See also: and
U+723E, 爾
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-723E

[U+723D]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+723F]

Translingual edit

Stroke order (Sans-serif)
 
Traditional
Shinjitai
(extended)
Simplified

Han character edit

(Kangxi radical 89, +10, 14 strokes, cangjie input 一火月大 (MFBK), four-corner 10227, composition )

Derived characters edit

Descendants edit

Further reading edit

  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 691, character 4
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 19750
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1104, character 3
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 27, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+723E

Chinese edit

Glyph origin edit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu slip and silk script Small seal script
       

Pictogram (象形) – cloth on a loom, with threads crossing – original form of (OC *niːlʔ, “loom”). Used phonetically.

Etymology 1 edit

trad.
simp.
alternative forms
𡭗

𠇍
“you; your”
From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *na-ŋ (you).
"that"
Cognate with (, “that”), (OC *njaɡ, “that”) (Schuessler, 2007). See () for more.

Pronunciation edit



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /əɻ²¹⁴/
Harbin /ɚ²¹³/
Tianjin /ə¹³/
Jinan /əɻ⁵⁵/
Qingdao /əɻ⁵⁵/
/ɭə⁵⁵/
Zhengzhou /ɭ⁵³/
Xi'an /əɻ⁵³/
Xining /ɛ⁵³/
Yinchuan /əɻ⁵³/
Lanzhou /ɯ⁵³/
Ürümqi /ɚ⁵¹/
Wuhan /ɯ⁴²/
Chengdu /əɻ⁵³/
Guiyang /ɚ⁴²/
Kunming /ə⁵³/
Nanjing /əɻ²¹²/
Hefei /a²⁴/
Jin Taiyuan /əɻ⁵³/
Pingyao /əɻ³⁵/
Hohhot /aɻ⁵³/
Wu Shanghai /əl²³/
Suzhou /əl⁵⁵/
Hangzhou /əl⁵³/
Wenzhou /zz̩³⁵/
Hui Shexian /ɛ⁴⁴/
/n̩³⁵/
Tunxi
Xiang Changsha /ə⁴¹/
Xiangtan /e⁴²/
Gan Nanchang /ɵ²¹³/
Hakka Meixian /ni⁴⁴/
/ni³¹/
Taoyuan /ni¹¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /ji²³/
Nanning /ji²⁴/
Hong Kong /ji²³/
Min Xiamen (Hokkien) /ni⁵³/
Fuzhou (Eastern Min) /i³²/
Jian'ou (Northern Min) /œ²¹/
Shantou (Teochew) /zɯ⁵³/
Haikou (Hainanese) /le³¹/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (38)
Final () (11)
Tone (調) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Baxter nyeX
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ȵiᴇX/
Pan
Wuyun
/ȵiɛX/
Shao
Rongfen
/ȵʑjɛX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ȵiə̆X/
Li
Rong
/ȵieX/
Wang
Li
/ȵʑǐeX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ȵʑie̯X/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
ěr
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
ji5
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/3 2/3 3/3
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
ěr ěr ěr
Middle
Chinese
‹ nejX › ‹ nyeX › ‹ nyeX ›
Old
Chinese
/*nˁ[ə][r]ʔ/ /*n[ə][r]ʔ/ /*n[ə][r]ʔ/
English numerous (adv. suffix) you(r)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 2817
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
2
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*njelʔ/
Notes

Definitions edit

  1. (literary or dialectal) you; your
      ―  ěrděng  ―  you (plural)
  2. (literary) so; this way
  3. (literary or dialectal) this; that
      ―  ěr  ―  that day
      ―  ěrhòu  ―  thereafter
  4. (obsolete, of flowers) exuberant
  5. (obsolete) a suffix or word-final particle indicating state, appearance, sound, or manner accompanying a verb
    Synonym: (rán)
  6. (literary) a sentence final particle; merely; only
  7. a surname
    [Cantonese]  ―  ji5 dung1 sing1 [Jyutping]  ―  Derek Yee (Hong Kong film director and actor)
Synonyms edit

Compounds edit

Etymology 2 edit

trad.
simp.
alternative forms

Pronunciation edit

Definitions edit

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Compounds edit

Etymology 3 edit

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium. Particularly: “Contraction of 但定 (nā-tiāⁿ; only) ?”)

Pronunciation edit


Note: niâ - contraction of 爾爾尔尔 (niā-niā).

Definitions edit

  1. (Hokkien) that's all; nothing more; is all

Compounds edit

Etymology 4 edit

trad.
simp.

Etymology edit

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium. Particularly: “Colliqual reading of (but, only, literal reading: tān)?”)

