Last modified on 3 February 2015, at 05:30

See also: , , and

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
食-bw.png
Stroke order
食-order.gif

Alternative formsEdit

Han characterEdit

(radical 184 +0, 9 strokes, cangjie input 人戈日女 (OIAV), four-corner 80732)

See alsoEdit

Derived termsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 1415, character 29
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 44014
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1939, character 10
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 7, page 4440, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+98DF



ChineseEdit

-
simp. and trad.

Glyph originEdit

Shuowen Jiezi: Phono-semantic compound (形聲): phonetic  + semantic ; see 𠊊.

Pictogram (象形): a mouth over a bowl of rice on a stand. While the current form is +, the lower part (bowl of rice on a stand) is cognate to , not to or . This is more visible in the form 𠊊.

食 食 食 食
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Large seal script Small seal script

Etymology 1Edit

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *m/s/g-ljak.

PronunciationEdit


Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (食), Pronunciation 2/2

Initial: 船 (27)
Final: 職
Division: III

Openness: Open
Tone: Checked (Ø)

Fanqie: 乗力切
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/ʑɨk̚/ /d͡ʑʰi̯ək̚/ /d͡ʑiək̚/ /ʑɨk̚/ /ʑik̚/ /d͡ʑĭək̚/ /ʑiek̚/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
shí ‹ zyik › /*mə-lək/ eat

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
11477 0 /*ɦljɯɡ/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. (Cantonese, Hakka, Min) to eat; to have a meal; to take in; to drink or smoke
    中國人筷子 [Cantonese, trad.]
    中国人筷子 [Cantonese, simp.]
    Zung1 gwok3 jan4 hai6 zaa1 faai3 zi2 sik6 faan6 ge3. [Jyutping]
    Chinese people use chopsticks to eat with.
    星期日朋友一齊晚飯 [Cantonese, trad.]
    星期日朋友一齐晚饭 [Cantonese, simp.]
    Soeng6 sing1 kei4 jat6 ngo5 tung4 di1 pang4 jau5 jat1 cai4 sik6 maan5 faan6. [Jyutping]
    Last Sunday, I ate dinner together with my friends.
    [Cantonese, trad.]
    [Cantonese, simp.]
    Nei5 sik6 zo2 faan6 mei6 aa3? [Jyutping]
    Have you eaten yet?
  2. meal; food
  3. edible
  4. ()
    1. to eat away; to erode
    2. eclipse (of the Sun or Moon)

CompoundsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

The *s- causative of Etymology 1. See for more.

PronunciationEdit

Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
‹ ziH › /*s-m-lək-s/ feed (v.)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.

DefinitionsEdit

  1. () to feed; to make ... eat or cause ... to eat

Etymology 3Edit

PronunciationEdit

Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (食), Pronunciation 1/2

Initial: 以 (36)
Final: 之
Division: III

Openness: Open
Tone: Departing (H)

Fanqie: 羊吏切
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/jɨH/ /iH/ /iəH/ /jɨH/ /jɨH/ /jĭəH/ /ieH/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
11476 0 /*lɯɡs/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. Only used in names.

JapaneseEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Unbound apophonic form uke.

NounEdit

(hiragana うか, romaji uka)

  1. food
  2. grain

Etymology 2Edit

uka + i → uke2 → uke. Bound apophonic form uka.

NounEdit

(hiragana うけ, romaji uke)

  1. food

Etymology 3Edit

Cognate with ke.

NounEdit

(hiragana , romaji ke)

  1. food

NounEdit

(hiragana , romaji shi)

  1. food

NounEdit

(hiragana しょく, romaji shoku)

  1. a meal
  2. foodstuff
  3. an eclipse

KanjiEdit

(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. to eat
  2. a meal
ReadingsEdit
CompoundsEdit
Usage notesEdit

When combining, appears in simplified form , as in , but in isolation is not simplified. Can also appear in alternative form as in .


KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

(sik)
Eumhun:

  • Sound (hangeul):  (revised: sik, McCune-Reischauer: sik, Yale: sik)
  • Name (hangeul): ()
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VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

(thực, tự)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.