English

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English Wikipedia has an article on:
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Pronunciation

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Etymology 1

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From Middle English bog, from Irish and Scottish Gaelic bogach (soft, boggy ground), from Old Irish bog (soft),[1] from Proto-Celtic *buggos (soft, tender) + Old Irish -ach, from Proto-Celtic *-ākos.

The frequent use to form compounds regarding the animals and plants in such areas mimics Irish compositions such as bog-luachair (bulrush, bogrush).[1]

Its use for toilets is now often derived from the resemblance of latrines and outhouse cesspools to bogholes,[2][3] but the noun sense appears to be a clipped form of boghouse (outhouse, privy),[4] which derived (possibly via boggard) from the verb to bog,[5] still used in Australian English.[3] The derivation and its connection to other senses of "bog" remains uncertain, however, owing to an extreme lack of early citations due to its perceived vulgarity.[6][7]

Noun

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bog (plural bogs)

  1. (originally Ireland and Scotland) An area of decayed vegetation (particularly sphagnum moss) which forms a wet spongy ground too soft for walking; a marsh or swamp.
  2. (figuratively) Confusion, difficulty, or any other thing or place that impedes progress in the manner of such areas.
    • 1614, John King, Vitis Palatina, page 30:
      ...quagmires and bogges of Romish superstition...
    • a. 1796, Robert Burns, Poems & Songs, volume I:
      Last day my mind was in a bog.
    • 1841, Charles Dickens, chapter LXXII, in Barnaby Rudge, page 358:
      He wandered out again, in a perfect bog of uncertainty.
  3. (uncountable) The acidic soil of such areas, principally composed of peat; marshland, swampland.
    • a. 1687, William Petty, Political Arithmetick:
      Bog may by draining be made Meadow.
  4. (UK, Ireland, Australia and New Zealand, slang) A place to defecate: originally specifically a latrine or outhouse but now used for any toilet.
    I'm on the bogI'm sitting on/using the toilet
    I'm in the bogI'm in the bathroom
    • 1665, Richard Head et al., The English Rogue Described in the Life of Meriton Latroon, volume I:
      Fearing I should catch cold, they out of pity covered me warm in a Bogg-house.
    • a. 1789, Verses to John Howard F.R.S. on His State of Prisons and Lazarettos, published 1789, page 181:
      ...That no dirt... be thrown out of any window, or down the bogs...
    • 1864, J.C. Hotten, The Slang Dictionary, page 79:
      Bog, or bog-house, a privy as distinguished from a water-closet.
    • 1959, William Golding, chapter I, in Free Fall, page 23:
      Our lodger had our upstairs, use of the stove, our tap, and our bog.
  5. (Australia and New Zealand, slang) An act or instance of defecation.
  6. (US, dialect) A little elevated spot or clump of earth, roots, and grass, in a marsh or swamp.
Alternative forms
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Synonyms
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Hyponyms
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Derived terms
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Translations
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See also
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Verb

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bog (third-person singular simple present bogs, present participle bogging, simple past and past participle bogged)

  1. (transitive, now often with "down") To sink or submerge someone or something into bogland.
    • 1928, American Dialect Society, American Speech, volume IV, page 132:
      To be 'bogged down' or 'mired down' is to be mired, generally in the 'wet valleys' in the spring.
  2. (figuratively) To prevent or slow someone or something from making progress.
  3. (intransitive, now often with "down") To sink and stick in bogland.
    • a. 1800, The Trials of James, Duncan, and Robert M'Gregor, Three Sons of the Celebrated Rob Roy, page 120:
      Duncan Graham in Gartmore his horse bogged; that the deponent helped some others to take the horse out of the bogg.
  4. (figuratively) To be prevented or impeded from making progress, to become stuck.
  5. (intransitive, originally vulgar UK, now chiefly Australia) To defecate, to void one's bowels.
  6. (transitive, originally vulgar UK, now chiefly Australia) To cover or spray with excrement.
  7. (transitive, British, informal) To make a mess of something.
Alternative forms
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Derived terms
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Translations
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Etymology 2

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See bug[8]

Noun

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bog (plural bogs)

  1. (obsolete) Alternative form of bug: a bugbear, monster, or terror.
Alternative forms
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Derived terms
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Etymology 3

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Uncertain,[9] although possibly related to bug in its original senses of "big" and "puffed up".

Alternative forms

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  • (all senses): bug (Derbyshire & Lincolnshire)

Adjective

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bog (comparative bogger, superlative boggest)

  1. (obsolete) Bold; boastful; proud.
    • 1592, William Warner, chapter XXXVII, in Albions England, volume VII, page 167:
      The Cuckooe, seeing him so bog, waxt also wondrous wroth.
    • 1691, John Ray, South and East Country Words, page 90:
      Bogge, bold, forward, sawcy. So we say, a very bog Fellow.
Derived terms
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Noun

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bog (plural bogs)

  1. (obsolete) Puffery, boastfulness.
    • 1839, Charles Clark, John Noakes and Mary Styles, l. 3:
      Their bog it nuver ceases.

