Translingual edit

Etymology edit

Learned borrowing from Latin -us.

Suffix edit

-us

  1. (taxonomy) Used to form taxonomic names.

Derived terms edit

Esperanto edit

Etymology edit

The Esperanto suffixes -as, -is, -os, and -us are related and appear to have been inspired by previous language projects:

This play of vowels is not an original idea of Zamenhof's: -as, -is, -os are found for the three tenses of the infinitive in Faiguet's system of 1765; -a, -i, -o without a consonant are used like Z's -as, -is, -os by Rudelle (1858); Courtonne in 1885 had -am, -im, -om in the same values, and the similarity with Esperanto is here even more perfect than in the other projects, as -um corresponds to Z's -us.An International Language (1928)

In addition, the u of -us is likely to be related to -u.

Pronunciation edit

  • (file)

Suffix edit

-us

  1. Ending of the conditional in verbs.

Estonian edit

Etymology edit

A merger of Proto-Finnic *-us (in the first sense) and Proto-Finnic *-uc (in the second sense). Cognate with Finnish -us.

Suffix edit

-us (genitive -use, partitive -ust)

  1. Derives nouns from verbs.
    armastama "to love" → armastus "love"
    võistlema "to compete" → võistlus "competition"
    joonistama "to draw" → joonistus "a drawing"
  2. Derives nouns from adjectives.
    aus "honest" → ausus "honesty"
    pikk "long" → pikkus "length"

Declension edit

Declension of -us (ÕS type 11/harjutus, no gradation)
singular plural
nominative -us -used
accusative nom.
gen. -use
genitive -uste
partitive -ust -usi
illative -usse
-usesse
-ustesse
-usisse
inessive -uses -ustes
-usis
elative -usest -ustest
-usist
allative -usele -ustele
-usile
adessive -usel -ustel
-usil
ablative -uselt -ustelt
-usilt
translative -useks -usteks
-usiks
terminative -useni -usteni
essive -usena -ustena
abessive -useta -usteta
comitative -usega -ustega
Declension of -us (ÕS type 9/katus, no gradation)
singular plural
nominative -us -used
accusative nom.
gen. -use
genitive -uste
partitive -ust -useid
illative -usesse -ustesse
-useisse
inessive -uses -ustes
-useis
elative -usest -ustest
-useist
allative -usele -ustele
-useile
adessive -usel -ustel
-useil
ablative -uselt -ustelt
-useilt
translative -useks -usteks
-useiks
terminative -useni -usteni
essive -usena -ustena
abessive -useta -usteta
comitative -usega -ustega

Derived terms edit

Finnish edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Proto-Finnic *-us, generalized from -s-derivatives of u-stem verbs (e.g. ihastuaihastus, menestyämenestys). Compare -os.

Suffix edit

-us (front vowel harmony variant -ys, linguistic notation -Us)

