See also: , , and
U+98DF, 食
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-98DF

[U+98DE]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+98E0]
U+2FB7, ⾷
KANGXI RADICAL EAT

[U+2FB6]
Kangxi Radicals
[U+2FB8]
U+2EDD, ⻝
CJK RADICAL EAT ONE

[U+2EDC]
CJK Radicals Supplement
[U+2EDE]

Translingual

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Stroke order
 
Stroke order
 

Alternative forms

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  • (when used as a left Chinese radical) 𩙿

Han character

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(Kangxi radical 184, +0, 9 strokes, cangjie input 人戈日女 (OIAV), four-corner 80732, composition )

  1. Kangxi radical #184, .

Derived terms

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Further reading

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  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 1415, character 29
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 44014
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1939, character 10
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 7, page 4440, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+98DF

Chinese

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Glyph origin

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Pictogram (象形) : a mouth over a bowl of rice on a stand. While the current form is +, the lower part (bowl of rice on a stand) is cognate to , not to or . This is more visible in the form 𠊊.

Shuowen: Phono-semantic compound (形聲形声, OC *lɯɡs, *ɦljɯɡ) : phonetic (OC *zub) + semantic ; see 𠊊.

Etymology 1

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trad.
simp. #
alternative forms

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *m/s/g-ljak.

Pronunciation

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Note:
  • sĭk - literary;
  • siĕk - vernacular.
Note:
  • si̍t - vernacular (Xiamen, Zhangzhou), literary (Quanzhou, Jinjiang, Taiwan);
  • se̍k - literary.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /ʂʐ̩³⁵/
Harbin /ʂʐ̩²⁴/
Tianjin /ʂʐ̩⁴⁵/
Jinan /ʂʐ̩⁴²/
Qingdao /ʃz̩⁴²/
Zhengzhou /ʂʐ̩⁴²/
Xi'an /ʂʐ̩²⁴/
Xining /ʂʐ̩²⁴/
Yinchuan /ʂʐ̩¹³/
Lanzhou /ʂʐ̩⁵³/
Ürümqi /ʂʐ̩⁵¹/
Wuhan /sz̩²¹³/
Chengdu /sz̩³¹/
Guiyang /sz̩²¹/
Kunming /ʂʐ̩³¹/
Nanjing /ʂʐ̩ʔ⁵/
Hefei /ʂəʔ⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /səʔ⁵⁴/
Pingyao /ʂʌʔ⁵³/
Hohhot /səʔ⁴³/
Wu Shanghai /zəʔ¹/
Suzhou /zəʔ³/
Hangzhou /zəʔ²/
Wenzhou /zei²¹³/
Hui Shexian /ɕi²²/
Tunxi /ɕi¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /ʂʐ̩²⁴/
Xiangtan /ʂʐ̩²⁴/
Gan Nanchang /sɨʔ²/
Hakka Meixian /sət̚⁵/
Taoyuan /ʃït̚⁵⁵/
Cantonese Guangzhou /sek̚²/
Nanning /sek̚²²/
Hong Kong /sik̚²/
Min Xiamen (Hokkien) /sik̚⁵/
/t͡siaʔ⁵/
Fuzhou (Eastern Min) /siʔ⁵/
Jian'ou (Northern Min) /si⁴⁴/
Shantou (Teochew) /t͡siaʔ⁵/
Haikou (Hainanese) /sek̚⁵/
/t͡sia³³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 2/2
Initial () (27)
Final () (134)
Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Baxter zyik
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ʑɨk̚/
Pan
Wuyun
/ʑɨk̚/
Shao
Rongfen
/ʑiek̚/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ʑik̚/
Li
Rong
/d͡ʑiək̚/
Wang
Li
/d͡ʑĭək̚/
Bernard
Karlgren
/d͡ʑʰi̯ək̚/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
shí
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
sik6
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
shí
Middle
Chinese
‹ zyik ›
Old
Chinese
/*mə-lək/
English eat

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 2/2
No. 11477
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ɦljɯɡ/

