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U+60A8, 您
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-60A8

[U+60A7]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+60A9]

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 61, +7, 11 strokes, cangjie input 人火心 (OFP), four-corner 27339, composition)

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: not present, would follow page 388, character 34
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 10712
  • Dae Jaweon: page 721, character 23
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 4, page 2301, character 2
  • Unihan data for U+60A8

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.
variant forms
𠑓

Glyph originEdit

Ideogrammic compound (會意):  (you) +  (heart).

EtymologyEdit

This character was not listed in Sui/Tang rhyme books. First attested in Jin/Yuan-era novels, when it was also written as (MC ȵiɪm, ȵiɪmX), and occurred predominantly in attributive environments, forming complementary distribution with () in other cases. Originally, was a pronoun for both 2nd sg. and 2nd pl., and 你每 (nǐměi) (> 你們你们 (nǐmen)) was an equilibrating disyllabic version of 您, which retains the -m syllable coda of disappearing in Mandarin. Later, in the Beijing dialect, - (men) was restricted to purely a plural suffix, and restricted to purely a 2nd sg. honorific pronoun, although the 2nd pl. hon. 您們您们 (nínmen) is still considered ungrammatical by some speakers. The plural sense of is retained in the Tianjin dialect:

外頭溜達溜達 [Tianjin Mandarin, trad.]
外头溜达溜达 [Tianjin Mandarin, simp.]
Nín le xiān liáo, wǒ dào wàitóu liūda liūda. [Pinyin]
Please continue your conversation. I'll just be having a walk outside.

[1][2]

PronunciationEdit


DefinitionsEdit

  1. (polite, honorific) you
  2. (dialectal) you (plural)

