See also:
U+4EC1, 仁
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4EC1

[U+4EC0]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+4EC2]

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 9, +2, 4 strokes, cangjie input 人一一 (OMM), four-corner 21210, composition)

Derived charactersEdit

DescendantsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 91, character 7
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 349
  • Dae Jaweon: page 193, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 107, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+4EC1

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.
alternative forms 𡰥

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Qin slip script Ancient script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
           




References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *njin): phonetic (OC *njin) + semantic

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *s/k-niŋ (heart; brain; mind) (Schuessler, 2007; STEDT). Cognate with Tangkhul Naga ning (mind), Manipuri [script needed] (puk ning, heart; mind), Kinnauri [script needed] (stiŋ, heart), Garo taning (brain), Ngochang Achang nhaiqlom (heart), Bisu [script needed] (nɯŋ ba, heart). Possibly related to Tibetan ཉིང (nying, pith, essence) (Schuessler, 2007).

For a parallel semantic development, compare Tibetan སྙིང་རྗེ (snying rje, compassion; kindness; mercy), from Tibetan སྙིང (snying, heart; mind).

PronunciationEdit



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (38)
Final () (43)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ȵiɪn/
Pan
Wuyun
/ȵin/
Shao
Rongfen
/ȵʑjen/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ȵin/
Li
Rong
/ȵiĕn/
Wang
Li
/ȵʑĭĕn/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ȵʑi̯ĕn/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
rén
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
jan4
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
rén
Middle
Chinese
‹ nyin ›
Old
Chinese
/*niŋ/
English kind

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 10801
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*njin/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. compassionate
  2. humaneness; benevolence; kindness
  3. kernel
    白芝麻  ―  báizhīmárén  ―  white sesame seeds

CompoundsEdit

ReferencesEdit


JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(grade 6 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. benevolence

ReadingsEdit

CompoundsEdit

Proper nounEdit

(ひとし) or (じん) or (まさし) (Hitoshi or Jin or Masashi

  1. A male given name

KoreanEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Middle Chinese (MC ȵiɪn).

Historical Readings
Dongguk Jeongun Reading
Dongguk Jeongun, 1448 ᅀᅵᆫ (Yale: zìn)
Middle Korean
Text Eumhun
Gloss (hun) Reading
Hunmong Jahoe, 1527[2] 클〮 (Yale: khúl) ᅀᅵᆫ (Yale: zìn)

PronunciationEdit

HanjaEdit

Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun 어질 (eojil in))

  1. Hanja form? of (benevolence).

CompoundsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [3]

VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

: Hán Nôm readings: nhân, nhơn

  1. benevolence

ReferencesEdit