See also:

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
Stroke order

Alternative formsEdit

  • (when used as a radical)

Han characterEdit

(radical 168 +0, 8 strokes, cangjie input 尸一女 (SMV), four-corner 71732)

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 1328, character 7
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 41100
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1829, character 11
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 6, page 4050, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+9577

ChineseEdit

trad.
simp.

Glyph originEdit

Pictogram (象形) – originally long hair; compare .

Unrelated to visually similar , and notably does not have a diagonal stroke at lower left.

EtymologyEdit

Three pronunciations below are cognate, all derived from the original root of (*traŋ, “to make long; to stretch; to string a bow”).

Pronunciation 1 ("long") is the endopassive derivative ("be extended, be stretched"), with intransitive voicing. The lack of Tibeto-Burman cognates with the same meaning indicate that this is a Chinese innovation. Pronunciation 2 ("to grow") is the endoactive derivative.

See for more.

Pronunciation 1Edit



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location 長 (短)
Mandarin Beijing /ʈ͡ʂʰɑŋ³⁵/
Harbin /ʈ͡ʂʰaŋ²⁴/
Tianjin /ʈ͡ʂʰɑŋ⁴⁵/
/t͡sʰɑŋ⁴⁵/
Jinan /ʈ͡ʂʰaŋ⁴²/
Qingdao /tʃʰaŋ⁴²/
Zhengzhou /ʈ͡ʂʰaŋ⁴²/
Xi'an /ʈ͡ʂʰaŋ²⁴/
Xining /ʈ͡ʂʰɔ̃²⁴/
Yinchuan /ʈ͡ʂʰɑŋ⁵³/
Lanzhou /ʈ͡ʂʰɑ̃⁵³/
Ürümqi /ʈ͡ʂʰɑŋ⁵¹/
Wuhan /t͡sʰaŋ²¹³/
Chengdu /t͡sʰaŋ³¹/
Guiyang /t͡sʰaŋ²¹/
Kunming /ʈ͡ʂʰã̠¹/
Nanjing /ʈ͡ʂʰaŋ²⁴/
Hefei /ʈ͡ʂʰɑ̃⁵⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /t͡sʰɒ̃¹¹/
Pingyao /ʈ͡ʂʰɑŋ¹³/
/t͡suə¹³/
Hohhot /t͡sʰɑ̃³¹/
Wu Shanghai /zã²³/
Suzhou /zã¹³/
Hangzhou /d͡zɑŋ²¹³/
Wenzhou /d͡ʑi³¹/
Hui Shexian /t͡ɕʰia⁴⁴/
Tunxi /t͡ɕiau⁴⁴/
Xiang Changsha /ʈ͡ʂan¹³/
Xiangtan /ɖ͡ʐɔn¹²/
Gan Nanchang /t͡sʰɔŋ²⁴/
Hakka Meixian /t͡sʰoŋ¹¹/
Taoyuan /tʃʰoŋ¹¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /t͡sʰœŋ²¹/
Nanning /t͡sʰœŋ²¹/
Hong Kong /t͡sʰœŋ²¹/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /tiɔŋ³⁵/
/tŋ̍³⁵/
/t͡sʰiaŋ³⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /touŋ⁵³/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /tɔŋ²¹/
Shantou (Min Nan) /t͡siaŋ⁵⁵/
/tɯŋ⁵⁵/
Haikou (Min Nan) /siaŋ³¹/
/ʔdo³¹/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/3
Initial () (11)
Final () (105)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ɖɨɐŋ/
Pan
Wuyun
/ɖiɐŋ/
Shao
Rongfen
/ȡiɑŋ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ɖɨaŋ/
Li
Rong
/ȡiaŋ/
Wang
Li
/ȡĭaŋ/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ȡʱi̯aŋ/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
cháng
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
cháng
Middle
Chinese
‹ drjang ›
Old
Chinese
/*Cə-[N]-traŋ/
English long (adj.)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 2/3
No. 1276
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*daŋ/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. long (of distance)
    /   ―  chángzhēng  ―  Long March
  2. length
    /   ―  quáncháng  ―  full length (of a river)
  3. long (in space); far; distant
  4. long (of time); lasting
  5. everlasting; permanent
  6. constantly; frequently
  7. straight; perfectly straight
  8. upright; right; good; fine
  9. strength, advantage, merit
  10. skill, specialism
  11. to excel in
  12. A surname​.

