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U+6068, 恨
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-6068

[U+6067]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+6069]

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 61, +6, 9 strokes, cangjie input 心日女 (PAV), four-corner 97032, composition)

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 385, character 9
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 10588
  • Dae Jaweon: page 716, character 5
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 4, page 2299, character 3
  • Unihan data for U+6068

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.

Glyph originEdit

Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*krɯːn
*kʰrɯːnʔ, *kʰɯːnʔ, *ŋɯn
*ŋrɯːnʔ
*ɡrɯːn
*ɡrɯːnʔ
*ɡrɯːnʔ
*kʰɯːnʔ, *kʰɯːnʔ, *kʰuːn
*ɡlɯːnʔ, *kɯːnʔ, *kɯːns
*kɯːn
*kɯːn
*kɯːn, *kɯːns, *ŋrɯn
*kɯːns
*kɯːns
*kʰɯːnʔ
*kʰɯːnʔ
*ŋɯːn, *ŋrɯn, *ŋɯn
泿 *ŋɯːn, *ŋrɯn
*ɡɯːn
*ɡɯːn
*ɡɯːn
*ɡɯːnʔ
*ɡɯːns
*ŋrɯn
*ŋrɯn

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *ɡɯːns): semantic  + phonetic  (OC *kɯːns).

PronunciationEdit



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /xən⁵¹/
Harbin /xən⁵³/
Tianjin /xən⁵³/
Jinan /xẽ²¹/
Qingdao /xə̃⁴²/
Zhengzhou /xən³¹²/
Xi'an /xẽ⁴⁴/
Xining /xə̃²¹³/
Yinchuan /xəŋ¹³/
Lanzhou /xə̃n¹³/
Ürümqi /xɤŋ²¹³/
Wuhan /xən³⁵/
Chengdu /xən¹³/
Guiyang /xen²¹³/
Kunming /xə̃²¹²/
Nanjing /xən⁴⁴/
Hefei /xən⁵³/
Jin Taiyuan /xəŋ⁴⁵/ 仇~
/xəŋ⁵³/ ~人
Pingyao /xəŋ⁵³/
/xəŋ³⁵/
Hohhot /xə̃ŋ⁵⁵/
Wu Shanghai /ɦəŋ²³/
Suzhou /ɦən³¹/
Hangzhou /ɦen¹³/
Wenzhou /ɦaŋ²²/
Hui Shexian /xʌ̃²²/
Tunxi /xɛ¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /xən⁵⁵/
Xiangtan /hən⁵⁵/
Gan Nanchang /hɛn²¹/
Hakka Meixian /hen⁵³/
Taoyuan /hen⁵⁵/
Cantonese Guangzhou /hɐŋ²²/
Nanning /hɐn²²/
Hong Kong /hɐŋ²²/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /hun²²/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /hɔuŋ²⁴²/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /xaiŋ⁴⁴/
Shantou (Min Nan) /hɯŋ³⁵/
Haikou (Min Nan) /hun³³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (33)
Final () (53)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ɦənH/
Pan
Wuyun
/ɦənH/
Shao
Rongfen
/ɣənH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ɦənH/
Li
Rong
/ɣənH/
Wang
Li
/ɣənH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ɣənH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
hèn
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
hèn
Middle
Chinese
‹ honH ›
Old
Chinese
/*[m-q]ˁə[n]-s/
English regret

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 3938
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ɡɯːns/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. to resent; to hate
  2. to regret; to pity
  3. hatred; dislike
  4. regret

CompoundsEdit

DescendantsEdit

Sino-Xenic ():
  • Japanese:  (こん) (kon)
  • Korean: (, han)
  • Vietnamese: hận ()

JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(common “Jōyō” kanji)

  1. to resent; to hate; be hostile to

ReadingsEdit

CompoundsEdit


KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

(han)

  • Eumhun:
    • Sound (hangeul): (revised: han, McCune–Reischauer: han, Yale: han)
    • Name (hangeul): 한탄할 한

Koreans use the character differently from any of their neighbors to mean the “virtuous, patient endurance of injustice” or “emotional longing for justice.” If one analyzes the pairings with other characters and usage in the original Chinese or Japanese, the meaning is much more negative, as in ”holding” or “avenging” a grudge.

See the Wikipedia entry on Han.


VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

(hận, giận, hằn, hờn)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.