Pronunciation edit

Definitions edit

  1. (Hokkien) only

Etymology 5 edit

Pronunciation edit



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /əɻ²¹⁴/
Harbin /ɚ²¹³/
Tianjin /ə¹³/
Jinan /əɻ⁵⁵/
Qingdao /əɻ⁵⁵/
/ɭə⁵⁵/
Zhengzhou /ɭ⁵³/
Xi'an /əɻ⁵³/
Xining /ɛ⁵³/
Yinchuan /əɻ⁵³/
Lanzhou /ɯ⁵³/
Ürümqi /ɚ⁵¹/
Wuhan /ɯ⁴²/
Chengdu /əɻ⁵³/
Guiyang /ɚ⁴²/
Kunming /ə⁵³/
Nanjing /əɻ²¹²/
Hefei /a²⁴/
Jin Taiyuan /əɻ⁵³/
Pingyao /əɻ³⁵/
Hohhot /aɻ⁵³/
Wu Shanghai /əl²³/
Suzhou /əl⁵⁵/
Hangzhou /əl⁵³/
Wenzhou /zz̩³⁵/
Hui Shexian /ɛ⁴⁴/
/n̩³⁵/
Tunxi
Xiang Changsha /ə⁴¹/
Xiangtan /e⁴²/
Gan Nanchang /ɵ²¹³/
Hakka Meixian /ni⁴⁴/
/ni³¹/
Taoyuan /ni¹¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /ji²³/
Nanning /ji²⁴/
Hong Kong /ji²³/
Min Xiamen (Hokkien) /ni⁵³/
Fuzhou (Eastern Min) /i³²/
Jian'ou (Northern Min) /œ²¹/
Shantou (Teochew) /zɯ⁵³/
Haikou (Hainanese) /le³¹/

Definitions edit

  1. Used in transcription.
Usage notes edit

It is often used to transcribe the /l/ and /r/ sounds in words of foreign languages not immediately followed by a vowel, e.g. 尼泊爾尼泊尔 (Níbó'ěr, “Nepal”), 斯德哥爾摩斯德哥尔摩 (Sīdégē'ěrmó, “Stockholm”), 克什米爾克什米尔 (Kèshímǐ'ěr, “Kashmir”), 塞爾維亞塞尔维亚 (Sài'ěrwéiyà, “Serbia”), etc.

Compounds edit

Japanese edit

Shinjitai
(extended)

Kyūjitai

Kanji edit

(“Jinmeiyō” kanji used for nameskyūjitai kanji, shinjitai form )

Readings edit

Compounds edit

Etymology 1 edit

Kanji in this term

Jinmeiyō
kan’on

From Middle Chinese (MC nyeX).

Affix edit

() (ji

  1. second person archaic pronoun: thou, you
  2. distal pronoun equivalent to modern それ (sore) or その (sono): that
  3. auxiliary character in 漢文 (kanbun) texts indicating state or condition

Derived terms edit

Etymology 2 edit

Kanji in this term
おれ
Jinmeiyō
irregular
Alternative spellings

(extended shinjitai)

From Old Japanese, found in use mostly from ancient times until roughly the Heian period,[1] used to refer in the second person to social inferiors or to insult.[1][2][3]

The second person sense of you appears to be obsolete in modern Japanese.

Pronunciation edit

Pronoun edit

(おれ) (ore

  1. (archaic, vulgar) second person pronoun: you
Usage notes edit
Derived terms edit

Etymology 3 edit

Kanji in this term
なんじ
Jinmeiyō
kun’yomi
For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry.
なんじJ
[pronoun] (archaic) second-person singular pronoun: you, thou
Alternative spellings
,
(This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above term.)

Etymology 4 edit

Kanji in this term
しか
Jinmeiyō
kun’yomi
For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry:

(The following entry is uncreated: .)

References edit

  1. 1.0 1.1 Shōgaku Tosho (1988) 国語大辞典(新装版) [Unabridged Dictionary of Japanese (Revised Edition)] (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN
  2. 2.0 2.1 Matsumura, Akira, editor (2006) 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  3. ^ Matsumura, Akira (1995) 大辞泉 [Daijisen] (in Japanese), First edition, Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN

Korean edit

Hanja edit

(eumhun (neo i))

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

References edit

Old Japanese edit

Etymology edit

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Pronoun edit

(ore) (kana おれ)

  1. second person pronoun: you
    • 711–712, Kojiki, (Second scroll, Yamato Takeru no mikoto):
      爾詔:「吾者坐纒向之日代宮所知大八嶋國。大帶日子淤斯呂和氣天皇之御子、名倭男具那王者也、意禮熊曾建二人不伏無禮聞看而、取殺意禮詔而遣。」
      (please add an English translation of this quotation)

Descendants edit

  • Japanese: , (ore)

Vietnamese edit

Han character edit

: Hán Việt readings: nhĩ
: Nôm readings: nhãi, nhĩ

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

References edit