  1. Forms nouns from verbs, describing an action or event.
    kuvata (to describe) + ‎-us → ‎kuvaus (description)
    pakata (to pack) + ‎-us → ‎pakkaus (package)
    ylentää (to promote) + ‎-us → ‎ylennys (promotion)
    hälyttää (to alarm) + ‎-us → ‎hälytys (alarm)
Usage notes edit
  • With -ahtaa (momentane) verbs, the final -ht- may disappear entirely (through *-AhdUs > *-AhUs (regular loss in e.g. eastern dialects) > *-AUs). This has led to -AUs (-aus/-äys) becoming its own pseudo-suffix. Often both variants, one with -AhdUs and one with -AUs, exist in parallel.
Declension edit
Inflection of -us (Kotus type 39/vastaus, no gradation)
nominative -us -ukset
genitive -uksen -usten
-uksien
partitive -usta -uksia
illative -ukseen -uksiin
singular plural
nominative -us -ukset
accusative nom. -us -ukset
gen. -uksen
genitive -uksen -usten
-uksien
partitive -usta -uksia
inessive -uksessa -uksissa
elative -uksesta -uksista
illative -ukseen -uksiin
adessive -uksella -uksilla
ablative -ukselta -uksilta
allative -ukselle -uksille
essive -uksena -uksina
translative -ukseksi -uksiksi
abessive -uksetta -uksitta
instructive -uksin
comitative See the possessive forms below.
Possessive forms of -us (Kotus type 39/vastaus, no gradation)
first-person singular possessor
singular plural
nominative -ukseni -ukseni
accusative nom. -ukseni -ukseni
gen. -ukseni
genitive -ukseni -usteni
-uksieni
partitive -ustani -uksiani
inessive -uksessani -uksissani
elative -uksestani -uksistani
illative -ukseeni -uksiini
adessive -uksellani -uksillani
ablative -ukseltani -uksiltani
allative -ukselleni -uksilleni
essive -uksenani -uksinani
translative -uksekseni -uksikseni
abessive -uksettani -uksittani
instructive
comitative -uksineni
second-person singular possessor
singular plural
nominative -uksesi -uksesi
accusative nom. -uksesi -uksesi
gen. -uksesi
genitive -uksesi -ustesi
-uksiesi
partitive -ustasi -uksiasi
inessive -uksessasi -uksissasi
elative -uksestasi -uksistasi
illative -ukseesi -uksiisi
adessive -uksellasi -uksillasi
ablative -ukseltasi -uksiltasi
allative -uksellesi -uksillesi
essive -uksenasi -uksinasi
translative -ukseksesi -uksiksesi
abessive -uksettasi -uksittasi
instructive
comitative -uksinesi
first-person plural possessor
singular plural
nominative -uksemme -uksemme
accusative nom. -uksemme -uksemme
gen. -uksemme
genitive -uksemme -ustemme
-uksiemme
partitive -ustamme -uksiamme
inessive -uksessamme -uksissamme
elative -uksestamme -uksistamme
illative -ukseemme -uksiimme
adessive -uksellamme -uksillamme
ablative -ukseltamme -uksiltamme
allative -uksellemme -uksillemme
essive -uksenamme -uksinamme
translative -ukseksemme -uksiksemme
abessive -uksettamme -uksittamme
instructive
comitative -uksinemme
second-person plural possessor
singular plural
nominative -uksenne -uksenne
accusative nom. -uksenne -uksenne
gen. -uksenne
genitive -uksenne -ustenne
-uksienne
partitive -ustanne -uksianne
inessive -uksessanne -uksissanne
elative -uksestanne -uksistanne
illative -ukseenne -uksiinne
adessive -uksellanne -uksillanne
ablative -ukseltanne -uksiltanne
allative -uksellenne -uksillenne
essive -uksenanne -uksinanne
translative -ukseksenne -uksiksenne
abessive -uksettanne -uksittanne
instructive
comitative -uksinenne
third-person possessor
singular plural
nominative -uksensa -uksensa
accusative nom. -uksensa -uksensa
gen. -uksensa
genitive -uksensa -ustensa
-uksiensa
partitive -ustaan
-ustansa
-uksiaan
-uksiansa
inessive -uksessaan
-uksessansa
-uksissaan
-uksissansa
elative -uksestaan
-uksestansa
-uksistaan
-uksistansa
illative -ukseensa -uksiinsa
adessive -uksellaan
-uksellansa
-uksillaan
-uksillansa
ablative -ukseltaan
-ukseltansa
-uksiltaan
-uksiltansa
allative -ukselleen
-uksellensa
-uksilleen
-uksillensa
essive -uksenaan
-uksenansa
-uksinaan
-uksinansa
translative -uksekseen
-ukseksensa
-uksikseen
-uksiksensa
abessive -uksettaan
-uksettansa
-uksittaan
-uksittansa
instructive
comitative -uksineen
-uksinensa
Alternative forms edit
  • -tus (used with the verb types rohkaista (66) and valita (69))
Synonyms edit
  • -mus (used with the verb types sallia (61), and in some cases, sanoa (52) and muistaa (53))
Derived terms edit

Etymology 2 edit

From Proto-Finnic *-us. Probably generalized from -s-derivatives of u-stem nominals (e.g. etu-edus, palvelupalvelus), or through the loss of a plain u-derivative from the standard language (e.g. keski- → dial. kesku-keskus), and thus identical to etymology 1. In some cases potentially by confusion with -uus, -us (etymology 3). Alternatively from Proto-Uralic *-wikse.

