See also:
U+80FD, 能
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-80FD

[U+80FC]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+80FE]

Translingual

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Stroke order
 
Stroke order
 

Han character

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(Kangxi radical 130, +6, 10 strokes, cangjie input 戈月心心 (IBPP), four-corner 21211, composition 𫧇)

Derived characters

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References

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  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 981, character 16
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 29454
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1433, character 11
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 3, page 2074, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+80FD

Chinese

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trad.
simp. #
2nd round simp. 𫧇
alternative forms
𦝕
𫧇

Glyph origin

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Pictogram (象形) : bear. Compare (OC *ɢʷlɯm, “bear”).

Etymology

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"bear-like animal"
Apparently an areal word of Austroasiatic origin (Schuessler, 2007; Zhang, 2019). Compare Kharia [script needed] (bɔnɔi), Santali [script needed] (bana, Indian black bear) & Lepcha ᰠᰶᰍ (să-na, bear), a loanword from Santali.
“be able to; can; ability”
Shijing rhymes point to Old Chinese *, but the forms with * are also archaic (perhaps ancient dialectal variation?).
Possibly Sino–Tibetan: compare Tibetan ནུས (nus, be able to; capable; to withstand; capacity; strength; force; power; function; energy), Burmese နိုင် (nuing, can, be able to, may; master; win; prevail). Schuessler (2007) also derives (OC *n̥ʰɯːs, “apparition, bearing, manner”) from this.
Compare the old pre-Sino–Vietnamese loanword nổi (be able to; capable).

Pronunciation 1

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  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /nəŋ³⁵/
Harbin /nəŋ²⁴/
Tianjin /nəŋ⁴⁵/
Jinan /nəŋ⁴²/
Qingdao /nəŋ⁴²/
Zhengzhou /nəŋ⁴²/
Xi'an /nəŋ²⁴/
Xining /nə̃²⁴/
Yinchuan /nəŋ⁴⁴/ 打~~
/nəŋ⁵³/ ~幹
Lanzhou /lə̃n⁵³/
Ürümqi /nɤŋ⁵¹/
Wuhan /nən²¹³/
Chengdu /nən³¹/
Guiyang /nen²¹/
Kunming /nə̃³¹/
Nanjing /lən²⁴/
Hefei /lən⁵⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /nəŋ¹¹/
Pingyao /nəŋ¹³/
Hohhot /nə̃ŋ³¹/
Wu Shanghai /nəŋ²³/
Suzhou /nən¹³/
Hangzhou /nen²¹³/
Wenzhou /naŋ³¹/
Hui Shexian /lʌ̃⁴⁴/
Tunxi /lɛ⁴⁴/
Xiang Changsha /lən¹³/
Xiangtan /nən¹²/
Gan Nanchang /lɛn⁴⁵/
Hakka Meixian /nen¹¹/
Taoyuan /nen¹¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /nɐŋ²¹/
Nanning /nɐŋ²¹/
Hong Kong /nɐŋ²¹/
Min Xiamen (Hokkien) /liŋ³⁵/
Fuzhou (Eastern Min) /nɛiŋ⁵³/
Jian'ou (Northern Min) /naiŋ²¹/
Shantou (Teochew) /leŋ⁵⁵/
Haikou (Hainanese) /neŋ³¹/
/nɔŋ³¹/

Rime
Character
Reading # 2/4
Initial () (8)
Final () (129)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Baxter nong
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/nəŋ/
Pan
Wuyun
/nəŋ/
Shao
Rongfen
/nəŋ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/nəŋ/
Li
Rong
/nəŋ/
Wang
Li
/nəŋ/
Bernard
Karlgren
/nəŋ/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
néng
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
nang4
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/3 2/3 3/3
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
néng néng néng
Middle
Chinese
‹ noj › ‹ nong › ‹ nong ›
Old
Chinese
/*nˁə/ /*nˁə(ŋ)/ /*nˁə(ʔ)/ (~ *nˁəŋ)
English a kind of bear a kind of bear able; ability

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 3/4
No. 9415
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*nɯːŋ/