Verb

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bog (third-person singular simple present bogs, present participle bogging, simple past and past participle bogged)

  1. (transitive, obsolete) To provoke, to bug.
    • 1546, State Papers King Henry the Eighth, volume XI, published 1852, page 163:
      If you had not written to me... we had broke now, the Frenchmen bogged us so often with departing.
    • 1556, Nicholas Grimald's translation of Cicero as Marcus Tullius Ciceroes Thre Bokes of Duties to Marcus His Sonne, Vol. III, p. 154:
      A Frencheman: whom he [Manlius Torquatus] slew, being bogged [Latin: provocatus] by hym.

Etymology 4

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From bug off, a clipping of bugger off, likely under the influence of bog (coarse British slang for "toilet[s]").

Verb

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bog (third-person singular simple present bogs, present participle bogging, simple past and past participle bogged)

  1. (euphemistic, slang, British, usually with "off") To go away.
Derived terms
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Etymology 5

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From an abbreviation of Bogdanoff, in reference to Igor and Grichka Bogdanoff.

Verb

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bog (third-person singular simple present bogs, present participle bogging, simple past and past participle bogged)

  1. (4chan, Internet slang, transitive) To perform excessive cosmetic surgery that results in a bizarre or obviously artificial facial appearance.
  2. (4chan, Internet slang, reflexive) To have excessive cosmetic surgery performed on oneself, often with a poor or conspicuously unnatural result.
    • 2023 August 4, anonymous author, 4chan[1], /lgbt/:
      My nose is already pretty good and I don't want to bog myself.

See also

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References

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  1. 1.0 1.1 Oxford English Dictionary, 1st ed. "bog, n.¹" & "bog, v.¹" Oxford University Press (Oxford), 1887.
  2. ^ Oxford Dictionaries. "British English: bog". Oxford University Press (Oxford), 2016.
  3. 3.0 3.1 The Collins English Dictionary. "bog". HarperCollins (London), 2016.
  4. ^ Oxford English Dictionary, "bog, n.⁴"
  5. ^ Oxford English Dictionary, "'bog-house, n." & "† 'boggard, n.²".
  6. ^ Merriam-Webster Online. "bog". Merriam-Webster (Springfield, Mass.), 2016.
  7. ^ Oxford English Dictionary, "bog, v.³"
  8. ^ Oxford English Dictionary. "† bog | bogge, n.²"
  9. ^ Oxford English Dictionary, "† bog, adj. and n.³" & † bog, v.²".

Anagrams

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Danish

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Pronunciation

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  • IPA(key): /bɔːˀɣ/, [ˈb̥ɔ̝ːˀw], [ˈb̥ɔ̝ːwˀ], [ˈb̥ɔ̽wˀ]

Etymology 1

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From Old Norse bók (beech, book), from Proto-Germanic *bōks, from Proto-Indo-European *bʰeh₂ǵos (beech).

Noun

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bog c (singular definite bogen, plural indefinite bøger)

  1. book
Declension
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Derived terms
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Etymology 2

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Maybe from Middle Low German bōk.

Noun

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bog c (singular definite bogen, plural indefinite bog)

  1. beechnut, beech mast
Declension
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References

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Further reading

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French

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Noun

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bog m (plural bogs)

  1. (ecology) an ombrotrophic peatland
    Antonym: fen

Further reading

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German

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Pronunciation

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Verb

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bog

  1. preterite tense of biegen

Hungarian

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Etymology

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Probably from Proto-Finno-Ugric *poŋka (knot, knob, protuberance, unevenness). Cognates include Estonian pung.[1][2]

Pronunciation

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Noun

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bog (plural bogok)

  1. knot
    Synonym: csomó

Declension

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Inflection (stem in -o-, back harmony)
singular plural
nominative bog bogok
accusative bogot bogokat
dative bognak bogoknak
instrumental boggal bogokkal
causal-final bogért bogokért
translative boggá bogokká
terminative bogig bogokig
essive-formal bogként bogokként
essive-modal
inessive bogban bogokban
superessive bogon bogokon
adessive bognál bogoknál
illative bogba bogokba
sublative bogra bogokra
allative boghoz bogokhoz
elative bogból bogokból
delative bogról bogokról
ablative bogtól bogoktól
non-attributive
possessive - singular
bogé bogoké
non-attributive
possessive - plural
bogéi bogokéi
Possessive forms of bog
possessor single possession multiple possessions
1st person sing. bogom bogaim
2nd person sing. bogod bogaid
3rd person sing. boga bogai
1st person plural bogunk bogaink
2nd person plural bogotok bogaitok
3rd person plural boguk bogaik

Derived terms

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Compound words

References

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  1. ^ Entry #816 in Uralonet, online Uralic etymological database of the Hungarian Research Centre for Linguistics.
  2. ^ bog in Zaicz, Gábor (ed.). Etimológiai szótár: Magyar szavak és toldalékok eredete (‘Dictionary of Etymology: The origin of Hungarian words and affixes’). Budapest: Tinta Könyvkiadó, 2006, →ISBN.  (See also its 2nd edition.)