Suffix edit

-us (front vowel harmony variant -ys, linguistic notation -Us)

  1. Forms nouns, indicating resemblance or association.
    kanta (base) + ‎-us → ‎kannus (spur)
    sormi (finger) + ‎-us → ‎sormus (ring)
    vasta- (counter-) + ‎-us → ‎vastus (resistance, opposition)
    kehä (circle, ring) + ‎-us → ‎kehys (frame)
    syli (bosom, lap) + ‎-us → ‎sylys (armful)
    typerä (stupid) + ‎-us → ‎typerys (fool)
Declension edit
Inflection of -us (Kotus type 39/vastaus, no gradation)
nominative -us -ukset
genitive -uksen -usten
-uksien
partitive -usta -uksia
illative -ukseen -uksiin
singular plural
nominative -us -ukset
accusative nom. -us -ukset
gen. -uksen
genitive -uksen -usten
-uksien
partitive -usta -uksia
inessive -uksessa -uksissa
elative -uksesta -uksista
illative -ukseen -uksiin
adessive -uksella -uksilla
ablative -ukselta -uksilta
allative -ukselle -uksille
essive -uksena -uksina
translative -ukseksi -uksiksi
abessive -uksetta -uksitta
instructive -uksin
comitative See the possessive forms below.
Possessive forms of -us (Kotus type 39/vastaus, no gradation)
first-person singular possessor
singular plural
nominative -ukseni -ukseni
accusative nom. -ukseni -ukseni
gen. -ukseni
genitive -ukseni -usteni
-uksieni
partitive -ustani -uksiani
inessive -uksessani -uksissani
elative -uksestani -uksistani
illative -ukseeni -uksiini
adessive -uksellani -uksillani
ablative -ukseltani -uksiltani
allative -ukselleni -uksilleni
essive -uksenani -uksinani
translative -uksekseni -uksikseni
abessive -uksettani -uksittani
instructive
comitative -uksineni
second-person singular possessor
singular plural
nominative -uksesi -uksesi
accusative nom. -uksesi -uksesi
gen. -uksesi
genitive -uksesi -ustesi
-uksiesi
partitive -ustasi -uksiasi
inessive -uksessasi -uksissasi
elative -uksestasi -uksistasi
illative -ukseesi -uksiisi
adessive -uksellasi -uksillasi
ablative -ukseltasi -uksiltasi
allative -uksellesi -uksillesi
essive -uksenasi -uksinasi
translative -ukseksesi -uksiksesi
abessive -uksettasi -uksittasi
instructive
comitative -uksinesi
first-person plural possessor
singular plural
nominative -uksemme -uksemme
accusative nom. -uksemme -uksemme
gen. -uksemme
genitive -uksemme -ustemme
-uksiemme
partitive -ustamme -uksiamme
inessive -uksessamme -uksissamme
elative -uksestamme -uksistamme
illative -ukseemme -uksiimme
adessive -uksellamme -uksillamme
ablative -ukseltamme -uksiltamme
allative -uksellemme -uksillemme
essive -uksenamme -uksinamme
translative -ukseksemme -uksiksemme
abessive -uksettamme -uksittamme
instructive
comitative -uksinemme
second-person plural possessor
singular plural
nominative -uksenne -uksenne
accusative nom. -uksenne -uksenne
gen. -uksenne
genitive -uksenne -ustenne
-uksienne
partitive -ustanne -uksianne
inessive -uksessanne -uksissanne
elative -uksestanne -uksistanne
illative -ukseenne -uksiinne
adessive -uksellanne -uksillanne
ablative -ukseltanne -uksiltanne
allative -uksellenne -uksillenne
essive -uksenanne -uksinanne
translative -ukseksenne -uksiksenne
abessive -uksettanne -uksittanne
instructive
comitative -uksinenne
third-person possessor
singular plural
nominative -uksensa -uksensa
accusative nom. -uksensa -uksensa
gen. -uksensa
genitive -uksensa -ustensa
-uksiensa
partitive -ustaan
-ustansa
-uksiaan
-uksiansa
inessive -uksessaan
-uksessansa
-uksissaan
-uksissansa
elative -uksestaan
-uksestansa
-uksistaan
-uksistansa
illative -ukseensa -uksiinsa
adessive -uksellaan
-uksellansa
-uksillaan
-uksillansa
ablative -ukseltaan
-ukseltansa
-uksiltaan
-uksiltansa
allative -ukselleen
-uksellensa
-uksilleen
-uksillensa
essive -uksenaan
-uksenansa
-uksinaan
-uksinansa
translative -uksekseen
-ukseksensa
-uksikseen
-uksiksensa
abessive -uksettaan
-uksettansa
-uksittaan
-uksittansa
instructive
comitative -uksineen
-uksinensa
Derived terms edit

