See also: , , and
U+98DF, 食
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-98DF

[U+98DE]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+98E0]

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 
Stroke order
 

Alternative formsEdit

  • (U+2FB7) (Kangxi radical)
  • (when used as a left Chinese radical) 𩙿

Han characterEdit

(radical 184, +0, 9 strokes, cangjie input 人戈日女 (OIAV), four-corner 80732, composition)

  1. Kangxi radical #184, .

Derived termsEdit

Further readingEdit

  • KangXi: page 1415, character 29
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 44014
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1939, character 10
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 7, page 4440, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+98DF

ChineseEdit

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Spring and Autumn Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Qin slip script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
               

Pictogram (象形): a mouth over a bowl of rice on a stand. While the current form is +, the lower part (bowl of rice on a stand) is cognate to , not to or . This is more visible in the form 𠊊.

Shuowen: Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *lɯɡs, *ɦljɯɡ): phonetic  (OC *zub) + semantic ; see 𠊊.

Etymology 1Edit

simp. and trad.
alternative forms 𠊊

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *m/s/g-ljak.

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • sĭk - literary;
  • siĕk - vernacular.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • si̍t - vernacular (Xiamen, Zhangzhou), literary (Quanzhou, Taiwan);
    • se̍k - literary.
  • Wu

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /ʂʐ̩³⁵/
    Harbin /ʂʐ̩²⁴/
    Tianjin /ʂʐ̩⁴⁵/
    Jinan /ʂʐ̩⁴²/
    Qingdao /ʃz̩⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /ʂʐ̩⁴²/
    Xi'an /ʂʐ̩²⁴/
    Xining /ʂʐ̩²⁴/
    Yinchuan /ʂʐ̩¹³/
    Lanzhou /ʂʐ̩⁵³/
    Ürümqi /ʂʐ̩⁵¹/
    Wuhan /sz̩²¹³/
    Chengdu /sz̩³¹/
    Guiyang /sz̩²¹/
    Kunming /ʂʐ̩³¹/
    Nanjing /ʂʐ̩ʔ⁵/
    Hefei /ʂəʔ⁵/
    Jin Taiyuan /səʔ⁵⁴/
    Pingyao /ʂʌʔ⁵³/
    Hohhot /səʔ⁴³/
    Wu Shanghai /zəʔ¹/
    Suzhou /zəʔ³/
    Hangzhou /zəʔ²/
    Wenzhou /zei²¹³/
    Hui Shexian /ɕi²²/
    Tunxi /ɕi¹¹/
    Xiang Changsha /ʂʐ̩²⁴/
    Xiangtan /ʂʐ̩²⁴/
    Gan Nanchang /sɨʔ²/
    Hakka Meixian /sət̚⁵/
    Taoyuan /ʃït̚⁵⁵/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /sek̚²/
    Nanning /sek̚²²/
    Hong Kong /sik̚²/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /sik̚⁵/
    /t͡siaʔ⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /siʔ⁵/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /si⁴⁴/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /t͡siaʔ⁵/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /sek̚⁵/
    /t͡sia³³/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Initial () (27)
    Final () (134)
    Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ʑɨk̚/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ʑɨk̚/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ʑiek̚/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ʑik̚/
    Li
    Rong
    /d͡ʑiək̚/
    Wang
    Li
    /d͡ʑĭək̚/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /d͡ʑʰi̯ək̚/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    shí
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    shí
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ zyik ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*mə-lək/
    English eat

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    No. 11477
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ɦljɯɡ/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. (Cantonese, Hakka) to eat; to have a meal; to take in
      [Cantonese, trad.]
      [Cantonese, simp.]
      Nei5 sik6 zo2 faan6 mei6 aa3? [Jyutping]
      Have you eaten yet?
    2. (Hakka) to drink
    3. (Cantonese, Hakka) to smoke
      / [Cantonese]  ―  sik6 jin1 [Jyutping]  ―  to smoke
    4. (Cantonese, chess, etc.) to capture
    5. meal; food
    6. edible
    7. Alternative form of (shí, “to eat away; to erode”).
    8. Alternative form of (shí, “eclipse (of the Sun or Moon)”).
    Usage notesEdit
    • Cantonese and Hakka regularly use to mean “to eat”, whereas Mandarin uses (chī).
    • Mandarin uses () for “to smoke”.
    SynonymsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 2Edit

    simp. and trad.
    alternative forms 𠊊

    The *s- causative of Etymology 1.

    PronunciationEdit



    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ ziH ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*s-m-lək-s/
    English feed (v.)

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. Original form of (, “to feed; to make ... eat or cause ... to eat”).

    Etymology 3Edit

    simp. and trad.
    alternative forms

    Kwok (2018) reconstructs Proto-Southern Min *tsiaʔ⁸ and tentatively reconstructs Proto-Min *dziak (in Norman's system).

    While often considered as the vernacular counterpart to etymology 1, it is unlikely to be related to etymology 1 (Norman, 1991; Klöter, 2005; Fuehrer and Yang, 2014). Schuessler (2007) suggests it derives from (OC *zewɢ, “to chew”) (probably based on Norman's unpublished manuscripts).

