U+6C5D, 汝
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-6C5D

[U+6C5C]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+6C5E]

Translingual edit

Han character edit

(Kangxi radical 85, +3, 6 strokes, cangjie input 水女 (EV), four-corner 34140, composition )

Derived characters edit

References edit

  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 606, character 2
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 17138
  • Dae Jaweon: page 999, character 11
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 3, page 1555, character 4
  • Unihan data for U+6C5D

Chinese edit

Glyph origin edit

Phono-semantic compound (形聲形声, OC *njaʔ): semantic (river; water) + phonetic (OC *naʔ, *nas).

Etymology 1 edit

trad.
simp. #

Probably related to Proto-Kam-Sui *Ɂnjaᴬ (river), whence Southern Kam nyal (river), Sui qnyal (Schuessler, 2007).

Pronunciation edit


Note: ru2 - Chaoyang.
Note:
  • 3zr - vernacular;
  • 3lu - literary.
  • Xiang

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (38)
    Final () (22)
    Tone (調) Rising (X)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Baxter nyoX
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ȵɨʌX/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ȵiɔX/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ȵʑiɔX/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ȵɨə̆X/
    Li
    Rong
    /ȵiɔX/
    Wang
    Li
    /ȵʑĭoX/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ȵʑi̯woX/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    jyu5
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 9628
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*njaʔ/

    Definitions edit

    1. (, ) Ru River, a northern tributary of the Huai River in modern-day southern Henan province. The name also refers to the Hong River in its lower reaches, which now shares a common course with the Ru, as well as a southern tributary of the Hong.
    2. a surname

    Compounds edit

    Etymology 2 edit

    trad.
    simp. #
    alternative forms
    coastal Min (colloquial)

    From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *na-ŋ (you). Cognate with () and (ěr).

    Pronunciation edit


    Note:
    • Xiamen:
      • lí - vernacular;
      • lú - literary.
    • Zhangzhou:
      • lí - vernacular;
      • jí/ní - literary.
    • mainstream Taiwan:
      • lí - vernacular;
      • jú/lú - literary.
    • Singapore:
      • lír/lí - vernacular.
  • (Teochew)
    • Peng'im: le2 / lu2 / re2 / ru2
    • Pe̍h-ōe-jī-like: lṳ́ / lú / jṳ́ / jú
    • Sinological IPA (key): /lɯ⁵²/, /lu⁵²/, /d͡zɯ⁵²/, /d͡zu⁵²/
  • Note:
    • le2/lu2 - vernacular (lu2 - Chaoyang);
    • re2/ru2 - literary (ru2 - Chaoyang).
  • Wu
  • Note:
    • 3zr - vernacular;
    • 3lu - literary.
  • Xiang

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (38)
    Final () (22)
    Tone (調) Rising (X)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Baxter nyoX
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ȵɨʌX/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ȵiɔX/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ȵʑiɔX/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ȵɨə̆X/
    Li
    Rong
    /ȵiɔX/
    Wang
    Li
    /ȵʑĭoX/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ȵʑi̯woX/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    jyu5
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ nyoX ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*naʔ/
    English you (sg.)

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 9628
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*njaʔ/

    Definitions edit

    1. (literary or coastal Min) thou; you (second-person pronoun)
    Synonyms edit

    Compounds edit

    Descendants edit

    • Khmer: លឺ (lɨɨ)
    • Burmese: လု (lu.)
    • Thai: ลื้อ (lʉ́ʉ)
    • Indonesian: lu, lo, elu

    Japanese edit

    Kanji edit

    (“Jinmeiyō” kanji used for names)

    Readings edit

    Compounds edit

    Etymology 1 edit

    Kanji in this term
    なんじ
    Jinmeiyō
    kun’yomi
    Alternative spellings

    (rare, kanbun)
    (rare, kanbun)

    /na mut͡ɕi//namʉd͡ʑi//nand͡ʑi/

    Originally a compound of (na, second person singular pronoun, see Etymology 3 below) +‎ (muchi, noble).[1][2]

    Also written as なむぢ (namuji) in older texts, since the namuchi, namuji, and nanji readings likely existed in free variation until the development of the (n) grapheme.

    Pronunciation edit

    Pronoun edit

    (なんじ) (nanjiなんぢ (nandi)?

    1. (archaic) second-person singular pronoun: you, thou
    Quotations edit

    For quotations using this term, see Citations:汝.

    Derived terms edit
    Idioms edit
    Proverbs edit

    Etymology 2 edit

    Kanji in this term
    なれ
    Jinmeiyō
    kun’yomi

    From Old Japanese.

    Derived from (na, second person singular pronoun, see Etymology 3 below) +‎ (-re, nominalizing suffix).

    Pronoun edit

    (なれ) (nare

    1. (archaic, obsolete) second-person singular pronoun: you, thou
    Quotations edit

    For quotations using this term, see Citations:汝.

    Etymology 3 edit

    Kanji in this term

    Jinmeiyō
    irregular
    Alternative spelling

    From Old Japanese.

    Possibly cognate with second-person singular informal pronoun Korean (neo).

    Pronoun edit

    () (na

    1. (archaic, obsolete; or Tsugaru, Niigata) second-person singular pronoun: you, thou
    Quotations edit

    For quotations using this term, see Citations:汝.