Etymology 3 edit

See the etymology of -uus.

Suffix edit

-us (front vowel harmony variant -ys, linguistic notation -Us)

  1. Short form of the suffix -uus, used where the stem of the root adjective ends in a vowel.
Declension edit
Inflection of -us (Kotus type 40*F/kalleus, t-d gradation)
nominative -us -udet
genitive -uden -uksien
partitive -utta -uksia
illative -uteen -uksiin
singular plural
nominative -us -udet
accusative nom. -us -udet
gen. -uden
genitive -uden -uksien
partitive -utta -uksia
inessive -udessa -uksissa
elative -udesta -uksista
illative -uteen -uksiin
adessive -udella -uksilla
ablative -udelta -uksilta
allative -udelle -uksille
essive -utena -uksina
translative -udeksi -uksiksi
abessive -udetta -uksitta
instructive -uksin
comitative See the possessive forms below.
Possessive forms of -us (Kotus type 40*F/kalleus, t-d gradation)
first-person singular possessor
singular plural
nominative -uteni -uteni
accusative nom. -uteni -uteni
gen. -uteni
genitive -uteni -uksieni
partitive -uttani -uksiani
inessive -udessani -uksissani
elative -udestani -uksistani
illative -uteeni -uksiini
adessive -udellani -uksillani
ablative -udeltani -uksiltani
allative -udelleni -uksilleni
essive -utenani -uksinani
translative -udekseni -uksikseni
abessive -udettani -uksittani
instructive
comitative -uksineni
second-person singular possessor
singular plural
nominative -utesi -utesi
accusative nom. -utesi -utesi
gen. -utesi
genitive -utesi -uksiesi
partitive -uttasi -uksiasi
inessive -udessasi -uksissasi
elative -udestasi -uksistasi
illative -uteesi -uksiisi
adessive -udellasi -uksillasi
ablative -udeltasi -uksiltasi
allative -udellesi -uksillesi
essive -utenasi -uksinasi
translative -udeksesi -uksiksesi
abessive -udettasi -uksittasi
instructive
comitative -uksinesi
first-person plural possessor
singular plural
nominative -utemme -utemme
accusative nom. -utemme -utemme
gen. -utemme
genitive -utemme -uksiemme
partitive -uttamme -uksiamme
inessive -udessamme -uksissamme
elative -udestamme -uksistamme
illative -uteemme -uksiimme
adessive -udellamme -uksillamme
ablative -udeltamme -uksiltamme
allative -udellemme -uksillemme
essive -utenamme -uksinamme
translative -udeksemme -uksiksemme
abessive -udettamme -uksittamme
instructive
comitative -uksinemme
second-person plural possessor
singular plural
nominative -utenne -utenne
accusative nom. -utenne -utenne
gen. -utenne
genitive -utenne -uksienne
partitive -uttanne -uksianne
inessive -udessanne -uksissanne
elative -udestanne -uksistanne
illative -uteenne -uksiinne
adessive -udellanne -uksillanne
ablative -udeltanne -uksiltanne
allative -udellenne -uksillenne
essive -utenanne -uksinanne
translative -udeksenne -uksiksenne
abessive -udettanne -uksittanne
instructive
comitative -uksinenne
third-person possessor
singular plural
nominative -utensa -utensa
accusative nom. -utensa -utensa
gen. -utensa
genitive -utensa -uksiensa
partitive -uttaan
-uttansa
-uksiaan
-uksiansa
inessive -udessaan
-udessansa
-uksissaan
-uksissansa
elative -udestaan
-udestansa
-uksistaan
-uksistansa
illative -uteensa -uksiinsa
adessive -udellaan
-udellansa
-uksillaan
-uksillansa
ablative -udeltaan
-udeltansa
-uksiltaan
-uksiltansa
allative -udelleen
-udellensa
-uksilleen
-uksillensa
essive -utenaan
-utenansa
-uksinaan
-uksinansa
translative -udekseen
-udeksensa
-uksikseen
-uksiksensa
abessive -udettaan
-udettansa
-uksittaan
-uksittansa
instructive
comitative -uksineen
-uksinensa
Derived terms edit

