U+723E, 爾
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-723E

[U+723D]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+723F]
See also: and

Contents

TranslingualEdit

EtymologyEdit

Pictogram (象形) – cloth on a loom, with threads crossing. Used phonetically.

Han characterEdit

(radical 89 +10, 14 strokes, cangjie input 一火月大 (MFBK), four-corner 10227)

DescendantsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 691, character 4
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 19750
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1104, character 3
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 27, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+723E

ChineseEdit

trad.
simp.
alt. forms 𠇍


Etymology 1Edit

PronunciationEdit


Note: jíⁿ - literary.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /əɻ²¹⁴/
Harbin /ɚ²¹³/
Tianjin /ə¹³/
Jinan /əɻ⁵⁵/
Qingdao /əɻ⁵⁵/
/ɭə⁵⁵/
Zhengzhou /ɭ⁵³/
Xi'an /əɻ⁵³/
Xining /ɛ⁵³/
Yinchuan /əɻ⁵³/
Lanzhou /ɯ⁵³/
Ürümqi /ɚ⁵¹/
Wuhan /ɯ⁴²/
Chengdu /əɻ⁵³/
Guiyang /ɚ⁴²/
Kunming /ə⁵³/
Nanjing /əɻ²¹²/
Hefei /a²⁴/
Jin Taiyuan /əɻ⁵³/
Pingyao /əɻ³⁵/
Hohhot /aɻ⁵³/
Wu Shanghai /əl²³/
Suzhou /əl⁵⁵/
Hangzhou /əl⁵³/
Wenzhou /zz̩³⁵/
Hui Shexian /ɛ⁴⁴/
/n̩³⁵/
Tunxi
Xiang Changsha /ə⁴¹/
Xiangtan /e⁴²/
Gan Nanchang /ɵ²¹³/
Hakka Meixian /ni⁴⁴/
/ni³¹/
Taoyuan /ni¹¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /ji²³/
Nanning /ji²⁴/
Hong Kong /ji²³/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /ni⁵³/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /i³²/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /œ²¹/
Shantou (Min Nan) /zɯ⁵³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /le³¹/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (38)
Final () (11)
Tone (調) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ȵiᴇX/
Pan
Wuyun
/ȵiɛX/
Shao
Rongfen
/ȵʑjɛX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ȵiə̆X/
Li
Rong
/ȵieX/
Wang
Li
/ȵʑǐeX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ȵʑie̯X/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
ěr
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/3 2/3 3/3
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
ěr ěr ěr
Middle
Chinese
‹ nejX › ‹ nyeX › ‹ nyeX ›
Old
Chinese
/*nˤ[ə][r]ʔ/ /*n[ə][r]ʔ/ /*n[ə][r]ʔ/
English numerous (adv. suffix) you(r)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 2817
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
2
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*njelʔ/
Notes

DefinitionsEdit

  1. you
  2. that, those
  3. final particle
  4. used in transliteration
CompoundsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

PronunciationEdit



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /əɻ²¹⁴/
Harbin /ɚ²¹³/
Tianjin /ə¹³/
Jinan /əɻ⁵⁵/
Qingdao /əɻ⁵⁵/
/ɭə⁵⁵/
Zhengzhou /ɭ⁵³/
Xi'an /əɻ⁵³/
Xining /ɛ⁵³/
Yinchuan /əɻ⁵³/
Lanzhou /ɯ⁵³/
Ürümqi /ɚ⁵¹/
Wuhan /ɯ⁴²/
Chengdu /əɻ⁵³/
Guiyang /ɚ⁴²/
Kunming /ə⁵³/
Nanjing /əɻ²¹²/
Hefei /a²⁴/
Jin Taiyuan /əɻ⁵³/
Pingyao /əɻ³⁵/
Hohhot /aɻ⁵³/
Wu Shanghai /əl²³/
Suzhou /əl⁵⁵/
Hangzhou /əl⁵³/
Wenzhou /zz̩³⁵/
Hui Shexian /ɛ⁴⁴/
/n̩³⁵/
Tunxi
Xiang Changsha /ə⁴¹/
Xiangtan /e⁴²/
Gan Nanchang /ɵ²¹³/
Hakka Meixian /ni⁴⁴/
/ni³¹/
Taoyuan /ni¹¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /ji²³/
Nanning /ji²⁴/
Hong Kong /ji²³/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /ni⁵³/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /i³²/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /œ²¹/
Shantou (Min Nan) /zɯ⁵³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /le³¹/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.
CompoundsEdit

JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(“Jinmeiyō” kanji used for names)

  1. you
  2. like that, that way

ReadingsEdit

CompoundsEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Kanji in this term
おれ
Jinmeiyō
kun'yomi

From Old Japanese. Found in use mostly from ancient times until roughly the Heian period,[1] used to refer in the second person to social inferiors or to insult.[1][2][3]

The second person sense of you appears to be obsolete in modern Japanese.

Not to be confused with the modern term (ore) with the first person sense of I, me. See for that sense.

PronunciationEdit

Alternative formsEdit

PronounEdit

(hiragana おれ, romaji ore)

  1. (archaic, vulgar) you
Usage notesEdit

Often used to insult. Compare modern Japanese お前 (omae), English you son of a bitch.

Etymology 2Edit

Kanji in this term
なんじ
Jinmeiyō
kun'yomi

/namuti/*/nandi//nand͡ʑi/

From Old Japanese. Originally derived as a compound of (na, you) +‎ (muchi, honorific suffix).[1][2][3]

Originally used to refer honorifically to the second person. From around the Nara period, the honorific sense lessened, and the term was used to refer to social equals or occasionally social inferiors. By the Muromachi period, this term was the most common second person pronoun for social inferiors.[1]

PronunciationEdit

Alternative formsEdit

  • (more common)

PronounEdit

(hiragana なんじ, romaji nanji)

  1. (archaic) thou, you
Usage notesEdit

No longer in use in modern Japanese outside of contexts where the speaker is deliberately invoking archaic usage. Compare use of English thou.

Etymology 3Edit

Kanji in this term
しか
Jinmeiyō
kun'yomi

From Old Japanese.[1][2] Compound of (shi, that, demonstrative, likely related to (sa), modern そう ()) +‎ (ka, suffix indicating state).[1][3]

The interjection sense appears to have developed from the adverb sense.

PronunciationEdit

Alternative formsEdit

  • (more common)

AdverbEdit

(hiragana しか, romaji shika)

  1. (obsolete) like that, as such
  2. (obsolete) certainly, definitely
Derived termsEdit

InterjectionEdit

(hiragana しか, romaji shika)

  1. (obsolete, conversational) yeah, uh-huh

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 1995, 大辞泉 (Daijisen) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, ISBN 4-09-501211-0

KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

(i) (hangeul , revised i, McCune-Reischauer i, Yale i)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

(nhãi, nhĩ)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.