    Derived terms edit

    Etymology 4 edit

    Kanji in this term
    うぬ
    Jinmeiyō
    irregular
    Alternative spelling

    Sound shift from reflexive pronoun (ono), Old Japanese (ono2).[2]

    Pronunciation edit

    • Pronunciation for pronoun senses unknown.

    Pronoun edit

    (うぬ) (unu

    1. (vulgar or dialectal, Yamagata) second-person pronoun: you
    2. (derogatory) first- or third-person reflexive pronoun: me, myself, himself, herself, itself, oneself
      Synonym: 自分自身 (jibun-jishin)
    Derived terms edit

    Interjection edit

    (うぬ) (unu

    1. (vulgar) used as an insult to the second person: you!
      Synonym: (onore)

    Etymology 5 edit

    Kanji in this term
    しゃ
    Jinmeiyō
    irregular

    ⟨si⟩/ɕi//ɕa/

    Shift from Old Japanese (si) of the same meaning.

    Pronoun edit

    (しゃ) (sha

    1. (archaic, obsolete) second-person singular pronoun: you, thou

    Etymology 6 edit

    Kanji in this term
    いまし
    Jinmeiyō
    kun’yomi

    The nominalization of honorific verb 坐す (imasu, to be, honorific).[1]

    Possibly also analyzable as a compound of (i-, a rare Old Japanese second person singular pronoun) +‎ (mashi, the 連用形 (ren'yōkei, continuative or stem form) of honorific verb 坐す masu, “to be”).

    Pronoun edit

    (いまし) (imashi

    1. (honorific, archaic) second-person singular pronoun: you, thou

    See also edit

    References edit

    1. 1.0 1.1 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

    Korean edit

    Hanja edit

    (yeo) (hangeul , revised yeo, McCune–Reischauer yŏ, Yale ye)

    1. you
    2. the name of water, river[1]
    3. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    References edit

    1. ^ (please provide the title of the work)[1], accessed 15 May 2020, archived from the original on 2021-04-09

    Old Japanese edit

    Etymology 1 edit

    Originally a first person pronoun. Later became a second person pronoun, as is often seen in Japanese. Compare Old Korean (na). Also found in some instances as a self-reference, one, oneself. This sense is more commonly spelled when used in isolation.[1]

    Pronoun edit

    (na) (kana )

    1. first-person singular pronoun: I, me
    2. third-person reflexive pronoun: one, oneself, itself
    3. second-person singular pronoun: you, thou
    Quotations edit

    For quotations using this term, see Citations:汝.

    Derived terms edit
    Descendants edit
    • Japanese: (na)
    See also edit

    Etymology 2 edit

    From (na, second person singular pronoun, see Etymology 1 above) +‎ (-re, nominalizing suffix).

    Pronoun edit

    (nare) (kana なれ)

    1. second-person singular pronoun: you, thou
    Quotations edit

    For quotations using this term, see Citations:汝.

    Descendants edit
    • Japanese: (nare)

    Etymology 3 edit

    Cognate with (si, third-person pronoun) and (si, reflexive pronoun). (Can this(+) etymology be sourced?)

    Pronoun edit

    (si) (kana )

    1. second-person singular pronoun: you, thou
    Descendants edit
    • Japanese: (sha)

    Etymology 4 edit

    The nominalization of the 連用形 (ren'yōkei, stem or continuative form) of honorific verb 坐す (imasu, to be).

    Alternatively, analyzable as a compound of (i, second person singular pronoun, see Etymology 6 below) +‎ 坐し (masi, the 連用形 (ren'yōkei, continuative or stem form) of honorific verb 坐す (masu), “to be”).

    Pronoun edit

    (imasi) (kana いまし)

    1. (honorific) second-person singular pronoun: you, thou
    Usage notes edit

    More honorific than masi (see Etymology 5 below), but less honorific than mi1masi (see Etymology 6 below).

    Quotations edit

    For quotations using this term, see Citations:汝.

    Descendants edit
    • Japanese: (imashi)

    Etymology 5 edit

    The nominalization of the 連用形 (ren'yōkei, stem or continuative form) of honorific verb 坐す (masu, to be).[1]

    Alternatively, a shortening of imasi (see Etymology 3 above).[1][2]

    Pronoun edit

    (masi) (kana まし)

    1. (honorific) second-person singular pronoun: you, thou
    Usage notes edit

    Less honorific than both imasi (see Etymology 4 above) and mi1masi (see Etymology 6 below).

    Quotations edit

    For quotations using this term, see Citations:汝.

    Etymology 6 edit

    Compound of (mi1-, honorific prefix) +‎ (masi, second person singular pronoun, see Etymology 4 above).[1]

    Pronoun edit

    (mi1masi) (kana みまし)

    1. (honorific) second-person singular pronoun: you, thou
    Usage notes edit

    More honorific than both imasi (see Etymology 4 above) and masi (see Etymology 5 above).

    Quotations edit

    For quotations using this term, see Citations:汝.

    Etymology 7 edit

    Possibly a borrowing from Old Korean, compare modern Korean (i, this person). (Can this(+) etymology be sourced?)

    Pronoun edit

    (i) (kana )

    1. (rare, possibly derogatory) second-person singular pronoun: you, thou
    Quotations edit

    For quotations using this term, see Citations:汝.

    References edit

    1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    2. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

    Vietnamese edit

    Han character edit

    : Hán Nôm readings: nhớ, nhở, nhởi, nhứ, nhử, nhữ, dử, nhừ, nở

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.