Anagrams edit

Hungarian edit

Etymology edit

From -u (diminutive suffix) +‎ -s (diminutive suffix).[1]

Pronunciation edit

Suffix edit

-us

  1. (diminutive suffix) Added to a proper noun or other nouns to create a diminutive noun.
    Teréz (Theresa)Terus (Tess)
    apa (father)apus (dad)
    cica (cat)cicus (kitty)
    kutya (dog)kutyus (pooch, puppy)
  2. A distinguishable foreign word ending in nouns. It cannot be considered as an independent Hungarian suffix.
    agronómus (agronomist)

Usage notes edit

  • (diminutive suffix): It creates diminutive or affectionate forms, most of the time of people’s given names, but also of common nouns, usually from ones ending in -a. Other examples: Anna → Annus, Magda → Magdus, Gyula → Gyulus. The -ka diminutive suffix can also be appended after -us to further increase the degree of endearment: apuska, cicuska, kutyuska, Annuska, Magduska.

Derived terms edit

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ -us in Zaicz, Gábor (ed.). Etimológiai szótár: Magyar szavak és toldalékok eredete (‘Dictionary of Etymology: The origin of Hungarian words and affixes’). Budapest: Tinta Könyvkiadó, 2006, →ISBN.  (See also its 2nd edition.)

Ingrian edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Proto-Finnic *-us. Cognates include Finnish -us.

Pronunciation edit

Suffix edit

-us (front vowel variant -ys)

  1. Forms nouns denoting resemblance.
    pääl (above) + ‎-us → ‎päälys (surface)
Declension edit
Declension of -us (type 2/petos, no gradation)
singular plural
nominative -us -ukset
genitive -uksen -uksiin
partitive -usta, -ust -uksia
illative -uksee -uksii
inessive -uksees -uksiis
elative -uksest -uksist
allative -ukselle -uksille
adessive -ukseel -uksiil
ablative -ukselt -uksilt
translative -ukseks -uksiks
essive -uksenna, -ukseen -uksinna, -uksiin
exessive1) -uksent -uksint
1) obsolete
*) the accusative corresponds with either the genitive (sg) or nominative (pl)
**) the comitative is formed by adding the suffix -ka? or -kä? to the genitive.
Derived terms edit

Etymology 2 edit

See the etymology of the corresponding lemma form.

Pronunciation edit

Suffix edit

-us (front vowel variant -ys)

  1. Alternative form of -uus
Declension edit
Declension of -us (type 2/oikehus, no gradation)
singular plural
nominative -us -uet
genitive -uen -uksin
partitive -utta -uksia
illative -uee -uksii
inessive -uees -uksiis
elative -uest -uksist
allative -uelle -uksille
adessive -ueel -uksiil
ablative -uelt -uksilt
translative -ueks -uksiks
essive -uenna, -ueen -uksinna, -uksiin
exessive1) -uent -uksint
1) obsolete
*) the accusative corresponds with either the genitive (sg) or nominative (pl)
**) the comitative is formed by adding the suffix -ka? or -kä? to the genitive.
Derived terms edit

References edit

  • V. I. Junus (1936) Iƶoran Keelen Grammatikka[1], Leningrad: Riikin Ucebno-pedagogiceskoi Izdateljstva, page 57

Latin edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Old Latin -os, from Proto-Italic *-os, from Proto-Indo-European *-os (adjectival ending). Cognate with Ancient Greek -ος (-os), Proto-Germanic *-az, Icelandic -ur, Sanskrit -अः (-aḥ), Proto-Slavic *-ъ.

