Basque Edit

Etymology Edit

Probably related to m-.

Prefix Edit

ma-

  1. Non-productive prefix without a specific meaning.

Usage notes Edit

In words where this prefix can be found, it takes the place of the first syllable of the original word, usually with no change in meaning (compare udare and madari, both meaning "pear"). It is likely that originally this was an expressive prefix, and that many Basque words starting with ma- contain this prefix, with the original word having been lost.

References Edit

  • ma-” in Etymological Dictionary of Basque by R. L. Trask, sussex.ac.uk

Bikol Central Edit

Prefix Edit

ma-

  1. Used to form adjectives indicating a quality
    ma- + ‎linig (to clean) → ‎malinig (clean)
  2. Object IV trigger infinitive verb prefix
    ma- + ‎dumog (wet) → ‎madumog (to become wet)
  3. Object trigger to have done something; to be able to do something
    ma- + ‎tapos (finish) → ‎matapos (to be able to finish something)
    Natapos kong basahon an libro kasubanggi.I was able to finish reading the book last night.
  4. Object trigger to perform the action of the verb unintentionally
    ma- + ‎pasa (broken, break) → ‎mapasa (to break something unintentionally)
    Napasa ko an salming.I unintentionally broke the mirror. Compare it when used with the suffix -on:
    pasa (broken, break) + -onpasaon (to break something on purpose)
    Pinasa ko an salming.I broke the mirror on purpose.
  5. to form the future tense of the verb.

Cebuano Edit

Prefix Edit

ma-

  1. Used to form adjectives indicating a quality
  2. Used to form the future tense of a verb

Hausa Edit

Etymology Edit

Cognate to the set of prefixes found in Arabic: مُ(mu) for agentive participles, مَ(ma) for locatives, and مِ(mi) for instrumentals.

Pronunciation Edit

Prefix Edit

ma-

  1. Used to form agentive nouns.
  2. Used to form nouns of place (locative nouns).
  3. Used to form instrumental nouns.

Usage notes Edit

Each prefix forms a different template to which the noun must conform:

  • Agentive nouns end in in the masculine singular, -ìyā in the feminine singular, and in the plural, and the root has low tone in the masculine and plural, but high tone in the feminine.
  • Locative nouns end in and are feminine, or uncommonly in and are masculine, with all high tone in either case. There is rarely a plural form.
  • Instrumental nouns end in and are masculine, with plurals in -ai. The tones of the singular form are all high, and in the plural the tones are all low except for the plural morpheme.

Derived terms Edit

Kambera Edit

Pronoun Edit

ma-

  1. first person plural exclusive nominative proclitic

See also Edit

Maori Edit

Prefix Edit

ma-

  1. Adjective prefix

Northern Sotho Edit

Etymology Edit

From Proto-Bantu *mà-.

Prefix Edit

ma-

  1. Class 6 noun prefix.

Old Javanese Edit

Etymology Edit

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Prefix Edit

ma-

  1. active verb

Synonyms Edit

Derived terms Edit

Category Old Javanese terms prefixed with ma- not found

Pitjantjatjara Edit

Prefix Edit

ma-

  1. away (prefixed to verbs)

Usage notes Edit

  • The hyphen is normally kept, for example, ma-pitjanyi.
  • Although ma- is spelt with a short a, the vowel is actually long (maa-). The misleading spelling exists for historical reasons.

Shona Edit

Etymology Edit

From Proto-Bantu *mà-.

Prefix Edit

ma-

  1. Class 6 noun prefix.

Sotho Edit

Etymology Edit

From Proto-Bantu *mà-.

Prefix Edit

ma-

  1. Class 6 noun prefix.

Swahili Edit

Etymology Edit

From Proto-Bantu *mà-.

Pronunciation Edit

  • (file)

Prefix Edit

ma-

  1. The prefix for noun class 6 denoting liquids.
    1. Regularly forms the plurals of noun class 5.
    2. Irregularly forms the plurals of other classes, including select vocabulary in noun class 9 and noun class 14.

See also Edit

Tagalog Edit

Etymology Edit

From Proto-Malayo-Polynesian *ma-, from Proto-Austronesian *ma-. Compare may (existential marker).

Prefix Edit

ma- (Baybayin spelling )

  1. Used to form adjectives indicating a quality
    ma- + ‎linis (cleanliness) → ‎malinis (clean)
  2. Actor III trigger infinitive verb prefix
    ma- + ‎ligo (bath) → ‎maligo (to take a bath; to bathe)
  3. Object IV trigger infinitive verb prefix
    ma- + ‎basa (wet) → ‎mabasa (to become wet)
  4. Object trigger to have done something; to be able to do something
    ma- + ‎tapos (finish) → ‎matapos (to be able to finish something)
    Natapos kong basahin ang libro kagabi.I was able to finish reading the book last night.
  5. Object trigger to perform the action of the verb unintentionally
    ma- + ‎basag (break, crack) → ‎mabasag (to break something unintentionally)
    Nabasag ko ang salamin.I unintentionally broke the mirror. Compare it when used with the suffix -in:
    basag (break, crack) + -inbasagin (to break something on purpose)
    Binasag ko ang salamin.I broke the mirror on purpose.

