See also: and
U+723E, 爾
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-723E

[U+723D]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+723F]

TranslingualEdit

Han characterEdit

(radical 89, +10, 14 strokes, cangjie input 一火月大 (MFBK), four-corner 10227)

DescendantsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 691, character 4
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 19750
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1104, character 3
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 27, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+723E

ChineseEdit

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Small seal script
       

Pictogram (象形) – cloth on a loom, with threads crossing – original form of (OC *niːlʔ, “loom”). Used phonetically.

Etymology 1Edit

trad.
simp.
alternative forms
𡭗

𠇍
“you; your”
From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *na-ŋ (you).
"that"
Cognate with (, “that”), (OC *njaɡ, “that”) (Schuessler, 2007). See () for more.

PronunciationEdit



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /əɻ²¹⁴/
Harbin /ɚ²¹³/
Tianjin /ə¹³/
Jinan /əɻ⁵⁵/
Qingdao /əɻ⁵⁵/
/ɭə⁵⁵/
Zhengzhou /ɭ⁵³/
Xi'an /əɻ⁵³/
Xining /ɛ⁵³/
Yinchuan /əɻ⁵³/
Lanzhou /ɯ⁵³/
Ürümqi /ɚ⁵¹/
Wuhan /ɯ⁴²/
Chengdu /əɻ⁵³/
Guiyang /ɚ⁴²/
Kunming /ə⁵³/
Nanjing /əɻ²¹²/
Hefei /a²⁴/
Jin Taiyuan /əɻ⁵³/
Pingyao /əɻ³⁵/
Hohhot /aɻ⁵³/
Wu Shanghai /əl²³/
Suzhou /əl⁵⁵/
Hangzhou /əl⁵³/
Wenzhou /zz̩³⁵/
Hui Shexian /ɛ⁴⁴/
/n̩³⁵/
Tunxi
Xiang Changsha /ə⁴¹/
Xiangtan /e⁴²/
Gan Nanchang /ɵ²¹³/
Hakka Meixian /ni⁴⁴/
/ni³¹/
Taoyuan /ni¹¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /ji²³/
Nanning /ji²⁴/
Hong Kong /ji²³/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /ni⁵³/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /i³²/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /œ²¹/
Shantou (Min Nan) /zɯ⁵³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /le³¹/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (38)
Final () (11)
Tone (調) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ȵiᴇX/
Pan
Wuyun
/ȵiɛX/
Shao
Rongfen
/ȵʑjɛX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ȵiə̆X/
Li
Rong
/ȵieX/
Wang
Li
/ȵʑǐeX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ȵʑie̯X/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
ěr
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/3 2/3 3/3
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
ěr ěr ěr
Middle
Chinese
‹ nejX › ‹ nyeX › ‹ nyeX ›
Old
Chinese
/*nˁ[ə][r]ʔ/ /*n[ə][r]ʔ/ /*n[ə][r]ʔ/
English numerous (adv. suffix) you(r)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 2817
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
2
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*njelʔ/
Notes

DefinitionsEdit

  1. (literary or dialectal) you; your
  2. (literary) so; this way
  3. (literary) this; that
  4. (of flowers) exuberant
  5. final particle
  6. A surname​.
SynonymsEdit

CompoundsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

trad.
simp.
alternative forms

PronunciationEdit

DefinitionsEdit

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

CompoundsEdit

Etymology 3Edit

trad.
simp.
alternative forms

PronunciationEdit


Note: niâ - contraction of 爾爾尔尔 (niā-niā).

DefinitionsEdit

  1. (Hokkien) that's all; nothing more; is all

CompoundsEdit

Etymology 4Edit

trad.
simp.

PronunciationEdit

DefinitionsEdit

  1. (Hokkien) only

JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(“Jinmeiyō” kanji used for names)

ReadingsEdit

CompoundsEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Kanji in this term

Jinmeiyō
kan’on

From Middle Chinese (MC ȵiᴇX).

AffixEdit

() (ji

  1. second person archaic pronoun: thou, you
  2. distal pronoun equivalent to modern それ (sore) or その (sono): that
  3. auxiliary character in 漢文 (kanbun) texts indicating state or condition

Derived termsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

Kanji in this term
おれ
Jinmeiyō
Irregular
Alternative spelling

From Old Japanese, found in use mostly from ancient times until roughly the Heian period,[1] used to refer in the second person to social inferiors or to insult.[1][2][3]

The second person sense of you appears to be obsolete in modern Japanese.

PronunciationEdit

PronounEdit

(おれ) (ore

  1. (archaic, vulgar) second person pronoun: you
Usage notesEdit
Derived termsEdit

Etymology 3Edit

Kanji in this term
なんじ
Jinmeiyō
kun’yomi
For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry.
なんじJ
[pronoun] (archaic) second-person singular pronoun: you, thou
(This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above term.)

Etymology 4Edit

Kanji in this term
しか
Jinmeiyō
kun’yomi
For pronunciation and definitions of – see .
(This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above terms.)

(The following entry is uncreated: .)

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. 2.0 2.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  3. ^ 1995, 大辞泉 (Daijisen) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN

KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

(i) (hangeul , revised i, McCune–Reischauer i, Yale i)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Old JapaneseEdit

EtymologyEdit

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

PronounEdit

(ore) (kana おれ)

  1. second person pronoun: you
    • 711712, Kojiki (Second scroll, Yamato Takeru no mikoto)
      爾詔:「吾者坐纒向之日代宮所知大八嶋國。大帶日子淤斯呂和氣天皇之御子、名倭男具那王者也、意禮熊曾建二人不伏無禮聞看而、取殺意禮詔而遣。」
      (please add an English translation of this usage example)

DescendantsEdit

  • Japanese: , (ore)

VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

(nhãi, nhĩ)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.