Pronunciation edit

Suffix edit

-us

  1. suffix of nouns in the second declension.
    1. (chiefly) nominative singular of -us
    2. (uncommon) nominative/accusative/vocative singular of -us for second-declension neuter nouns.
      vīrus; vulgus; pelagusrammish smell; common people, crowd; sea
  2. suffix of adjectives in the first/second declension.
    1. (chiefly) nominative singular of -us
  3. (New Latin) suffix used to Latinize names ending in consonants.
Declension edit
Second-declension noun forms

Second-declension noun, with locative.

Case Singular Plural
Nominative -us
Genitive -ōrum
Dative -īs
Accusative -um -ōs
Ablative -īs
Vocative -e
Locative -īs

Second-declension noun (neuter, nominative/accusative/vocative plural in -a).

Case Singular Plural
Nominative -us -a
Genitive -ōrum
Dative -īs
Accusative -us -a
Ablative -īs
Vocative -us -a

Note: The plural exists for New Latin vīrus.

Adjective forms

First/second-declension adjective, with locative.

Number Singular Plural
Case / Gender Masculine Feminine Neuter Masculine Feminine Neuter
Nominative -us -a -um -ae -a
Genitive -ae -ōrum -ārum -ōrum
Dative -īs
Accusative -um -am -um -ōs -ās -a
Ablative -īs
Vocative -e -a -um -ae -a
Locative -ae -īs
Derived terms edit

Etymology 2 edit

Generally from Proto-Indo-European *-os (suffix forming neuter s-stem nouns from verbs), as in genus n from *ǵénh₁os n (race). Not a productive derivational suffix in Latin. The plural and oblique case forms have -r- as the result of the sound change of rhotacism. Additionally, in many words, the oblique stem has the vowel -ĕ- (as in generis), which is generally taken to be the phonetically regular development of the Proto-Indo-European forms. Some words, such as as decus, decoris, instead have -ŏ- in the oblique stem; this is the result of analogical introduction of the rounded vowel from the nominative/accusative singular form.

Pronunciation edit

Suffix edit

-us

  1. ending of some neuter nouns in the third declension.
    1. nominative/accusative/vocative singular of -us
Declension edit
Third-declension noun forms

Third-declension noun (neuter, imparisyllabic non-i-stem).

Case Singular Plural
Nominative -us -ora
Genitive -oris -orum
Dative -orī -oribus
Accusative -us -ora
Ablative -ore -oribus
Vocative -us -ora

Third-declension noun (neuter, imparisyllabic non-i-stem).

Case Singular Plural
Nominative -us -era
Genitive -eris -erum
Dative -erī -eribus
Accusative -us -era
Ablative -ere -eribus
Vocative -us -era

From the noun tempus, the locative forms temperī and temporī were used adverbially, as well as the ablative tempore.

Descendants edit
  • Romanian: -uri (from the plural -ora, with the final vowel replaced due to analogy with feminine plural forms)[1][2]

Etymology 3 edit

Not a single suffix, but an ending of various miscellaneous origins. In most words, from Old Latin -us, from Proto-Italic *-us, from Proto-Indo-European *-us as the final part of Proto-Indo-European *-tus (suffix deriving action nouns from verb roots).

Pronunciation edit

Suffix edit

-us

  1. nominative/vocative singular of -us for nouns in the fourth declension.
Declension edit
Fourth-declension noun forms

Fourth-declension noun.

Case Singular Plural
Nominative -us -ūs
Genitive -ūs -uum
Dative -uī -ibus
Accusative -um -ūs
Ablative -ibus
Vocative -us -ūs

Fourth-declension noun (dative/ablative plural in -ubus).