Definitions

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  1. (literary or Cantonese, Hakka) to eat; to have a meal; to take in
    [Cantonese, trad.]
    [Cantonese, simp.]
    nei5 sik6 zo2 faan6 mei6 aa3? [Jyutping]
    Have you eaten yet?
    中國人筷子 [Cantonese, trad.]
    中国人筷子 [Cantonese, simp.]
    zung1 gwok3 jan4 hai6 zaa1 faai3 zi2 sik6 faan6 ge3. [Jyutping]
    Chinese people use chopsticks to eat with.
    星期日朋友一齊晚飯 [Cantonese, trad.]
    星期日朋友一齐晚饭 [Cantonese, simp.]
    soeng6 sing1 kei4 jat6 ngo5 tung4 di1 pang4 jau5 jat1 cai4 sik6 maan5 faan6. [Jyutping]
    Last Sunday, I ate dinner together with my friends.
  2. (dialectal Cantonese, Hakka) to drink
  3. (Cantonese, Hakka) to take in; to inhale; to smoke
    [Cantonese]  ―  sik6 jin1 [Jyutping]  ―  to smoke
    大麻 [Cantonese]  ―  sik6 daai6 maa4 [Jyutping]  ―  to smoke marijuana
  4. (Cantonese) to consume; to use up
    [Cantonese]  ―  sik6 din6 [Jyutping]  ―  to drain battery
  5. (Cantonese, figurative) to extract; to extort; to absorb; to swallow
    [Hong Kong Cantonese]  ―  sik6 cin4-2 [Jyutping]  ―  to swallow banknotes
  6. (Cantonese) to absorb; to get into; to enter; to be stuck inside
  7. (Cantonese, Hakka, board games) to capture
    盲棋時候可以 [Cantonese, trad.]
    盲棋时候可以 [Cantonese, simp.]
    waan4-2 maang4 kei4-2 ge3 si4 hau6, geoi1 ho2 ji5 sik6 maa5, paau3, si6, zoeng6, zeot1. [Jyutping]
    When playing blind chess, a rook can capture knights, cannons, advisors, bishops or pawns.
  8. (Cantonese, mahjong) Short for 食糊 (“to win”).
  9. (Cantonese) to receive; to be affected by; to be on the receiving end
    [Cantonese]  ―  ngaang6 sik6 [Jyutping]  ―  to be forced to accept something
    [Cantonese]  ―  sik6 fung1 [Jyutping]  ―  being blown by wind
  10. (Cantonese) to hit on; to flirt
    [Cantonese]  ―  sik6 neoi5-2 [Jyutping]  ―  (please add an English translation of this usage example)
  11. meal; food
  12. edible
  13. Alternative form of (shí, to eat away; to erode)
  14. Alternative form of (shí, eclipse (of the Sun or Moon))
Usage notes
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  • When playing mahjong in Cantonese, a player may say this word as a call when winning from another player's discard.
Synonyms
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Compounds

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Etymology 2

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trad.
simp. #
alternative forms 𠊊

The *s- causative of Etymology 1.

Pronunciation

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BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 2/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ ziH ›
Old
Chinese
/*s-m-lək-s/
English feed (v.)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.

Definitions

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  1. Original form of (, “to feed; to make ... eat or cause ... to eat”).

Etymology 3

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trad.
simp. #
alternative forms
𠋡 Eastern Min
Min Nan
Min Nan

Kwok (2018) reconstructs Proto-Southern Min *tsiaʔ⁸ and tentatively reconstructs Proto-Min *dziak (in Norman's system).

While often considered as the vernacular counterpart to etymology 1, it is unlikely to be related to etymology 1 (Norman, 1991; Klöter, 2005; Fuehrer and Yang, 2014). Schuessler (2007) suggests it derives from (to chew) (probably based on Norman's unpublished manuscripts).

