See also:
U+5FC5, 必
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5FC5

[U+5FC4]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5FC6]

Translingual edit

Stroke order (Taiwan)
 
Stroke order (Japan)
 
Stroke order
(Chinese)
 
Stroke order
(Japan)
 

Han character edit

(Kangxi radical 61, +1, 5 strokes, cangjie input 心竹 (PH), four-corner 33000, composition 丿)

Derived characters edit

References edit

  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 375, character 2
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 10299
  • Dae Jaweon: page 701, character 4
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 4, page 2267, character 2
  • Unihan data for U+5FC5

Chinese edit

simp. and trad.

Glyph origin edit

Historical forms of the character
Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
     

Likely a pictogram (象形) – weapon handle made of bamboo strips; the original character for (OC *priɡs, *bliːɡ, *priɡ, *bliɡ). The character was phonetically borrowed for the senses of "certainly" and "must".

Unrelated to , as bronze script makes clear, but in current form very similar.

Etymology edit

Unclear (Schuessler, 2007).

Pronunciation edit



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /pi⁵¹/
Harbin /pi⁵³/
Tianjin /pi⁴⁵/
Jinan /pi⁵⁵/
Qingdao /pi⁵⁵/
Zhengzhou /pi⁴²/
Xi'an /pi²¹/
Xining /pji⁴⁴/
Yinchuan /pi¹³/
Lanzhou /pi¹³/
Ürümqi /pi²¹³/
Wuhan /pi²¹³/
Chengdu /pi³¹/
Guiyang /pi²¹/
Kunming /pi³¹/
Nanjing /piʔ⁵/
Hefei /piəʔ⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /piəʔ²/
Pingyao /piʌʔ¹³/
Hohhot /piəʔ⁴³/
Wu Shanghai /piɪʔ⁵/
Suzhou /piəʔ⁵/
Hangzhou /piəʔ⁵/
Wenzhou /pi²¹³/
Hui Shexian /piʔ²¹/
Tunxi /pi⁵/
Xiang Changsha /pi²⁴/
Xiangtan /pi²⁴/
Gan Nanchang /piʔ⁵/
Hakka Meixian /pit̚¹/
Taoyuan /pit̚²²/
Cantonese Guangzhou /pit̚⁵/
Nanning /pit̚⁵⁵/
Hong Kong /pit̚⁵/
Min Xiamen (Hokkien) /pit̚³²/
Fuzhou (Eastern Min) /pɛiʔ²³/
Jian'ou (Northern Min) /pi²⁴/
Shantou (Teochew) /pik̚²/
Haikou (Hainanese) /ʔbit̚⁵/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (1)
Final () (48)
Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Baxter pjit
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/piɪt̚/
Pan
Wuyun
/pit̚/
Shao
Rongfen
/pjet̚/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/pit̚/
Li
Rong
/piĕt̚/
Wang
Li
/pĭĕt̚/
Bernard
Karlgren
/pi̯ĕt̚/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
bi
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
bat1
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ pjit ›
Old
Chinese
/*pi[t]/
English necessarily

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 568
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
2
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*pliɡ/

Definitions edit

  1. surely; most certainly; always; invariably
  2. must; have to; shall
  3. (literary) conjunction indicating the condition of a concession or exception, especially a hypothetical or implied one
  4. (Southern Min) (of skin) to chap
  5. (Hakka, Southern Min) to crack

Compounds edit

Descendants edit

Sino-Xenic ():
  • Japanese: (ひつ) (hitsu)
  • Korean: 필(必) (pil)
  • Vietnamese: tất ()

Japanese edit

Kanji edit

(grade 4 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. inevitably, certainly

Readings edit

Compounds edit

Korean edit

Etymology edit

From Middle Chinese (MC pjit).

Historical readings

Pronunciation edit

Hanja edit

Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun 반드시 (bandeusi pil))

  1. Hanja form? of (surely; certainly; without fail).

Compounds edit

References edit

  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [1]

Vietnamese edit

Han character edit

: Hán Nôm readings: tất, ắt

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.