Case Singular Plural
Nominative -us -ūs
Genitive -ūs -uum
Dative -uī -ubus
Accusative -um -ūs
Ablative -ubus
Vocative -us -ūs

Suffix edit

-ūs

  1. nominative/vocative plural of -us for fourth-declension nouns.
  2. genitive singular of -us for fourth-declension nouns.
  3. accusative plural of -us for fourth-declension nouns.

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ Nicolae, Andreea and Scontras, Gregory, 2015. "The Progression of Gender from Latin to Romanian," page 87
  2. ^ Maiden, Martin. January 2016. "Ambiguity in Romanian word-structure. The structure of plurals in ...uri" Revue Roumaine de Linguistique 61(1):3-12

Lithuanian edit

Etymology 1 edit

Ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *-ós (adjectival ending). Pairs such as lañkas (bend) : lankùs (flexible) find parallels in Sanskrit रुधिर (rúdhira-, blood) : रुधिर (rudhirá-, red), Ancient Greek δόλιχος (dólikhos, a long run) : δολιχός (dolikhós, long) and suggest that oxytone stress was used to mark adjectives in Proto-Indo-European. In Proto-Balto-Slavic, the raising of *o to *u must have been conditioned by stress, with the ending *-os giving Lithuanian -ùs under stress and -as otherwise.[1]

Pronunciation edit

Suffix edit

-ùs m stress pattern 4

  1. Adjectival suffix, applied to verbal and nominal roots to denote a disposal or tendency towards something
    ardýti (take apart)ardùs (crumbly)
    kalbėti (talk)kalbùs (talkative)
Declension edit
Derived terms edit

Etymology 2 edit

From Proto-Balto-Slavic *-us, reflecting Proto-Indo-European u-stems.

Alternative forms edit

Pronunciation edit

Suffix edit

-us, -ùs m

  1. Masculine nominal singular ending for u-stem nouns and adjectives.
    alùs (beer) (< Proto-Indo-European *h₂elu-)
    sūnùs (son) (< Proto-Indo-European *suHnús)
Declension edit

(noun):

(adjective):

Etymology 3 edit

From an older *-uos (compare the pronominal ending -uosius). From Proto-Balto-Slavic *-ons; compare Latvian -us, Old Prussian -ans, Proto-Slavic *-y. From Proto-Indo-European *-ons (accusative plural ending), also reflected in Ancient Greek -ους (-ous), Latin -ōs, Sanskrit -आन् (-ān) and Gothic -𐌰𐌽𐍃 (-ans).

Alternative forms edit

Pronunciation edit

Suffix edit

-us, -ùs

  1. Used to form accusative plurals of masculine a- and u-stem nouns.
  2. Used to form accusative plurals of masculine a-stem adjectives.
Derived terms edit

Etymology 4 edit

From Proto-Indo-European *-wōs. Cognate with Proto-Slavic *-vъ. See also -usi.

Alternative forms edit

Pronunciation edit

Suffix edit

-us

  1. Used to form the past adverbial (padalyvis) participle
    bū́ti (to be)bùvo (was)bùvus (having been)
    slė̃pti (hide)past frequentative slė̃pdavo (hid)slė̃pdavus (having hidden)
Related terms edit

References edit

  1. ^ Eugen Hill. (2013) 'Historical phonology in service of subgrouping. Two laws of final syllables in the common prehistory of baltic and slavonic'. Baltistica, volume 48, number 2, p. 161-204

Livvi edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Finnic *-us. Cognates include Finnish -us and Estonian -us.

Pronunciation edit

Suffix edit

-us (front vowel variant -ys)

  1. Used to form action nouns from verbs; -ion

Derived terms edit

Middle English edit

Suffix edit

-us

  1. Alternative form of -ous

Middle Welsh edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Brythonic *-ʉs, from Latin -ōsus.[1] Cognate with Cornish -us.

Suffix edit

-us

  1. -ous, full of, prone to; used to form adjectives from nouns

Derived terms edit

Descendants edit

References edit

  1. ^ J. Morris Jones, A Welsh Grammar, Historical and Comparative (Oxford 1913), § 153 i 13.