Pronunciation 2Edit



Rime
Character
Reading # 2/3
Initial () (9)
Final () (105)
Tone (調) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ʈɨɐŋX/
Pan
Wuyun
/ʈiɐŋX/
Shao
Rongfen
/ȶiɑŋX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ʈɨaŋX/
Li
Rong
/ȶiaŋX/
Wang
Li
/ȶĭaŋX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ȶi̯aŋX/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
zhǎng
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 2/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
zhǎng
Middle
Chinese
‹ trjangX ›
Old
Chinese
/*traŋʔ/
English grow; elder

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/3
No. 1263
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*taŋʔ/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. to begin to grow; to grow; to develop
    /   ―  zhǎng  ―  to grow old
  2. (of a person) to look; to appear (e.g. beautiful)
  3. (transitive) to increase; to enhance
  4. (intransitive) to increase; to go up
  5. to nourish
  6. old (of age)
    /   ―  niánzhǎng  ―  senior
  7. senior; elder
    /   ―  xiōngzhǎng  ―  elder brother
  8. leader; master; chief; head
  9. eldest, oldest

Pronunciation 3Edit



Rime
Character
Reading # 3/3
Initial () (11)
Final () (105)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ɖɨɐŋH/
Pan
Wuyun
/ɖiɐŋH/
Shao
Rongfen
/ȡiɑŋH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ɖɨaŋH/
Li
Rong
/ȡiaŋH/
Wang
Li
/ȡĭaŋH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ȡʱi̯aŋH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
zhàng
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 3/3
No. 1280
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*daŋs/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. (archaic) length; measure of length
  2. (archaic, Min) to be left over; surplus, residue
    今旦 [Min Dong, trad.]
    今旦 [Min Dong, simp.]
    Gĭng-dáng buông diông iā sâ̤ / [kiŋ⁵⁵⁻⁵³ (t-)nɑŋ²¹³ puɔŋ²⁴² tuɔŋ²⁴² ia³³ sɑ²⁴²] [Bàng-uâ-cê / IPA]
    There is a lot of leftover food today.

CompoundsEdit


JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

ReadingsEdit

CompoundsEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Kanji in this term
ちょう
Grade: 2
on'yomi

From Middle Chinese ‎(drjang, long).

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

‎(hiragana ちょう, romaji chō, historical hiragana ちやう)

  1. chief, head, leader

Proper nounEdit

‎(hiragana ひさし, romaji Hisashi)

  1. A male given name

‎(hiragana たける, romaji Takeru)

  1. A male given name

Etymology 2Edit

Kanji in this term
おさ
Grade: 2
kun'yomi

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

‎(hiragana おさ, romaji osa, historical hiragana をさ)

  1. chief, head, leader

Etymology 3Edit

Kanji in this term
なが
Grade: 2
kun'yomi

PronunciationEdit

Alternative formsEdit

PrefixEdit

‎(hiragana なが, romaji naga-)

  1. long

Etymology 4Edit

Kanji in this term
つかさ
Grade: 2
Irregular

PronunciationEdit

Alternative formsEdit

NounEdit

‎(hiragana つかさ, romaji tsukasa)

  1. a manager, a headman, a foreman
  2. an official
  3. government service

Etymology 5Edit

Kanji in this term
たき
Grade: 2
Irregular

PronunciationEdit

  • (Irregular reading)
  • IPA(key): [ta̠kʲi]

Alternative formsEdit

NounEdit

‎(hiragana たき, romaji taki)

  1. height

Etymology 6Edit

Kanji in this term
たけ
Grade: 2
Irregular

/take2/: [takye] → [take]. Cognate with ‎(taka, height), 高い ‎(takai, high), and 長ける ‎(takeru, to be high).

PronunciationEdit

Alternative formsEdit

NounEdit

‎(hiragana たけ, romaji take)

  1. height

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3

KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

‎(jang)
Eumhun:

  • Sound (hangeul):  (McCune-Reischauer: chang, Yale: cang)
  • Name (hangeul): 길다 (revised: gilda, McCune-Reischauer: kilda, Yale: kilta)
  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

VietnameseEdit

CharacterEdit

ReadingsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • Thiều Chửu : Hán Việt Tự Điển Hà Nội 1942
  • Trần Văn Chánh: Từ Điển Hán Việt NXB Trẻ, Ho Chi Minh Ville, 1999
  • Vũ Văn Kính: Đại Tự Điển Chữ Nôm , NXB Văn Nghệ, Ho Chi Minh Ville, 1999
  • Lê Sơn Thanh, "Nom-Viet.dat", WinVNKey (details)
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