Pronunciation

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Definitions

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  1. (Coastal Min) to eat; to have a meal; to take in
    [Hokkien]  ―  chia̍h-pn̄g [Pe̍h-ōe-jī]  ―  to eat rice; to have a meal
    [Hokkien]  ―  chia̍h pá bōe? [Pe̍h-ōe-jī]  ―  Have you eaten yet?
  2. (Coastal Min) to drink
    [Teochew]  ―  ziah85 [Peng'im]  ―  to drink tea
    燒酒烧酒 [Hokkien]  ―  chia̍h sio-chiú [Pe̍h-ōe-jī]  ―  to drink rice wine
  3. (Coastal Min) to take in; to inhale; to smoke
    [Hokkien]  ―  chia̍h-hun [Pe̍h-ōe-jī]  ―  to inhale smoke; to smoke
  4. (Southern Min) to embezzle; to misappropriate (money)
    [Hokkien]  ―  chia̍h-lui [Pe̍h-ōe-jī]  ―  to embezzle money
  5. (Eastern Min, Hokkien, Leizhou Min, board games) to capture
  6. (Hokkien) to consume; to use up
  7. (Hokkien) to suffer; to endure; to bear
  8. (Hokkien, mahjong) to chow
  9. (Hokkien, Leizhou Min) to dine at (a certain food establishment)
    菜館菜馆 [Hokkien]  ―  chia̍h-chhài-koán [Pe̍h-ōe-jī]  ―  to dine at a restaurant
  10. (Hokkien, Leizhou Min) to rely on; to depend on
  11. (Hokkien, Leizhou Min) to engage in; to undertake; to do (for a living)
  12. (Hokkien) to live; to grow up
  13. (Mainland China Hokkien) to pick on; to bully; to push around
  14. (Mainland China Hokkien) to make a decision; to resolve to
  15. (Taiwanese Hokkien) to colour; to dye
  16. (Penang Hokkien, Teochew) cuisine
    Synonym: (cài)
    廣東广东 [Teochew]  ―  [translit?] [Peng'im]  ―  Guangdong food
  17. (Leizhou Min) to be eaten away (by insects, etc.)
Usage notes
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  • When playing mahjong in Hokkien, a player may say this word as a call when forming a chowing another player's discard.
Synonyms
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Compounds

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Descendants

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  • Indonesian: ciak
  • Thai: เจี๊ยะ (jía)

Etymology 4

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trad.
simp. #

From Proto-Min *jiap or *jiat (to eat). While sometimes considered as the vernacular counterpart to etymology 1, it may be from (*ɢrab, to carry food to workers in the field) (Norman, 1991; Schuessler, 2007).

Pronunciation

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Definitions

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  1. (Inland Min) Alternative form of (to eat)

Etymology 5

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trad.
simp. #

Pronunciation

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Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2
Initial () (36)
Final () (19)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Baxter yiH
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/jɨH/
Pan
Wuyun
/jɨH/
Shao
Rongfen
/ieH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/jɨH/
Li
Rong
/iəH/
Wang
Li
/jĭəH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/iH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
ji6
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2
No. 11476
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*lɯɡs/

Definitions

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  1. Used in personal names.
      ―    ―  Li Yiji (an advisor to Liu Bang)

References

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Japanese

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Shinjitai
Kyūjitai
[1][2]

食󠄁
+&#xE0101;?
(Adobe-Japan1)
 
食󠄃
+&#xE0103;?
(Hanyo-Denshi)
(Moji_Joho)
The displayed kanji may be different from the image due to your environment.
See here for details.

Kanji

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(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. to eat
  2. a meal

Readings

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From Middle Chinese (MC zyik); compare Mandarin (shí):

From Middle Chinese (MC ziH); compare Mandarin ():

From Middle Chinese (MC yiH); compare Mandarin ():

From native Japanese roots:

Compounds

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Etymology 1

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Kanji in this term
うか
Grade: 2
kun’yomi

Unbound apophonic form (uke).

Pronunciation

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  This entry needs an audio pronunciation. If you are a native speaker with a microphone, please record this word. The recorded pronunciation will appear here when it's ready.

Noun

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(うか) (uka

  1. food
  2. grain

Etymology 2

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Kanji in this term
うけ
Grade: 2
kun’yomi

uka + i → uke2 → uke. Bound apophonic form (uka).