SynonymsEdit

Dialectal synonyms of (“you (singular)”) [map]
Variety Location Words
Classical Chinese , , , , , , , honorific, honorific
Formal (Written Standard Chinese)
Mandarin Beijing , honorific
Taiwan , honorific
Harbin , honorific
Shenyang
Hailar
Ulanhot
Tongliao
Chifeng , honorific
Bayanhot , honorific
Jinan
Muping
Luoyang
Wanrong
Xi'an
Zhengzhou
Xining ,
Xuzhou ,
Yinchuan
Lanzhou
Ürümqi
Wuhan , 你家 honorific
Chengdu
Guiyang
Liuzhou
Kunming
Yangzhou
Nanjing
Hefei
Nantong
Malaysia , honorific
Singapore , honorific
Cantonese Guangzhou
Hong Kong
Hong Kong (Kam Tin Weitou)
Macau
Panyu
Huadu (Huashan)
Conghua
Zengcheng
Foshan
Nanhai (Shatou)
Shunde
Sanshui
Gaoming (Mingcheng)
Zhongshan (Shiqi)
Zhuhai (Qianshan)
Doumen (Shangheng Tanka)
Doumen
Jiangmen (Baisha)
Xinhui
Taishan
Kaiping (Chikan)
Enping (Niujiang)
Heshan (Yayao)
Dongguan
Bao'an (Shajing)
Shaoguan
Yunfu
Yangjiang
Xinyi
Lianjiang
Danzhou
Kuala Lumpur
Gan Nanchang
Lichuan
Pingxiang ,
Hakka Meixian
Xingning
Huidong (Daling)
Qujiang
Lianshan (Xiaosanjiang)
Changting
Pingyu
Wuping
Liancheng
Ninghua
Yudu
Ruijin
Shicheng
Shangyou
Miaoli (N. Sixian)
Liudui (S. Sixian)
Hsinchu (Hailu)
Dongshi (Dabu)
Hsinchu (Raoping)
Yunlin (Zhao'an)
Hong Kong
Sabah
Senai
Singkawang
Huizhou Jixi , 爾仂
Shexian
Tunxi , 爾仂
Jin Taiyuan
Xinzhou , 你吶 honorific
Baochang , honorific
Jining , honorific
Hohhot , honorific
Baotou , honorific
Dongsheng , honorific
Linhe , honorific
Haibowan , honorific
Min Bei Jian'ou
Dikou
Songxi
Zhenghe
Zhenqian
Jianyang
Wuyishan
Shibei
Min Dong Fuzhou
Changle
Fuqing
Pingtan
Yongtai
Gutian
Fu'an
Ningde
Shouning
Zhouning
Fuding
Matsu
Min Nan Xiamen
Quanzhou
Zhangzhou
Taipei
Kaohsiung
Tainan
Taichung
Wuqi
Hsinchu
Taitung
Lukang
Sanxia
Yilan
Kinmen
Magong
Penang
Singapore
Philippines (Manila)
Chaozhou
Shantou
Haifeng
Johor Bahru
Wenchang
Haikou
Leizhou
Puxian Min Putian
Xianyou
Pinghua Nanning (Tingzi)
Wu Shanghai
Suzhou
Wuxi
Hangzhou
Wenzhou
Chongming
Danyang
Jinhua
Tangxi , 爾儂
Ningbo , , 爾儂
Xiang Changsha
Shuangfeng
Xiangtan
Loudi
Dialectal synonyms of 你們 (“you (plural)”) [map]
Variety Location Words
Classical Chinese , 爾等, 汝輩, 爾曹, 汝曹, 若屬
Formal (Written Standard Chinese) 你們
Mandarin Beijing 你們
Taiwan 你們
Tianjin 你們
Harbin 你們
Shenyang 你們
Hailar 你們
Ulanhot 你們
Tongliao 你們
Chifeng 你們
Bayanhot 你們
Jinan 你們, 你這伙
Muping
Luoyang 你們, 你家們
Wanrong 你底,
Xi'an 你的, , 你們
Qingdao
Zhengzhou
Xining 你們
Xuzhou , 你們
Yinchuan 你們
Lanzhou 你們
Ürümqi 你們
Wuhan 你們, 你家們
Huanggang 你家兒
Chengdu 你們
Guiyang 你們
Guilin 你們
Liuzhou 你們
Kunming 你們
Yangzhou 你們
Nanjing 你們
Hefei 你們
Nantong 你恁
Malaysia 你們
Singapore 你們
Sokuluk (Gansu Dungan) 你們
Cantonese Guangzhou 你哋
Hong Kong 你哋
Hong Kong (San Tin Weitou) 你人, 你哋
Foshan 你哋
Shunde 你哋
Zhongshan (Shiqi) 你哋