    PronunciationEdit



    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /ʂʐ̩³⁵/
    Harbin /ʂʐ̩²⁴/
    Tianjin /ʂʐ̩⁴⁵/
    Jinan /ʂʐ̩⁴²/
    Qingdao /ʃz̩⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /ʂʐ̩⁴²/
    Xi'an /ʂʐ̩²⁴/
    Xining /ʂʐ̩²⁴/
    Yinchuan /ʂʐ̩¹³/
    Lanzhou /ʂʐ̩⁵³/
    Ürümqi /ʂʐ̩⁵¹/
    Wuhan /sz̩²¹³/
    Chengdu /sz̩³¹/
    Guiyang /sz̩²¹/
    Kunming /ʂʐ̩³¹/
    Nanjing /ʂʐ̩ʔ⁵/
    Hefei /ʂəʔ⁵/
    Jin Taiyuan /səʔ⁵⁴/
    Pingyao /ʂʌʔ⁵³/
    Hohhot /səʔ⁴³/
    Wu Shanghai /zəʔ¹/
    Suzhou /zəʔ³/
    Hangzhou /zəʔ²/
    Wenzhou /zei²¹³/
    Hui Shexian /ɕi²²/
    Tunxi /ɕi¹¹/
    Xiang Changsha /ʂʐ̩²⁴/
    Xiangtan /ʂʐ̩²⁴/
    Gan Nanchang /sɨʔ²/
    Hakka Meixian /sət̚⁵/
    Taoyuan /ʃït̚⁵⁵/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /sek̚²/
    Nanning /sek̚²²/
    Hong Kong /sik̚²/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /sik̚⁵/
    /t͡siaʔ⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /siʔ⁵/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /si⁴⁴/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /t͡siaʔ⁵/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /sek̚⁵/
    /t͡sia³³/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. (Coastal Min) to eat; to have a meal
      / [Min Nan]  ―  chia̍h-pn̄g [Pe̍h-ōe-jī]  ―  to eat rice; to have a meal
      / [Min Nan]  ―  chia̍h pá bōe? [Pe̍h-ōe-jī]  ―  Have you eaten yet?
    2. (Coastal Min) to drink
      [Teochew]  ―  ziah85 [Peng'im]  ―  to drink tea
      燒酒 / 烧酒 [Min Nan]  ―  chia̍h sio-chiú [Pe̍h-ōe-jī]  ―  to drink rice wine
    3. (Coastal Min) to take in; to inhale
      [Min Nan]  ―  chia̍h-hun [Pe̍h-ōe-jī]  ―  to inhale smoke; to smoke
    4. (Singapore Hokkien) to embezzle (money)
      / [Min Nan]  ―  chia̍h-lui [Pe̍h-ōe-jī]  ―  to embezzle money

    CompoundsEdit

    DescendantsEdit

    • Indonesian: ciak
    • Thai: เจี๊ยะ (jía)

    Etymology 4Edit

    simp. and trad.
    alternative forms

    From Proto-Min *jiap or *jiat (to eat). While sometimes considered as the vernacular counterpart to etymology 1, it may be from (OC *ɢrab, “to carry food to workers in the field”) (Norman, 1991; Schuessler, 2007).

    PronunciationEdit


    DefinitionsEdit

    1. (Inland Min) to eat

    Etymology 5Edit

    simp. and trad.

    PronunciationEdit


    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Initial () (36)
    Final () (19)
    Tone (調) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /jɨH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /jɨH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ieH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /jɨH/
    Li
    Rong
    /iəH/
    Wang
    Li
    /jĭəH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /iH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    No. 11476
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*lɯɡs/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. Only used in names.
      /   ―    ―  Li Yiji (an advisor to Liu Bang)

    Further readingEdit


    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. to eat
    2. a meal

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

    Kanji in this term
    うか
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    Unbound apophonic form (uke).

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (うか) (uka

    1. food
    2. grain

    Etymology 2Edit

    Kanji in this term
    うけ
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    uka + i → uke2 → uke. Bound apophonic form (uka).

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (うけ) (uke

    1. food

    Etymology 3Edit

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    Cognate with (ke).

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    () (ke

    1. food
      ()()(くに)
      mi ke tsu kuni
      the land of foods

    Etymology 4Edit

    Kanji in this term
    しょく
    Grade: 2
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese (MC ʑɨk̚).

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (しょく) (shoku

    1. a meal
    2. foodstuff
    3. an eclipse
    Derived termsEdit

    KoreanEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

    From Middle Chinese (MC ʑɨk̚). Recorded as Middle Korean 식〯 (Yale: sik) in Hunmong Jahoe (訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회), 1527.

    HanjaEdit

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun (bap sik))
    (eumhun 먹을 (meogeul sik))

    1. Hanja form? of (meal; food).
    2. (literary) Hanja form? of (to eat).
    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 2Edit

    HanjaEdit

    (eumhun 먹이 (meogi sa))

    1. Hanja form? of (feed).
    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 3Edit

    From Middle Chinese (MCH).

    HanjaEdit

    (eumhun 사람 이름 (saram ireum i))

    1. Hanja form? of (used in personal names).

    ReferencesEdit

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [1]

    KunigamiEdit

    KanjiEdit


    MiyakoEdit

    KanjiEdit


    OkinawanEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    ReadingsEdit


    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    : Hán Việt readings: thực ((thừa)(lực)(thiết))[1][2][3][4][5], tự[3]
    : Nôm readings: thực[2][4][6], xực[1]

    1. Hán tự form of thực (food; meal).

    CompoundsEdit

    ReferencesEdit


    YaeyamaEdit

    KanjiEdit


    YonaguniEdit

    KanjiEdit