandarin Beijing
    Taiwan
    Jinan
    Xi'an
    Wuhan
    Chengdu
    Yangzhou
    Hefei
    Cantonese Guangzhou
    Hong Kong
    Hong Kong (San Tin Weitou)
    Hong Kong (Kam Tin Weitou)
    Hong Kong (Ting Kok)
    Hong Kong (Tung Ping Chau)
    Macau
    Panyu
    Huadu (Huashan)
    Conghua
    Zengcheng
    Foshan
    Nanhai (Shatou)
    Shunde
    Sanshui
    Gaoming (Mingcheng)
    Zhongshan (Shiqi)
    Zhuhai (Qianshan)
    Doumen (Shangheng Tanka)
    Doumen
    Jiangmen (Baisha)
    Xinhui
    Taishan
    Kaiping (Chikan)
    Enping (Niujiang)
    Heshan (Yayao)
    Dongguan
    Bao'an (Shajing)
    Dapeng
    Shaoguan
    Yunfu
    Yangjiang
    Xinyi
    Lianjiang
    Nanning
    Yulin
    Kuala Lumpur
    Ho Chi Minh City
    Gan Nanchang
    Hakka Meixian
    Miaoli (N. Sixian)
    Liudui (S. Sixian)
    Hsinchu (Hailu)
    Dongshi (Dabu)
    Hsinchu (Raoping)
    Yunlin (Zhao'an)
    Hong Kong
    Senai
    Huizhou Jixi
    Jin Taiyuan
    Min Bei Jian'ou
    Min Dong Fuzhou
    Min Nan Xiamen , childish
    Quanzhou
    Zhangzhou , childish
    Taipei
    Kaohsiung
    Tainan
    Taichung
    Hsinchu
    Lukang
    Sanxia
    Yilan
    Kinmen
    Magong
    Penang
    Singapore
    Philippines (Manila)
    Chaozhou
    Thailand (Bangkok)
    Johor Bahru
    Wu Shanghai
    Suzhou
    Wenzhou
    Xiang Changsha
    Shuangfeng
    Dialectal synonyms of (“to drink”) [map]
    Variety Location Words
    Classical Chinese
    Formal (Written Standard Chinese)
    Mandarin Beijing
    Taiwan
    Jinan
    Xi'an
    Wuhan , ,
    Chengdu ,
    Yangzhou ,
    Hefei
    Cantonese Guangzhou ,
    Hong Kong ,
    Taishan
    Yangjiang ,
    Gan Nanchang
    Hakka Meixian ,
    Miaoli (N. Sixian) , ,
    Liudui (S. Sixian) , ,
    Hsinchu (Hailu) , ,
    Dongshi (Dabu) , ,
    Hsinchu (Raoping) , ,
    Yunlin (Zhao'an) ,
    Jin Taiyuan
    Min Bei Jian'ou ,
    Min Dong Fuzhou
    Min Nan Xiamen , ,
    Quanzhou , ,
    Zhangzhou ,
    Taipei
    Kaohsiung
    Tainan , , ,
    Taichung
    Hsinchu ,
    Lukang
    Sanxia
    Yilan , ,
    Kinmen
    Magong ,
    Penang
    Singapore
    Philippines (Manila)
    Chaozhou ,
    Wu Shanghai ,
    Suzhou , ,
    Wenzhou ,
    Xiang Changsha
    Shuangfeng ,

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 2Edit

    simp. and trad.
    variant forms 𠊊

    The *s- causative of Etymology 1.

    PronunciationEdit



    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ ziH ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*s-m-lək-s/
    English feed (v.)

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. Original form of (, “to feed; to make ... eat or cause ... to eat”).

    Etymology 3Edit

    simp. and trad.
    variant forms

    Kwok (2018) reconstructs Proto-Southern Min *tsiaʔ⁸ and tentatively reconstructs Proto-Min *dziak (in Norman's system).

    While often considered as the vernacular counterpart to etymology 1, it is unlikely to be related to etymology 1 (Norman, 1991; Klöter, 2005; Fuehrer and Yang, 2014). Schuessler (2007) suggests it derives from (OC *zewɢ, “to chew”) (probably based on Norman's unpublished manuscripts).