Northern Sami edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Samic *-ōksë.

Pronunciation edit

  This entry needs pronunciation information. If you are familiar with the IPA then please add some!

Suffix edit

-us

  1. Forms nouns from verbs, indicating something that is to have the verb's action performed on it.
    vuošˈšat (to cook) + ‎-us → ‎vuoššus (something to be cooked)
    muitalit (to tell) + ‎-us → ‎muitalus (something to be told; story)
  2. Forms nouns from verbs, indicating something that results from having the verb's action performed.
    juohkit (to divide) + ‎-us → ‎juogus (division, section)

Usage notes edit

  • This suffix triggers the weak grade on a preceding stressed syllable in the nominative singular and essive, and the strong grade in the other forms.

When attached to even-syllable stems, there is diphthong simplification in all forms except the nominative singular and essive.

Inflection edit

For even-syllable stems:

Odd, no gradation
Nominative -us
Genitive -usa
Singular Plural
Nominative -us -usat
Accusative -usa -usiid
Genitive -usa -usiid
Illative -usii -usiidda
Locative -usis -usiin
Comitative -usiin -usiiguin
Essive -usin
Possessive forms
Singular Dual Plural
1st person -usan -useamẹ -useamẹt
2nd person -usat -useattẹ -useattẹt
3rd person -usis -useaskkạ -useasẹt

For odd-syllable stems:

Even a-stem, ss-s gradation
Nominative -us
Genitive -usa
Singular Plural
Nominative -us -usat
Accusative -usa -usaid
Genitive -usa -usaid
Illative -ussii -usaide
Locative -usas -usain
Comitative -usain -usaiguin
Essive -ussan
Possessive forms
Singular Dual Plural
1st person -ussan -ussame -ussamet
2nd person -ussat -ussade -ussadet
3rd person -ussas -ussaska -ussaset

Derived terms edit

Old French edit

Alternative forms edit

Etymology edit

From Latin -ōsus.

Suffix edit

-us

  1. -ous, used for forming adjectives

Derived terms edit

Descendants edit

Old Irish edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Proto-Celtic *-es-tus.

Pronunciation edit

Suffix edit

-us

  1. Alternative form of -as

Etymology 2 edit

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Suffix edit

-us (suffixed pronoun)

  1. her (object pronoun), it (in reference to a feminine noun)
  2. them
Derived terms edit
See also edit

Polish edit

Etymology edit

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): /us/
  • Rhymes: -us
  • Syllabification: us

Suffix edit

-us

  1. derogatory suffix
    sługa + ‎-us → ‎sługus
  2. demonym suffix
    Kraków + ‎-us → ‎krakus

Derived terms edit

Further reading edit

  • -us in Polish dictionaries at PWN

Welsh edit

Etymology edit

From Middle Welsh -us, from Proto-Brythonic *-ʉs, from Latin -ōsus.[1] Cognate with Cornish -us, Breton -us and English -ous.

Pronunciation edit

Suffix edit

-us

  1. adjectival suffix often indicating a characteristic, propensity or abundance
    blas (taste) + ‎-us → ‎blasus (tasty)
    gwybod (to know) + ‎-us → ‎gwybodus (knowledgeable)
    anffawd (misfortune) + ‎-us → ‎anffodus (unfortunate)
  2. (chemistry) -ous, Used in chemical nomenclature to name chemical compounds in which a specified chemical element has a lower oxidation number than in the equivalent compound whose name ends in the suffix -ig. For example asid nitrus (nitrous acid, HNO2) has fewer oxygen atoms per molecule than asid nitrig (nitric acid, HNO3).

Derived terms edit

References edit

  1. ^ Morris Jones, John (1913) A Welsh Grammar, Historical and Comparative, Oxford: Clarendon Press, § 153 i 13

Further reading edit

  • R. J. Thomas, G. A. Bevan, P. J. Donovan, A. Hawke et al., editors (1950–present), “-us”, in Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru Online (in Welsh), University of Wales Centre for Advanced Welsh & Celtic Studies