See also: , , and

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
食-bw.png
Stroke order
食-order.gif

Alternative formsEdit

EtymologyEdit

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Large seal script Small seal script
食-oracle.svg 食-bronze.svg 食-bigseal.svg 食-seal.svg

Shuowen Jiezi: Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *lɯɡs, *ɦljɯɡ): phonetic  ‎(OC *zub) + semantic ; see 𠊊.

Pictogram (象形): a mouth over a bowl of rice on a stand. While the current form is +, the lower part (bowl of rice on a stand) is cognate to , not to or . This is more visible in the form 𠊊.

Han characterEdit

(radical 184 +0, 9 strokes, cangjie input 人戈日女 (OIAV), four-corner 80732, composition)

Derived termsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 1415, character 29
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 44014
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1939, character 10
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 7, page 4440, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+98DF

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.

Etymology 1Edit

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *m/s/g-ljak.

PronunciationEdit


Dialectal pronunciations ()
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /ʂʐ̩³⁵/
Harbin /ʂʐ̩²⁴/
Tianjin /ʂʐ̩⁴⁵/
Jinan /ʂʐ̩⁴²/
Qingdao /ʃz̩⁴²/
Zhengzhou /ʂʐ̩⁴²/
Xi'an /ʂʐ̩²⁴/
Xining /ʂʐ̩²⁴/
Yinchuan /ʂʐ̩¹³/
Lanzhou /ʂʐ̩⁵³/
Ürümqi /ʂʐ̩⁵¹/
Wuhan /sz̩²¹³/
Chengdu /sz̩³¹/
Guiyang /sz̩²¹/
Kunming /ʂʐ̩³¹/
Nanjing /ʂʐ̩ʔ⁵/
Hefei /ʂəʔ⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /səʔ⁵⁴/
Pingyao /ʂʌʔ⁵³/
Hohhot /səʔ⁴³/
Wu Shanghai /zəʔ¹/
Suzhou /zəʔ³/
Hangzhou /zəʔ²/
Wenzhou /zei²¹³/
Hui Shexian /ɕi²²/
Tunxi /ɕi¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /ʂʐ̩²⁴/
Xiangtan /ʂʐ̩²⁴/
Gan Nanchang /sɨʔ²/
Hakka Meixian /sət̚⁵/
Taoyuan /ʃït̚⁵⁵/
Cantonese Guangzhou /sek̚²/
Nanning /sek̚²²/
Hong Kong /sik̚²/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /sik̚⁵/
/t͡siaʔ⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /siʔ⁵/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /si⁴⁴/
Shantou (Min Nan) /t͡siaʔ⁵/
Haikou (Min Nan) /sek̚⁵/
/t͡sia³³/
Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (), Pronunciation 2/2

Initial: (27)
Final: (134)
Tone: Checked (Ø)

Openness: Open
Division: III
Fanqie:

Expected Mandarin reflex: shí
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Pan
Wuyun
Shao
Rongfen
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Li
Rong
Wang
Li
Bernard
Karlgren
/ʑɨk̚/ /ʑɨk̚/ /ʑiek̚/ /ʑik̚/ /d͡ʑiək̚/ /d͡ʑĭək̚/ /d͡ʑʰi̯ək̚/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
shí ‹ zyik › /*mə-lək/ eat