    PronunciationEdit



    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /ʂʐ̩³⁵/
    Harbin /ʂʐ̩²⁴/
    Tianjin /ʂʐ̩⁴⁵/
    Jinan /ʂʐ̩⁴²/
    Qingdao /ʃz̩⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /ʂʐ̩⁴²/
    Xi'an /ʂʐ̩²⁴/
    Xining /ʂʐ̩²⁴/
    Yinchuan /ʂʐ̩¹³/
    Lanzhou /ʂʐ̩⁵³/
    Ürümqi /ʂʐ̩⁵¹/
    Wuhan /sz̩²¹³/
    Chengdu /sz̩³¹/
    Guiyang /sz̩²¹/
    Kunming /ʂʐ̩³¹/
    Nanjing /ʂʐ̩ʔ⁵/
    Hefei /ʂəʔ⁵/
    Jin Taiyuan /səʔ⁵⁴/
    Pingyao /ʂʌʔ⁵³/
    Hohhot /səʔ⁴³/
    Wu Shanghai /zəʔ¹/
    Suzhou /zəʔ³/
    Hangzhou /zəʔ²/
    Wenzhou /zei²¹³/
    Hui Shexian /ɕi²²/
    Tunxi /ɕi¹¹/
    Xiang Changsha /ʂʐ̩²⁴/
    Xiangtan /ʂʐ̩²⁴/
    Gan Nanchang /sɨʔ²/
    Hakka Meixian /sət̚⁵/
    Taoyuan /ʃït̚⁵⁵/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /sek̚²/
    Nanning /sek̚²²/
    Hong Kong /sik̚²/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /sik̚⁵/
    /t͡siaʔ⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /siʔ⁵/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /si⁴⁴/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /t͡siaʔ⁵/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /sek̚⁵/
    /t͡sia³³/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. (Coastal Min) to eat; to have a meal
      / [Min Nan]  ―  chia̍h-pn̄g [Pe̍h-ōe-jī]  ―  to eat rice; to have a meal
      / [Min Nan]  ―  chia̍h pá bōe? [Pe̍h-ōe-jī]  ―  Have you eaten yet?
    2. (Coastal Min) to drink
      [Teochew]  ―  ziah85 [Peng'im]  ―  to drink tea
      燒酒 / 烧酒 [Min Nan]  ―  chia̍h sio-chiú [Pe̍h-ōe-jī]  ―  to drink rice wine
    3. (Coastal Min) to take in; to inhale
      [Min Nan]  ―  chia̍h-hun [Pe̍h-ōe-jī]  ―  to inhale smoke; to smoke

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 4Edit

    simp. and trad.
    variant forms

    From Proto-Min *jiap or *jiat (to eat). While sometimes considered as the vernacular counterpart to etymology 1, it may be from (OC *ɢrab, “to carry food to workers in the field”) (Norman, 1991; Schuessler, 2007).

    PronunciationEdit


    DefinitionsEdit

    1. (Inland Min) to eat

    Etymology 5Edit

    simp. and trad.

    PronunciationEdit


    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Initial () (36)
    Final () (19)
    Tone (調) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /jɨH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /jɨH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ieH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /jɨH/
    Li
    Rong
    /iəH/
    Wang
    Li
    /jĭəH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /iH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    No. 11476
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*lɯɡs/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. Only used in names.
      /   ―    ―  Li Yiji (an advisor to Liu Bang)

    Further readingEdit


    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. to eat
    2. a meal

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

    Kanji in this term
    うか
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    Unbound apophonic form (uke).

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana うか, rōmaji uka)

    1. food
    2. grain

    Etymology 2Edit

    Kanji in this term
    うけ
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    uka + i → uke2 → uke. Bound apophonic form (uka).

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana うけ, rōmaji uke)

    1. food

    Etymology 3Edit

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    Cognate with (ke).

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana , rōmaji ke)

    1. food
       () () (くに)
      mi ke tsu kuni
      the land of foods

    Etymology 4Edit

    Kanji in this term
    しょく
    Grade: 2
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese (MC ʑɨk̚).

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana しょく, rōmaji shoku)

    1. a meal
    2. foodstuff
    3. an eclipse
    Derived termsEdit

    KoreanEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

    From Middle Chinese (MC ʑɨk̚). Attested in 훈몽자회/訓蒙字會 as Middle Korean 식〯 (sik).

    HanjaEdit

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun (bap sik))
    (eumhun 먹을 (meogeul sik))

    1. Hanja form? of (meal; food).
    2. (literary) Hanja form? of (to eat).
    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 2Edit

    HanjaEdit

    (eumhun 먹이 (meogi sa))

    1. Hanja form? of (feed).
    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 3Edit

    From Middle Chinese (MCH).

    HanjaEdit

    (eumhun 사람 이름 (saram ireum i))

    1. Hanja form? of (used in personal names).

    ReferencesEdit

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [1]

    KunigamiEdit

    KanjiEdit


    MiyakoEdit

    KanjiEdit


    OkinawanEdit

    KanjiEdit


    VietnameseEdit

    YaeyamaEdit

    KanjiEdit


    YonaguniEdit

    KanjiEdit