Definitions

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  1. (obsolete) a kind of bear
  2. (Chinese mythology) A mythological bear-like animal, with deer-like legs.
  3. able; capable
  4. can; to be able to; to be capable of; to be allowed to
      ―  néng pǎo de hěn kuài.  ―  I can run fast.
      ―  Yǒu rén néng bāng wǒ ma?  ―  Is there anybody who can help me?
    漲潮這個海灘散步 [MSC, trad.]
    涨潮这个海滩散步 [MSC, simp.]
    Zhàngcháo shí nǐ bù néng zài zhège hǎitān sànbù. [Pinyin]
    You can't walk along this beach at high tide.
    公共場所吸煙 [MSC, trad.]
    公共场所吸烟 [MSC, simp.]
    Gōnggòngchǎngsuǒ bùnéng xīyān. [Pinyin]
    You’re not allowed to smoke in public.
  5. to successfully do something (negate with (méi))
    進入大學讀書父母關係 [MSC, trad.]
    进入大学读书父母关系 [MSC, simp.]
    néng jìnrù zhè suǒ dàxué dúshū, quán kào nǐ fùmǔ de guānxì. [Pinyin]
    You were able to study at this university all because of your parents.
    趕上末班車 [MSC, trad.]
    赶上末班车 [MSC, simp.]
    Tā méi néng gǎnshàng mòbānchē. [Pinyin]
    He didn't manage to catch the last train.
  6. (dialectal) cocky
      ―  Kàn bǎ nǐ néng de.  ―  (please add an English translation of this usage example)
  7. may; could
    [MSC, trad.]
    [MSC, simp.]
    Néngnéng qǐng nǐ bāng ge máng? [Pinyin]
    May I ask a favour of you?
    一遍 [MSC, trad.]
    一遍 [MSC, simp.]
    néng zài shuō yībiàn ma? [Pinyin]
    Could you repeat that?
  8. rather; would rather
  9. ability; capability
      ―  néng  ―  capability, ability
      ―  néng  ―  incompetent
  10. talent; talented person
      ―  cáinéng  ―  talent, ability
  11. energy; power
    太陽太阳  ―  tàiyángnéng  ―  solar energy
      ―  shuǐnéng  ―  hydroelectric power
      ―  dòngnéng  ―  kinetic energy
  12. (Sujiahu Wu, Wenzhounese, Jinhua and Quzhou Wu) way; manner
    [Shanghainese]  ―  8geq-nen [Wugniu]  ―  like this (lit. in this way)
    好好 [Shanghainese]  ―  5hau-hau-nen-tseu [Wugniu]  ―  to walk properly
    慢慢 [Wenzhounese]  ―  ma6-ma6-nan2-chiai7 [Wugniu]  ―  to eat slowly
  13. a surname

Synonyms

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Compounds

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Pronunciation 2

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Rime
Character
Reading # 4/4
Initial () (8)
Final () (41)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Baxter nojH
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/nʌiH/
Pan
Wuyun
/nəiH/
Shao
Rongfen
/nɒiH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/nəjH/
Li
Rong
/nᴀiH/
Wang
Li
/nɒiH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/nɑ̆iH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
nài
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
noi6
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 2/4
No. 9413
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*nɯːs/

Definitions

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  1. Alternative form of (to bear; to withstand)
  2. a surname

Pronunciation 3

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Definitions

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  1. Alternative form of (name of a Chinese constellation)
      ―  sāntái  ―  Santai (Chinese constellation)

Pronunciation 4

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Definitions

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  1. Alternative form of (tài, bearing; apparition; form; shape; status; position)

Pronunciation 5

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Rime
Character
Reading # 1/4
Initial () (8)
Final () (41)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Baxter noj
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/nʌi/
Pan
Wuyun
/nəi/
Shao
Rongfen
/nɒi/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/nəj/
Li
Rong
/nᴀi/
Wang
Li
/nɒi/
Bernard
Karlgren
/nɑ̆i/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
nái
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
noi4
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/3
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
néng
Middle
Chinese
‹ noj ›
Old
Chinese
/*nˁə/
English a kind of bear

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/4
No. 9411
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*nɯː/

Definitions

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  1. (obsolete) mythical three-legged soft-shelled turtle

Compounds

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Pronunciation 6

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Definitions

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  1. Only used in 能始 (tāishǐ, “origin; root cause”).

Pronunciation 7

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Definitions

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  1. Alternative form of (xióng, bear)

References

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Japanese

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Noh stage at Itsukushima Shrine, Miyajima, Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan.

Kanji

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(grade 5 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. ability
  2. talent
  3. skill
  4. capacity

Readings

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Compounds

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Noun

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  on Japanese Wikipedia
 Noh on Wikipedia

(のう) (

  1. Noh, a form of classical Japanese musical drama.
  2. ability, capacity, aptitude.
  3. effect, use.
    (ふる)()(ろん)()(かえ)しても(のう)はないのだよ。
    Furui giron o kurikaeshite mo wa nai no da yo.
    Repeating old arguments isn't of any use / won't have any effect.

Synonyms

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Korean

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Etymology 1

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From Middle Chinese (MC nong).

Historical readings

Pronunciation

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Hanja

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Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun 능할 (neunghal neung))

  1. Hanja form? of (ability).

Compounds

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Etymology 2

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Related to Middle Chinese (MC nojH).

Hanja

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(eumhun 견딜 (gyeondil nae))

  1. (literary Chinese) Alternative form of (Hanja form? of (endure; withstand).)

References

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  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [2]

Old Japanese

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Etymology

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From Middle Chinese (MC nong).

Phonogram

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(no2)

  1. Denotes phonographic syllable no2.
    Synonym:

Further reading

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Vietnamese

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Han character

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: Hán Nôm readings: năng, hay, nấng, năn, nằng, nưng

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.