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
11477 0 /*ɦljɯɡ/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. (Cantonese, Hakka, Min) to eat; to have a meal; to take in
    中國人筷子 / 中国人筷子 [Cantonese]  ―  Zung1 gwok3 jan4 hai6 zaa1 faai3 zi2 sik6 faan6 ge3. [Jyutping]  ―  Chinese people use chopsticks to eat with.
    星期日朋友一齊晚飯 [Cantonese, trad.]
    星期日朋友一齐晚饭 [Cantonese, simp.]
    Soeng6 sing1 kei4 jat6 ngo5 tung4 di1 pang4 jau5 jat1 cai4 sik6 maan5 faan6. [Jyutping]
    Last Sunday, I ate dinner together with my friends.
    / [Cantonese]  ―  Nei5 sik6 zo2 faan6 mei6 aa3? [Jyutping]  ―  Have you eaten yet?
  2. (Hakka, Min) to drink
    [Teochew]  ―  ziah8 tê5 [Peng'im]  ―  to drink tea
    燒酒 / 烧酒 [Min Nan]  ―  chia̍h sio-chiú [Pe̍h-ōe-jī]  ―  to drink rice wine
    竹葉青 [Hakka, trad.]
    竹叶青 [Hakka, simp.]
    From: 食酒歌
    Sṳ̍t-chiú oi sṳ̍t chuk-ya̍p-chhiâng. [Pha̍k-fa-sṳ]
    If you're drink wine, you have to drink Zhuyeqing (three-year-old Shaoxing wine).
  3. (Cantonese, Hakka, Min) to smoke
    / [Cantonese]  ―  sik6 jin1 [Jyutping]  ―  to smoke
  4. (Cantonese, chess, etc.) to capture
  5. meal; food
  6. edible
  7. ( (shí))
    1. to eat away; to erode
    2. eclipse (of the Sun or Moon)
Usage notesEdit
  • Cantonese, Hakka, and Min regularly uses to mean "to eat", whereas Mandarin uses (chī).
  • Hokkien and Hakka also regularly uses to mean "to drink".
  • Mandarin uses () for "to drink" and () for "to smoke".
SynonymsEdit
Dialectal synonyms of ("to eat")
Variety Location Words
Classical Classical
Mandarin Beijing
Jinan
Xi'an
Wuhan
Chengdu
Yangzhou
Hefei
Cantonese Guangzhou
Hong Kong
Taishan
Yangjiang
Gan Nanchang
Hakka Meixian
Miaoli (N. Sixian)
Liudui (S. Sixian)
Hsinchu (Hailu)
Dongshi (Dabu)
Taiwanese Raoping
Yunlin (Zhao'an)
Jin Taiyuan
Min Bei Jian'ou
Min Dong Fuzhou
Min Nan Xiamen
Taipei
Chaozhou
Wu Suzhou
Wenzhou
Xiang Changsha
Shuangfeng

CompoundsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

The *s- causative of Etymology 1. See for more.

PronunciationEdit

Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
‹ ziH › /*s-m-lək-s/ feed (v.)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.

DefinitionsEdit

  1. ( ()) to feed; to make ... eat or cause ... to eat

Etymology 3Edit

PronunciationEdit

Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (), Pronunciation 1/2

Initial: (36)
Final: (19)
Tone: Departing (H)

Openness: Open
Division: III
Fanqie:

Expected Mandarin reflex: yì
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Pan
Wuyun
Shao
Rongfen
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Li
Rong
Wang
Li
Bernard
Karlgren
/jɨH/ /jɨH/ /ieH/ /jɨH/ /iəH/ /jĭəH/ /iH/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
11476 0 /*lɯɡs/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. Only used in names.
    /   ―    ―  Li Yiji (an advisor to Liu Bang)

JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. to eat
  2. a meal

ReadingsEdit

CompoundsEdit

Usage notesEdit

This character has a simplified form of when used to compose larger characters, as seen in . This character is not simplified when used as itself. It can also appear in an alternative form as in .

Etymology 1Edit

Unbound apophonic form uke.

NounEdit

‎(hiragana うか, romaji uka)

  1. food
  2. grain

Etymology 2Edit

uka + i → uke2 → uke. Bound apophonic form ‎(uka).

NounEdit

‎(hiragana うけ, romaji uke)

  1. food

Etymology 3Edit

Cognate with ‎(ke).

NounEdit

‎(hiragana , romaji ke)

  1. food

NounEdit

‎(hiragana , romaji shi)

  1. food

NounEdit

‎(hiragana しょく, romaji shoku)

  1. a meal
  2. foodstuff
  3. an eclipse

KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

‎(sik)
Eumhun:

  • Sound (hangeul):  (revised: sik, McCune-Reischauer: sik, Yale: sik)
  • Name (hangeul): ()
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VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

(thực, tự)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.
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