Doumen (Shangheng Tanka) 你哋
Doumen
Taishan
Kaiping (Chikan)
Dongguan 你哋
Shaoguan 你哋
Yunfu 你哋
Yangjiang
Xinyi 你哋
Lianjiang 你哋
Nanning 你哋
Wuzhou 你哋
Yulin 你人
Hepu 你嘅
Kuala Lumpur 你哋
Ho Chi Minh City 你哋
Gan Nanchang 你們, 你個裡
Lichuan 汝多
Pingxiang 你俚, 恨俚
Hakka Meixian 你等人, 你兜人
Xingning 你兜人
Huidong (Daling) 若兜人
Qujiang 你俚
Luchuan 你們
Changting 你儕們
Pingyu 你兜, 你等人
Wuping 你等人
Liancheng 你塔沙
Ninghua 你等人
Yudu 你底, 你支人
Ruijin 你班人, 你班
Shicheng 你當人, 你當
Shangyou 你支人, 你等
Miaoli (N. Sixian) 你兜, 你兜人, 你兜儕, 你這兜
Liudui (S. Sixian) 你等, 你等人, 你等儕, 你這兜, 你等這兜
Hsinchu (Hailu) 你兜, 你兜人, 你兜儕, 你這兜
Dongshi (Dabu) 若等, 若這兜, 若這兜人
Hsinchu (Raoping) 你兜, 你兜人, 你兜儕, 你這兜
Yunlin (Zhao'an) 你人, 你這兜
Hong Kong 若兜
Sabah (Longchuan) 若兜, 你兜
Senai 若兜
Singkawang 你兜儕
Huizhou Jixi 爾人
Shexian 爾人
Tunxi 爾人
Xiuning 爾人
Yixian 爾儂
Qimen 爾大家
Wuyuan 爾骯
Dexing 爾們
Jingde 爾伲
Xianyu (formerly Zhanda) 你些人
Jin Taiyuan 你們
Pingyao , 年們家, 年們
Xinzhou 𪡇們, 𪡇
Baochang 你們
Jining 你們
Hohhot 你們
Baotou 你們
Dongsheng 你們
Linhe 你們
Haibowan 你們
Min Bei Jian'ou 你伙人, 你人
Dikou 你人
Songxi 你叢人
Zhenghe 你人
Zhenqian 汝人
Jianyang 你伙人
Wuyishan 你伙人
Shibei 你人, 你多人
Min Dong Fuzhou 汝各儂, 汝儂
Fuqing 汝各儂
Yongtai 汝各儂
Gutian 汝各儂
Fu'an 汝儕
Ningde 汝各儂
Shouning 汝儕家儂
Zhouning 汝儕
Fuding 汝儂
Matsu 汝各儂
Min Nan Xiamen
Tong'an
Quanzhou
Jinjiang
Nan'an
Hui'an
Anxi
Yongchun
Dehua
Zhangzhou
Longhai
Changtai
Hua'an
Nanjing
Pinghe
Zhangpu
Yunxiao
Zhao'an
Taipei
Kaohsiung
Tainan
Taichung
Wuqi
Hsinchu
Taitung 恁逐家
Lukang
Sanxia
Yilan
Kinmen
Magong
Penang 汝儂
Singapore 汝儂, 恁儂
Philippines (Manila)
Longyan 汝儂
Zhangping 汝儂
Zhangping (Yongfu) 汝儂
Datian 汝伙
Pingnan (Shangdu) 恁儂
Chaozhou
Shantou
Haifeng , 恁儂
Johor Bahru
Wenchang 汝儂
Haikou 汝儂
Leizhou 汝儂
Puxian Min Putian 汝輩
Xianyou
Pinghua Nanning (Tingzi) 你哋
Guilin (Dahe) 你哋
Shehua Fu'an 你人
Fuding 你人
Luoyuan 你人
Sanming 你仔
Cangnan 你人
Wu Shanghai
Suzhou 你篤
Wuxi 你哩
Hangzhou 你們
Wenzhou 你倈
Chongming 你𭉪, 你勒
Danyang 你己
Jinhua , 儂浪, 爾浪
Tangxi 爾道
Ningbo 爾㑚, 㑚拉,
Xiang Changsha 你們, 你屋裡
Shuangfeng 你哩
Xiangtan 你人
Loudi 你㑲
Quanzhou 你們,

CompoundsEdit

See alsoEdit

Standard Chinese personal pronouns
Person Singular Plural
1st () 我們我们 (wǒmen)
inclusive 咱們咱们 (zánmen)
2nd male/indefinite () 你們你们 (nǐmen)
female () 妳們你们 (nǐmen)
deity () 祢們祢们 (nǐmen)
polite (nín) 你們你们 (nǐmen)
您們您们 (nínmen)
3rd male/indefinite () 他們他们 (tāmen)
female () 她們她们 (tāmen)
deity () 祂們祂们 (tāmen)
animal () 牠們它们 (tāmen)
inanimate () 它們它们 (tāmen)

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ 吕叔湘 (Lü Shuxiang),《释您,俺,咱,喒,附论们字》,in 《吕叔湘全集》第二卷 汉语语法论文集。
  2. ^ 张俊阁,《近代汉语第二人称代词“您(恁)”的来源》,聊城大学学报(社会科学版),2010年第1期。

JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(uncommon “Hyōgai” kanji)

  1. You

ReadingsEdit


VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

(nâm)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.