Open main menu

Wiktionary β

See also:
U+9577, 長
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-9577

[U+9576]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+9578]

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 
Stroke order
 

Alternative formsEdit

  • (when used as a radical)

Han characterEdit

(radical 168 +0, 8 strokes, cangjie input 尸一女 (SMV), four-corner 71732)

  1. Kangxi radical #168, .

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 1328, character 7
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 41100
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1829, character 11
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 6, page 4050, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+9577

ChineseEdit

trad.
simp.

Glyph originEdit

Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*taŋ, *taŋs
*taŋ
*taŋ
*taŋ, *taŋʔ, *taŋs
*taŋʔ, *daŋ, *daŋs
*taŋs
*taŋs
*taŋs
*taŋs
倀 *tʰaŋ, *rtaːŋs
*tʰaŋ
*tʰaŋʔ
*tʰaŋs
*tʰaŋs
*daŋ
*daŋ, *daŋs
*rdaːŋ
*rdaːŋ

Pictogram (象形) – originally long hair; compare .

EtymologyEdit

Three pronunciations below are cognate, all derived from the original root of (*traŋ, “to make long; to stretch; to string a bow”).

Pronunciation 1 ("long") is the endopassive derivative ("be extended, be stretched"), with intransitive voicing. The lack of Tibeto-Burman cognates with the same meaning indicate that this is a Chinese innovation. Pronunciation 2 ("to grow") is the endoactive derivative.

See for more.

Pronunciation 1Edit


Note:
  • dòng - colloquial;
  • diòng - literary.
Note:
Note:
  • deng5 - colloquial;
  • ciang5 - literary.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location 長 (短)
Mandarin Beijing /ʈ͡ʂʰɑŋ³⁵/
Harbin /ʈ͡ʂʰaŋ²⁴/
Tianjin /ʈ͡ʂʰɑŋ⁴⁵/
/t͡sʰɑŋ⁴⁵/
Jinan /ʈ͡ʂʰaŋ⁴²/
Qingdao /tʃʰaŋ⁴²/
Zhengzhou /ʈ͡ʂʰaŋ⁴²/
Xi'an /ʈ͡ʂʰaŋ²⁴/
Xining /ʈ͡ʂʰɔ̃²⁴/
Yinchuan /ʈ͡ʂʰɑŋ⁵³/
Lanzhou /ʈ͡ʂʰɑ̃⁵³/
Ürümqi /ʈ͡ʂʰɑŋ⁵¹/
Wuhan /t͡sʰaŋ²¹³/
Chengdu /t͡sʰaŋ³¹/
Guiyang /t͡sʰaŋ²¹/
Kunming /ʈ͡ʂʰã̠¹/
Nanjing /ʈ͡ʂʰaŋ²⁴/
Hefei /ʈ͡ʂʰɑ̃⁵⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /t͡sʰɒ̃¹¹/
Pingyao /ʈ͡ʂʰɑŋ¹³/
/t͡suə¹³/
Hohhot /t͡sʰɑ̃³¹/
Wu Shanghai /zã²³/
Suzhou /zã¹³/
Hangzhou /d͡zɑŋ²¹³/
Wenzhou /d͡ʑi³¹/
Hui Shexian /t͡ɕʰia⁴⁴/
Tunxi /t͡ɕiau⁴⁴/
Xiang Changsha /ʈ͡ʂan¹³/
Xiangtan /ɖ͡ʐɔn¹²/
Gan Nanchang /t͡sʰɔŋ²⁴/
Hakka Meixian /t͡sʰoŋ¹¹/
Taoyuan /tʃʰoŋ¹¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /t͡sʰœŋ²¹/
Nanning /t͡sʰœŋ²¹/
Hong Kong /t͡sʰœŋ²¹/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /tiɔŋ³⁵/
/tŋ̍³⁵/
/t͡sʰiaŋ³⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /touŋ⁵³/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /tɔŋ²¹/
Shantou (Min Nan) /t͡siaŋ⁵⁵/
/tɯŋ⁵⁵/
Haikou (Min Nan) /siaŋ³¹/
/ʔdo³¹/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/3
Initial () (11)
Final () (105)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ɖɨɐŋ/
Pan
Wuyun
/ɖiɐŋ/
Shao
Rongfen
/ȡiɑŋ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ɖɨaŋ/
Li
Rong
/ȡiaŋ/
Wang
Li
/ȡĭaŋ/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ȡʱi̯aŋ/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
cháng
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
cháng
Middle
Chinese
‹ drjang ›
Old
Chinese
/*Cə-[N]-traŋ/
English long (adj.)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 2/3
No. 1276
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*daŋ/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. long (of distance)
    /   ―  chángzhēng  ―  Long March
  2. length
    /   ―  quáncháng  ―  full length (of a river)
  3. long (in space); far; distant
  4. long (of time); lasting
  5. everlasting; permanent
  6. constantly; frequently
  7. straight; perfectly straight
  8. upright; right; good; fine
  9. strength; advantage; merit
  10. skill; specialism
  11. to excel in
  12. A surname​.

