U+6CE5, 泥
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-6CE5

[U+6CE4]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+6CE6]
U+F9E3, 泥
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-F9E3

[U+F9E2]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs
[U+F9E4]

Translingual edit

Han character edit

(Kangxi radical 85, +5, 8 strokes, cangjie input 水尸心 (ESP), four-corner 37111, composition )

Derived characters edit

References edit

  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 617, character 11
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 17311
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1012, character 8
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 3, page 1595, character 8
  • Unihan data for U+6CE5

Chinese edit

trad.
simp. #
alternative forms

Glyph origin edit

Historical forms of the character
Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han)
Small seal script
 

Phono-semantic compound (形聲形声, OC *niːl, *niːls): semantic (water) + phonetic (OC *nil).

Etymology 1 edit

Schuessler (2007) suggests it is of Sino-Tibetan origin and compares it to Lai [script needed] (nôoy-I, nǒoy-II, be muddy), which STEDT derives from Proto-Kuki-Chin *nooy ~ *naay (muddy; dirty). According to Schuessler (2007), (OC *niːl, “mud”) is also cognate with (OC *neːŋs) but not with (OC *niːɡ), and is distinct from (OC *niːls, “impeded”).

On the other hand, STEDT compares (OC *niːl, *niːls) to Proto-Sino-Tibetan *s-njak (filth(y); excrement), to which (OC *nɯːb) and (OC *niːɡ) are also compared.

Pronunciation edit


Note:
  • nài/nai2 - colloquial;
  • nì/ni2 - literary.
  • Min Dong
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • nî/lî - vernacular;
    • lê/nê - literary.
  • Wu

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /ni³⁵/
    Harbin /ni²⁴/
    Tianjin /ni⁴⁵/
    Jinan /ȵi⁴²/
    Qingdao /ni⁴²/
    /mi⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /ni⁴²/
    Xi'an /ni²⁴/
    Xining /mji²⁴/
    Yinchuan /mi⁵³/
    /ni⁵³/
    Lanzhou /ȵi⁵³/
    Ürümqi /ȵi⁵¹/
    Wuhan /ni²¹³/
    Chengdu /ȵi³¹/
    Guiyang /ni²¹/
    Kunming /ni³¹/
    Nanjing /li²⁴/
    Hefei /mz̩⁵⁵/
    Jin Taiyuan /ni¹¹/ ~皮
    /ni⁴⁵/ ~匠
    Pingyao /ȵi¹³/ ~牆牆
    /ȵi³⁵/ ~匠
    Hohhot /ni³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /ȵi²³/
    Suzhou /ȵi¹³/
    Hangzhou /ȵi²¹³/
    Wenzhou /ȵi³¹/
    Hui Shexian /ni⁴⁴/
    Tunxi /ȵie⁴⁴/
    Xiang Changsha /ȵi¹³/
    Xiangtan /ȵi¹²/
    Gan Nanchang /ȵi⁴⁵/
    Hakka Meixian /nai¹¹/
    /ni¹¹/
    Taoyuan /nɑi¹¹/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /nɐi²¹/
    Nanning /nɐi²¹/
    Hong Kong /nɐi²¹/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /ne³⁵/
    /ni³⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /nɛ⁵³/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /ni²¹/
    /nai³³/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /nĩ⁵⁵/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /ni³¹/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Initial () (8)
    Final () (39)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () IV
    Fanqie
    Baxter nej
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /nei/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /nei/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /nɛi/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /nɛj/
    Li
    Rong
    /nei/
    Wang
    Li
    /niei/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /niei/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    nai4
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ nej ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*C.nˁ[əj]/
    English mud

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    No. 9417
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*niːl/

    Definitions edit

    1. mud (Classifier: c;  c)
      滿  ―  mǎn jiǎo shì   ―  mud all over one's feet
        ―  ruǎn  ―  soft mud
      娃娃  ―  wáwá  ―  clay doll
    2. (dialectal) soil; earth
      [Cantonese]  ―  jat1 gau6 nai4 [Jyutping]  ―  a clod of earth
    3. any mush-like substance
        ―  shǔ  ―  mashed potato
        ―  jiāo  ―  Blu-Tack
      鷹嘴豆鹰嘴豆  ―  yīngzuǐdòu  ―  hummus
    4. (obsolete) paint (used on walls)
    5. An ancient river in modern Hunan
    6. An ancient river in modern Gansu
    7. (obsolete) weak
    8. (Chinese mythology) a kind of animal that lived in sea
    9. a surname
    10. () (Chinese linguistics) the Middle Chinese initial of (MC nej)
    Synonyms edit

    Compounds edit

    Etymology 2 edit

    Schuessler (2007) suggests it is the exopassive derivation of (OC *nɯːb, “to stop up”) or (OC *niːɡ, “to stop up”) and is distinct from (OC *niːl, “mud”).

    Pronunciation edit



    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Initial () (8)
    Final () (39)
    Tone (調) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () IV
    Fanqie
    Baxter nejH
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /neiH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /neiH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /nɛiH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /nɛjH/
    Li
    Rong
    /neiH/
    Wang
    Li
    /nieiH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /nieiH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    nai6
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ nejH ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*nˁər(ʔ)-s/
    English impeded, obstructed (Lunyu)

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    No. 9421
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*niːls/

    Definitions edit

    1. to hold up; to bog down
    2. to plaster; to cover with plaster
    3. stubborn; obstinate
        ―    ―  to rigidly adhere to
    4. to pester using soft words
    5. to be obsessed with and be reluctant to let go of

    Compounds edit

    Etymology 3 edit

    Pronunciation edit


    Definitions edit

    1. Only used in 泥泥.

    Etymology 4 edit

    Pronunciation edit


    Definitions edit

    1. Only used in 泥母.

    Etymology 5 edit

    For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“black mud; melanterite; etc.”).
    (This character, , is a variant form of ).

    Etymology 6 edit

    For pronunciation and definitions of – see .
    (This character, , is a variant form of ).

    References edit

    Japanese edit

    Kanji edit

    (common “Jōyō” kanji)

    Readings edit

    Etymology edit

     
    Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia ja
    Kanji in this term
    どろ
    Grade: S
    kun’yomi

    Noun edit

    (どろ) (doro

    1. mud
    Derived terms edit

    Korean edit

    Etymology edit

    From Middle Chinese (MC nej|nejH). Recorded as Middle Korean (ni) (Yale: ni) in Hunmong Jahoe (訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회), 1527.

    Hanja edit

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun 진흙 (jinheuk ni), South Korea 진흙 (jinheuk i))

    1. Hanja form? of / (mud; dirt).

    Compounds edit

    References edit

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [2]

    Vietnamese edit

    Han character edit

    : Hán Nôm readings: nề, , nệ, , nể, nễ, nơi

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    References edit