Pronunciation

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Noun

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(うけ) (uke

  1. food

Etymology 3

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Kanji in this term

Grade: 2
kun’yomi

Cognate with (ke).

Pronunciation

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Noun

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() (ke

  1. food
    ()()(くに)
    mi ke tsu kuni
    the land of foods

Etymology 4

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Kanji in this term
しょく
Grade: 2
on’yomi

From Middle Chinese (MC zyik).

Pronunciation

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Noun

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(しょく) (shoku

  1. a meal
  2. foodstuff
Derived terms
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Etymology 5

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Kanji in this term
しょく
Grade: 2
kan’on
Alternative spelling

From Middle Chinese (MC zyik, “to eat away at, to erode; to eclipse”), originally the same word in Old Chinese as (MC zyik, “to eat”).

First attested in the 延喜式 (Engishiki) of 927.[5]

Pronunciation

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Noun

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(しょく) (shoku

  1. [from 927] , : (astronomy) eclipse (often, but not exclusively, of the sun or the moon)
    Synonyms: 日食 (nisshoku, solar eclipse), 月食 (gesshoku, lunar eclipse)
    • 2015, 田原真人, これだけ! 高校物理 波・音・光 波動編, 秀和システム, →ISBN, page 97:
      レーマーが(もく)(せい)(えい)(せい)(ひと)つであるイオの(しょく)(しゅう)()(そく)(てい)したところ、(いっ)(てい)ではなく、()(きゅう)(こう)(てん)(ともな)(へん)(どう)することがわかりました。
      Rēmā ga Mokusei no eisei no hitotsu de aru Io no shoku no shūki o sokutei shita tokoro, ittei de wa naku, Chikyū no kōten ni tomonai hendō suru koto ga wakarimashita.
      When Rømer measured the period of the eclipses of Io, one of Jupiter's satellites, he discovered that it was not constant but fluctuated with the Earth's revolution.
Derived terms
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References

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  1. ^ Haga, Gōtarō (1914) 漢和大辞書 [The Great Kanji-Japanese Dictionary] (in Japanese), Fourth edition, Tōkyō: Kōbunsha, →DOI, page 2332 (paper), page 1218 (digital)
  2. ^ Shōundō Henshūjo, editor (1927), 新漢和辞典 [The New Kanji-Japanese Dictionary] (in Japanese), Ōsaka: Shōundō, →DOI, page 1372 (paper), page 699 (digital)
  3. 3.0 3.1 Yamada, Tadao et al., editors (2011), 新明解国語辞典 [Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten] (in Japanese), Seventh edition, Tokyo: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  4. 4.0 4.1 Matsumura, Akira, editor (2006), 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tokyo: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  5. ^ 蝕・食”, in 日本国語大辞典 [Nihon Kokugo Daijiten]‎[1] (in Japanese), concise edition, Tokyo: Shogakukan, 2000

Korean

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Etymology 1

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From Middle Chinese (MC zyik).

Historical readings

Pronunciation

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Hanja

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Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun (bap sik))
(eumhun 먹을 (meogeul sik))

  1. Hanja form? of (meal; food).
  2. (literary) Hanja form? of (to eat).

Compounds

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Etymology 2

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Related to Middle Chinese (MC ziH).

Historical readings

Pronunciation

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Hanja

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(eumhun 먹이 (meogi sa))

  1. (literary) Hanja form? of (feed).

Compounds

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Etymology 3

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From Middle Chinese (MC yiH).

Historical readings

Hanja

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(eumhun 사람 이름 (saram ireum i))

  1. Hanja form? of (used in personal names).

References

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  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [4]

Kunigami

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Kanji

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(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings

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Miyako

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Kanji

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(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings

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Okinawan

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Kanji

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(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings

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Vietnamese

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Han character

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: Hán Việt readings: thực ((thừa)(lực)(thiết))[1][2][3][4][5], tự[3]
: Nôm readings: thực[2][4][6], xực[1]

  1. Chữ Hán form of thực (food; meal).

Compounds

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References

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Yaeyama

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Kanji

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(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings

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Yonaguni

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Kanji

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(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings

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