U+6C5D, 汝
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-6C5D

[U+6C5C]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+6C5E]

TranslingualEdit

Han characterEdit

(radical 85, +3, 6 strokes, cangjie input 水女 (EV), four-corner 34140, composition)

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 606, character 2
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 17138
  • Dae Jaweon: page 999, character 11
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 3, page 1555, character 4
  • Unihan data for U+6C5D

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.
alternative forms “you”
Min “you” (colloquial)

Glyph originEdit

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *njaʔ): semantic  (river; water) + phonetic  (OC *naʔ, *nas).

EtymologyEdit

“river”
Probably related to Proto-Kam-Sui *Ɂnjaᴬ (river), whence Southern Kam nyal (river), Sui qnyal (Schuessler, 2007).
“you”
From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *na-ŋ (you).

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • Xiamen:
    • lí - vernacular;
    • lú - literary.
  • Zhangzhou:
    • lí - vernacular;
    • jí/ní - literary.
  • mainstream Taiwan:
    • lí - vernacular;
    • jú/lú - literary.
  • (Teochew)
    • Peng'im: le2 / lu2 / re2 / ru2
    • Pe̍h-ōe-jī-like: lṳ́ / lú / jṳ́ / jú
    • Sinological IPA (key): /lɯ⁵²/, /lu⁵²/, /d͡zɯ⁵²/, /d͡zu⁵²/
  • Note:
    • le2/lu2 - vernacular;
    • re2/ru2 - literary.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (38)
    Final () (22)
    Tone (調) Rising (X)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ȵɨʌX/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ȵiɔX/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ȵʑiɔX/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ȵɨə̆X/
    Li
    Rong
    /ȵiɔX/
    Wang
    Li
    /ȵʑĭoX/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ȵʑi̯woX/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ nyoX ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*naʔ/
    English you (sg.)

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 9628
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*njaʔ/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. (, ) Ru River, a northern tributary of the Huai River in modern-day southern Henan province. The name also refers to the Hong River in its lower reaches, which now shares a common course with the Ru, as well as a southern tributary of the Hong.
    2. (literary or coastal Min) thou, you (second-person pronoun)
    3. A surname​.

    SynonymsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    DescendantsEdit

    • Thai: ลื้อ (lʉ́ʉ)
    • Indonesian: lu, lo, elu

    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (“Jinmeiyō” kanji used for names)

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

    Kanji in this term
    なんじ
    Jinmeiyō
    kun’yomi
    Alternative spelling

    /na mut͡ɕi//namʉd͡ʑi//nand͡ʑi/

    Originally a compound of (na, second person singular pronoun, see Etymology 3 below) +‎ (muchi, noble).[1][2]

    Also written as なむぢ (namuji) in older texts, since the namuchi, namuji, and nanji readings likely existed in free variation until the development of the (n) grapheme.

    PronunciationEdit

    PronounEdit

    (なんじ) (nanji (historical kana なんぢ)

    1. (archaic) second-person singular pronoun: you, thou
    CitationsEdit

    For quotations of use of this term, see Citations:汝.

    Derived termsEdit
    IdiomsEdit
    ProverbsEdit

    Etymology 2Edit

    Kanji in this term
    なれ
    Jinmeiyō
    kun’yomi

    From Old Japanese.

    Derived from (na, second person singular pronoun, see Etymology 3 below) +‎ (-re, nominalizing suffix).

    PronounEdit

    (なれ) (nare

    1. (archaic, obsolete) second-person singular pronoun: you, thou
    CitationsEdit

    For quotations of use of this term, see Citations:汝.

    Etymology 3Edit

    Kanji in this term

    Jinmeiyō
    Irregular
    Alternative spelling

    From Old Japanese.

    Possibly cognate with second-person singular informal pronoun Korean (neo).

    PronounEdit

    () (na

    1. (archaic, obsolete) second-person singular pronoun: you, thou
    CitationsEdit

    For quotations of use of this term, see Citations:汝.

    Derived termsEdit

    Etymology 4Edit

    Kanji in this term
    うぬ
    Jinmeiyō
    Irregular
    Alternative spelling

    Sound shift from reflexive pronoun (ono), Old Japanese (ono2).[2]

    PronunciationEdit

    PronounEdit

    (うぬ) (unu

    1. (vulgar) second-person pronoun: you
    2. (derogatory) first- or third-person reflexive pronoun: me, myself, himself, herself, itself, oneself
      Synonym: 自分自身 (jibun-jishin)
    Derived termsEdit

    InterjectionEdit

    (うぬ) (unu

    1. (vulgar) used as an insult to the second person: you!
      Synonym: (onore)

    Etymology 5Edit

    Kanji in this term
    しゃ
    Jinmeiyō
    Irregular

    ⟨si⟩/ɕi//ɕa/

    Shift from Old Japanese (si) of the same meaning.