Derived terms Edit

Tausug Edit

Prefix Edit

ma-

  1. Used to form adjectives and adverbs; characterized by; abundant in

Derived terms Edit

Ternate Edit

Etymology 1 Edit

Pronoun Edit

ma- (Jawi م-‎)

  1. (non-human) third-person singular and plural possessive prefix, its, their
  2. indicates definiteness
    haka ngori maobogive me the bone (literally, “give me its bone”)
    mangofa hotuthe child sleeps (literally, “its child sleeps”)

See also Edit

Etymology 2 Edit

Prefix Edit

ma- (Jawi م-)

  1. marks certain verbal aspects
    1. indicates prolonged duration
    2. indicates repeated action
      ma- + ‎kokehe (to cough) → ‎makokehe (to cough repeatedly)
    3. indicates habitual action
    4. indicates an action undertaken by multiple subjects

Etymology 3 Edit

Prefix Edit

ma- (Jawi م-)

  1. reflexive
    ma- + ‎doto (to teach) → ‎madoto (to learn)
    ma- + ‎hodo (to pour) → ‎mahodo (to bathe)
    ma- + ‎ngadi (to clothe (another)) → ‎mangadi (to put on clothes, to don)

References Edit

  • Frederik Sigismund Alexander de Clercq (1890) Bijdragen tot de kennis der Residentie Ternate, E.J. Brill
  • Rika Hayami-Allen (2001) A descriptive study of the language of Ternate, the northern Moluccas, Indonesia, University of Pittsburgh

Tsonga Edit

Etymology Edit

From Proto-Bantu *mà-.

Prefix Edit

ma-

  1. Class 6 noun prefix.

Tswana Edit

Etymology Edit

From Proto-Bantu *mà-.

Prefix Edit

ma-

  1. Class 6 noun prefix.

Venda Edit

Etymology Edit

From Proto-Bantu *mà-.

Prefix Edit

ma-

  1. Class 6 noun prefix.

West Makian Edit

Etymology 1 Edit

Pronunciation Edit

Prefix Edit

ma-

  1. a prefix of unclear meaning
    ma- + ‎gei (to be dead) → ‎magei (to die)
    ma- + ‎dadi (to become) → ‎madadi (to be, exist)
Usage notes Edit

The prefix ma- is subject to West Makian vowel harmony, and as such may surface as me-, mi-, or mo-.

Alternative forms Edit

Etymology 2 Edit

Pronunciation Edit

Pronoun Edit

ma-

  1. first-person plural inclusive clitic, we
    mocowe see
Usage notes Edit

The prefix ma- follows West Makian vowel harmony, and as such may surface as me-, mi-, or mo-.

Alternative forms Edit

Etymology 3 Edit

Pronunciation Edit

Pronoun Edit

ma-

  1. (animate) third-person singular clitic for stative verbs, it
    madadi sangajihe became a chief
    di oma ma makaku itheir child is still small
Usage notes Edit

This clitic is only for stative verbs and does not undergo vowel harmony.

Etymology 4 Edit

Pronunciation Edit

Pronoun Edit

ma-

  1. (animate) third-person singular possessive prefix, his, hers, that person's, that being's
Usage notes Edit

The possessive prefix ma- is subject to West Makian vowel harmony, and as such may surface as me-, mi-, or mo-.

Alternative forms Edit

See also Edit

Etymology 5 Edit

Pronunciation Edit

Prefix Edit

ma-

  1. forms adverbial numerals
    ma- + ‎minye (one) → ‎maminye (once)
    ma- + ‎unge (three) → ‎maunge (thrice)

References Edit

  • Clemens Voorhoeve (1982) The Makian languages and their neighbours[1], Pacific linguistics

Xhosa Edit

Etymology Edit

From a clipping of makhe (hortative marker).

Prefix Edit

ma-

  1. let, may; gives a verb a hortative force.
    Masihambe!
    Let's go!

Usage notes Edit

The prefix is attached to the subjunctive form of the verb, before the subject concord.

Zulu Edit

Etymology 1 Edit

From Proto-Bantu *mà-.

Prefix Edit

ma-

  1. Class 6 simple noun prefix.

Etymology 2 Edit

From a clipping of make (hortative marker).

Prefix Edit

ma-

  1. let, may; gives a verb a hortative force.
    Masihambe!
    Let's go!
Usage notes Edit

The prefix is attached to the subjunctive form of the verb, before the subject concord.

Alternative forms Edit

References Edit