CompoundsEdit

Pronunciation 2Edit


Note:
  • tióng/tiáng - literary;
  • tiúⁿ/tióⁿ - vernacular ("leader");
  • chiáng - colloquial ("to grow", limited).

Rime
Character
Reading # 2/3
Initial () (9)
Final () (105)
Tone (調) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ʈɨɐŋX/
Pan
Wuyun
/ʈiɐŋX/
Shao
Rongfen
/ȶiɑŋX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ʈɨaŋX/
Li
Rong
/ȶiaŋX/
Wang
Li
/ȶĭaŋX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ȶi̯aŋX/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
zhǎng
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 2/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
zhǎng
Middle
Chinese
‹ trjangX ›
Old
Chinese
/*traŋʔ/
English grow; elder

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/3
No. 1263
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*taŋʔ/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. to begin to grow; to grow; to develop
    /   ―  zhǎng  ―  to grow old
  2. (of a person) to look; to appear (e.g. beautiful)
  3. (transitive) to increase; to enhance
  4. (intransitive) to increase; to go up
  5. to nourish
  6. old (of age)
    /   ―  niánzhǎng  ―  senior
  7. senior; elder
    /   ―  xiōngzhǎng  ―  elder brother
  8. leader; master; chief; head
  9. eldest; oldest

CompoundsEdit

Pronunciation 3Edit



Rime
Character
Reading # 3/3
Initial () (11)
Final () (105)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ɖɨɐŋH/
Pan
Wuyun
/ɖiɐŋH/
Shao
Rongfen
/ȡiɑŋH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ɖɨaŋH/
Li
Rong
/ȡiaŋH/
Wang
Li
/ȡĭaŋH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ȡʱi̯aŋH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
zhàng
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 3/3
No. 1280
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*daŋs/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. (archaic) length; measure of length
  2. (archaic, Min) to be left over; surplus, residue
    今旦 [Min Dong, trad.]
    今旦 [Min Dong, simp.]
    Gĭng-dáng buông diông iā sâ̤ / [kiŋ⁵⁵⁻⁵³ (t-)nɑŋ²¹³ puɔŋ²⁴² tuɔŋ²⁴² ia³³ sɑ²⁴²] [Bàng-uâ-cê / IPA]
    There is a lot of leftover food today.

CompoundsEdit


JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

ReadingsEdit

CompoundsEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Kanji in this term
ちょう
Grade: 2
on’yomi

From Middle Chinese (drjang, long).

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

(hiragana ちょう, rōmaji chō, historical hiragana ちやう)

  1. chief, head, leader
     (はん) (ちょう)
    han chō
    the group leader
  2. strong point
     (ちょう ) ( の)ばす
    chō o nobasu
    enrich a strong point
  3. (music) major

AntonymsEdit

Proper nounEdit

(hiragana ひさし, rōmaji Hisashi)

  1. A male given name

(hiragana たける, rōmaji Takeru)

  1. A male given name

Etymology 2Edit

Kanji in this term
おさ
Grade: 2
kun’yomi

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

(hiragana おさ, rōmaji osa, historical hiragana をさ)

  1. chief, head, leader

Etymology 3Edit

Kanji in this term
なが
Grade: 2
kun’yomi

PronunciationEdit

Alternative formsEdit

PrefixEdit

(hiragana なが, rōmaji naga-)

  1. long

Etymology 4Edit

Kanji in this term
つかさ
Grade: 2
Irregular

PronunciationEdit

Alternative formsEdit

NounEdit

(hiragana つかさ, rōmaji tsukasa)

  1. a manager, a headman, a foreman
  2. an official
  3. government service

Etymology 5Edit

Kanji in this term
たき
Grade: 2
Irregular

PronunciationEdit

  • (Irregular reading)

Alternative formsEdit

NounEdit

(hiragana たき, rōmaji taki)

  1. height

Etymology 6Edit

Kanji in this term
たけ
Grade: 2
Irregular

/take2/: [takye] → [take]. Cognate with (taka, height), 高い (takai, high), and 長ける (takeru, to be high).

PronunciationEdit

Alternative formsEdit

NounEdit

(hiragana たけ, rōmaji take)

  1. height

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3

KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

(jang)

  • Eumhun:
    • Sound (hangeul): (McCune-Reischauer: chang, Yale: cang)
    • Name (hangeul): 길다 (revised: gilda, McCune-Reischauer: kilda, Yale: kilta)
  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

VietnameseEdit

CharacterEdit

ReadingsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • Nom Foundation
  • Thiều Chửu : Hán Việt Tự Điển Hà Nội 1942
  • Trần Văn Chánh: Từ Điển Hán Việt NXB Trẻ, Ho Chi Minh Ville, 1999
  • Vũ Văn Kính: Đại Tự Điển Chữ Nôm, NXB Văn Nghệ, Ho Chi Minh Ville, 1999
  • Lê Sơn Thanh, "Nom-Viet.dat", WinVNKey (details)