    PronounEdit

    (しゃ) (sha

    1. (archaic, obsolete) second-person singular pronoun: you, thou

    Etymology 6Edit

    Kanji in this term
    いまし
    Jinmeiyō
    kun’yomi

    The nominalization of honorific verb 坐す (imasu, to be, honorific).[1]

    Possibly also analyzable as a compound of (i-, a rare Old Japanese second person singular pronoun) +‎ (mashi, the 連用形 (ren'yōkei, continuative or stem form) of honorific verb 坐す masu, “to be”).

    PronounEdit

    (いまし) (imashi

    1. (honorific, archaic) second-person singular pronoun: you, thou

    See alsoEdit

    ReferencesEdit

    1. 1.0 1.1 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

    KoreanEdit

    HanjaEdit

    (yeo) (hangeul , revised yeo, McCune–Reischauer yŏ, Yale ye)

    1. you
    2. the name of water, river[1]
    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    ReferencesEdit


    Old JapaneseEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

    From Proto-Japonic *na, cognate with (na, name). (Can this(+) etymology be sourced?)

    Alternatively, possibly a borrowing from Old Korean; compare modern Korean (neo, you). Also found in some instances as a self-reference, one, oneself. This sense is more commonly spelled when used in isolation,[1] therefore also cognate with first-person singular informal pronoun Korean (na).

    PronounEdit

    (na) (kana )

    1. second-person singular pronoun: you, thou
    2. (Can we verify(+) this sense?) first-person singular pronoun: I, me
    3. (Can we verify(+) this sense?) third-person reflexive pronoun: one, oneself, itself
      Synonym: (ono2)
    CitationsEdit

    For quotations of use of this term, see Citations:汝.

    Derived termsEdit
    DescendantsEdit
    • Japanese: (na)
    See alsoEdit

    Etymology 2Edit

    From (na, second person singular pronoun, see Etymology 1 above) +‎ (-re, nominalizing suffix).

    PronounEdit

    (nare) (kana なれ)

    1. second-person singular pronoun: you, thou
    CitationsEdit

    For quotations of use of this term, see Citations:汝.

    DescendantsEdit
    • Japanese: (nare)

    Etymology 3Edit

    Cognate with (si, third-person pronoun) and (si, reflexive pronoun). (Can this(+) etymology be sourced?)

    PronounEdit

    (si) (kana )

    1. second-person singular pronoun: you, thou
    DescendantsEdit
    • Japanese: (sha)

    Etymology 4Edit

    The nominalization of the 連用形 (ren'yōkei, stem or continuative form) of honorific verb 坐す (imasu, to be).

    Alternatively, analyzable as a compound of (i, second person singular pronoun, see Etymology 6 below) +‎ 坐し (masi, the 連用形 (ren'yōkei, continuative or stem form) of honorific verb 坐す (masu), “to be”).

    PronounEdit

    (imasi) (kana いまし)

    1. (honorific) second-person singular pronoun: you, thou
    Usage notesEdit

    More honorific than masi (see Etymology 5 below), but less honorific than mi1masi (see Etymology 6 below).

    CitationsEdit

    For quotations of use of this term, see Citations:汝.

    DescendantsEdit
    • Japanese: (imashi)

    Etymology 5Edit

    The nominalization of the 連用形 (ren'yōkei, stem or continuative form) of honorific verb 坐す (masu, to be).[1]

    Alternatively, a shortening of imasi (see Etymology 3 above).[1][2]

    PronounEdit

    (masi) (kana まし)

    1. (honorific) second-person singular pronoun: you, thou
    Usage notesEdit

    Less honorific than both imasi (see Etymology 4 above) and mi1masi (see Etymology 6 below).

    CitationsEdit

    For quotations of use of this term, see Citations:汝.

    Etymology 6Edit

    Compound of (mi1-, honorific prefix) +‎ (masi, second person singular pronoun, see Etymology 4 above).[1]

    PronounEdit

    (mi1masi) (kana みまし)

    1. (honorific) second-person singular pronoun: you, thou
    Usage notesEdit

    More honorific than both imasi (see Etymology 4 above) and masi (see Etymology 5 above).

    CitationsEdit

    For quotations of use of this term, see Citations:汝.

    Etymology 7Edit

    Possibly a borrowing from Old Korean, compare modern Korean (i, this person). (Can this(+) etymology be sourced?)

    PronounEdit

    (i) (kana )

    1. (rare, possibly derogatory) second-person singular pronoun: you, thou
    CitationsEdit

    For quotations of use of this term, see Citations:汝.

    ReferencesEdit

    1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    2. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    (nhớ, nhở, nhởi, nhứ, nhử, nhữ, dử, nhừ, nở)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.