Further reading

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  • bog in Bárczi, Géza and László Országh. A magyar nyelv értelmező szótára (‘The Explanatory Dictionary of the Hungarian Language’, abbr.: ÉrtSz.). Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 1959–1962. Fifth ed., 1992: →ISBN
  • bog in Ittzés, Nóra (ed.). A magyar nyelv nagyszótára (‘A Comprehensive Dictionary of the Hungarian Language’). Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 2006–2031 (work in progress; published A–ez as of 2024)

Irish

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Etymology

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From Old Irish boc (soft),[1] from Proto-Celtic *buggos.

The verb is from Old Irish bocaid (to soften), from the adjective.[2]

Pronunciation

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Adjective

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bog (genitive singular masculine boig, genitive singular feminine boige, plural boga, comparative boige)

  1. soft (giving way under pressure; lacking strength or resolve; requiring little or no effort; easy)
    Synonym: tláith
  2. flabby (of physical condition)
  3. soft, mellow, gentle (of sound, voice)
    • 2015 [2014], Will Collins, translated by Proinsias Mac a' Bhaird, edited by Maura McHugh, Amhrán na Mara (fiction; paperback), Kilkenny, County Kilkenny, Howth, Dublin: Cartoon Saloon; Coiscéim, translation of Song of the Sea (in English), →ISBN, page 2:
      Briseann tonnta boga in aghaidh na gcarraigeacha thíos faoi.
      [original: Waves gently lap against the rocks below.]
  4. (of weather) wet
  5. mild, humid (of winter)
  6. loose
  7. lukewarm
    Synonyms: alabhog, alathe, bogthe

Declension

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Derived terms

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Noun

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bog m (genitive singular boig)

  1. something soft
  2. (anatomy, of ear) lobe
    Synonyms: liopa, maothán

Declension

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Verb

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bog (present analytic bogann, future analytic bogfaidh, verbal noun bogadh, past participle bogtha) (transitive, intransitive)

  1. soften, become soft; (of pain) ease; (of milk) warm; (of weather) get milder; soften, move (someone's heart)
  2. move, loosen; (of a cradle) rock

Conjugation

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Derived terms

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Mutation

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Irish mutation
Radical Lenition Eclipsis
bog bhog mbog
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

References

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  1. ^ Gregory Toner, Sharon Arbuthnot, Máire Ní Mhaonaigh, Marie-Luise Theuerkauf, Dagmar Wodtko, editors (2019), “1 boc”, in eDIL: Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language
  2. ^ Gregory Toner, Sharon Arbuthnot, Máire Ní Mhaonaigh, Marie-Luise Theuerkauf, Dagmar Wodtko, editors (2019), “bocaid”, in eDIL: Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language
  3. ^ Sjoestedt, M. L. (1931) Phonétique d’un parler irlandais de Kerry (in French), Paris: Librairie Ernest Leroux, page 14
  4. ^ Finck, F. N. (1899) Die araner mundart (in German), volume II, Marburg: Elwert’sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, page 47

Further reading

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Lower Sorbian

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Etymology

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From Proto-Slavic *bogъ.

Pronunciation

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Noun

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bog m pers (feminine bogowka)

  1. god

Declension

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Derived terms

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Further reading

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  • Muka, Arnošt (1921, 1928) “bog”, in Słownik dolnoserbskeje rěcy a jeje narěcow (in German), St. Petersburg, Prague: ОРЯС РАН, ČAVU; Reprinted Bautzen: Domowina-Verlag, 2008
  • Starosta, Manfred (1999) “bog”, in Dolnoserbsko-nimski słownik / Niedersorbisch-deutsches Wörterbuch (in German), Bautzen: Domowina-Verlag

Norwegian Bokmål

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Etymology

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From Old Norse bógr, from Germanic.

Noun

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bog m (definite singular bogen, indefinite plural boger, definite plural bogene)

  1. shoulder (of an animal)

References

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Norwegian Nynorsk

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Pronunciation

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Etymology 1

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From Old Norse bógr, from Proto-Germanic *bōguz, from Proto-Indo-European *bʰeh₂ǵʰús.

Noun

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bog m (plural bogen)

  1. shoulder, primarily of an animal

Etymology 2

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From Old Norse bók, from Proto-Germanic *bōks.

Noun

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bog f (definite singular bogjå)

  1. (dialectal) alternative form of bok
    • 1996, Tobias Skretting, Attemed ånå, page 90:
      Takk for bogjå
      Thanks for the book
    • 1957, Reinert Ersdal, quoting Andreas Mjaasund, Bakke kyrkje: Krosskyrkja 200 år, [Flekkefjord]: [Soknerådet?]:
      Eg kan nok bli frelst etter bogjå, men ikkje ette det vonde hjerta mitt.
      I might be saved by the book, but not by my evil heart.

References

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Old English

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Alternative forms

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Etymology

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From Proto-Germanic *bōguz. Cognate with Old Saxon bōg, Old High German buog, Old Norse bógr.

Pronunciation

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Noun

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bōg m

  1. a branch or bough of a tree
  2. a tendril or sprig of a plant
  3. the arm or shoulder

Declension

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Descendants

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  • Middle English: boȝ, bogh

Scottish Gaelic

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Etymology

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From Old Irish boc (soft, gentle, tender; tepid).

Pronunciation

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Adjective

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bog (comparative buige)

  1. soft
  2. wet, damp, moist

Declension

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Case Masculine singular Feminine singular Plural
Nominative bog bhog boga
Vocative bhuig bhog boga
Genitive bhuig bhuig/buige bog(a)
Dative bhog bhuig boga

Derived terms

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Mutation

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Scottish Gaelic mutation
Radical Lenition
bog bhog
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

References

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  • Edward Dwelly (1911) “bog”, in Faclair Gàidhlig gu Beurla le Dealbhan [The Illustrated Gaelic–English Dictionary]‎[2], 10th edition, Edinburgh: Birlinn Limited, →ISBN
  • Gregory Toner, Sharon Arbuthnot, Máire Ní Mhaonaigh, Marie-Luise Theuerkauf, Dagmar Wodtko, editors (2019), “1 boc”, in eDIL: Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language

Serbo-Croatian

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Etymology

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Inherited from Proto-Slavic *bogъ.

Pronunciation

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Noun

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bȏg m (Cyrillic spelling бо̑г)

  1. god, deity
  2. (colloquial) idol, god

Declension

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Derived terms

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Slavomolisano

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Etymology

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From Serbo-Croatian bog.

Pronunciation

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Noun

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bog m

  1. god

Declension

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References

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  • Walter Breu and Giovanni Piccoli (2000), Dizionario croato molisano di Acquaviva Collecroce: Dizionario plurilingue della lingua slava della minoranza di provenienza dalmata di Acquaviva Collecroce in Provincia di Campobasso (Parte grammaticale)., pp. 394

Slovene

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Etymology

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From Proto-Slavic *bogъ.

Pronunciation

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Noun

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bọ̑g m anim (female equivalent bogínja)

  1. god
  2. (uncommon, figuratively) paragon[→SSKJ]
  3. (uncommon, figuratively) highest value[→SSKJ]

Usage notes

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The dative singular form bogȗ is mostly limited to the phrase hvála bogȗ.

Declension

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First masculine declension (hard o-stem, animate, -ov- infix) , long mixed accent
nom. sing. bọ̑g
gen. sing. bogȃ
singular dual plural
nominative
imenovȃlnik
bọ̑g bogȏva, bogȃ bogȏvi
genitive
rodȋlnik
bogȃ bogóv bogóv
dative
dajȃlnik
bọ̑gu, bọ̑gi, bogȗ bogȏvoma, bogȏvama bogȏvom, bọ̑gȏvam
accusative
tožȋlnik
bogȃ bogȏva, bogȃ bogȏve
locative
mẹ̑stnik
bọ̑gu, bọ̑gi bogȏvih bogȏvih
instrumental
orọ̑dnik
bọ̑gom bogȏvoma, bogȏvama bogȏvi
(vocative)
(ogȏvorni imenovȃlnik)
bọ̑g bogȏva, bogȃ bogȏvi


Interjection

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bọ̑g

  1. god

Derived terms

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See also

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Further reading

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  • bog”, in Slovarji Inštituta za slovenski jezik Frana Ramovša ZRC SAZU, portal Fran
  • bog”, in Termania, Amebis
  • See also the general references

Swedish

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Etymology

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From Old Swedish bōgher, from Old Norse bógr, from Proto-Germanic *bōguz, from Proto-Indo-European *bʰāǵʰus.

Pronunciation

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Noun

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bog c

  1. shoulder (of an animal)
  2. bow (front of boat or ship)

Declension

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Declension of bog 
Singular Plural
Indefinite Definite Indefinite Definite
Nominative bog bogen bogar bogarna
Genitive bogs bogens bogars bogarnas

Derived terms

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