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TranslingualEdit

Stroke order (Chinese)
 
Stroke order
(Chinese)
 
Stroke order
(Japan)
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 100, +0, 5 strokes, cangjie input 竹手一 (HQM), four-corner 25100, composition𠂉)

  1. Kangxi radical #100, .

Derived charactersEdit

Further readingEdit

Chinese Wikisource has digitized text of the Kangxi Dictionary entry for :

Wikisource

  • KangXi: page 754, character 26
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 21670
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1162, character 4
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 4, page 2575, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+751F

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.
variant forms 𤯓

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
       
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*sʰlɯː
*sʰleːns
*sʰleːns, *ʔsreːŋ
*sʰleːns, *sʰleŋs
*sʰleːns
*sʰeːns
*sʰeːns
*sʰleːŋ, *sreŋs
*sreŋ
*sreŋ
*sreŋ
*sreŋ, *sleːŋ
*sreŋ
*sreŋ, *sreŋs
*sreŋ, *seːŋ
*sreŋ
*sreŋʔ
*sreŋs
*zreːŋ
*ʔsleŋ, *ʔsleŋs
*ʔsleŋ
*ʔsleŋ, *sʰleːŋ
*ʔsleŋ, *sʰleːŋ
*ʔsleŋ
*ʔsleŋ, *zleŋs, *zleŋʔ
*ʔsleŋ, *sʰleŋʔ
*ʔsleŋ
*ʔsleŋ
*ʔsleŋ
*sʰleŋ
*sʰleŋ
*sʰleŋʔ, *zleŋs, *zleŋ
*sʰleŋs
*zleŋs, *zleŋ
*zleŋs
*zleŋ
*zleŋ
*zleŋ
*zleŋʔ
*zleŋʔ
*seŋʔ, *seːŋs
*seŋʔ, *seːŋ
*sleŋs
*sleŋs
*l̥ʰeŋs
*ʔljeŋ, *sʰleːŋ
*sʰleːŋ
*sʰleːŋ, *sʰleːŋs
*sʰleːŋs
*sleːŋ
*sleːŋ
*sleːŋ
*sleːŋ
*seːŋ, *seːŋs
*seːŋ
*seːŋ, *seːŋʔ, *seːŋs
*seːŋ

Ideogrammic compound (會意):  (bud) +  (ground)sprouting from the ground.

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *s-riŋ ~ s-r(j)aŋ (to live; to be alive; to give birth; raw; green). Cognate with Burmese ရှင် (hrang, to live; alive), Mizo hring (to bear; to bring forth; to give birth to; green).

Schuessler (2007) proposes that Proto-Sino-Tibetan *sriŋ is derived from the root *sri (to exist) (whence possibly Chinese (OC *r̥ʰiːʔ, “body; shape; form”)) + *-ŋ (terminative suffix).

Both level tone and falling tone readings are found in Middle Chinese, but the latter has since been lost and is merged into the level-tone reading in modern dialects.

Related to (OC *sʰleːŋ, “blue-green”), (OC *sʰaːŋ, *sʰaːŋʔ, “dark blue; deep green”).

Derivatives: (OC *sleŋs, “nature; character; personality; quality”), (OC *sleŋs, “family name”).

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • saang1 - colloquial;
  • sang1 - literary.
  • Hakka
  • Note:
    • sâng - colloquial;
    • sên - literary.
  • Min Bei
  • Note:
    • sáng, cháng - colloquial;
    • sáing - literary.
  • Min Dong
  • Note:
    • săng - colloquial;
    • chăng - colloquial (“raw”);
    • sĕng - literary.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • siⁿ/seⁿ - colloquial;
    • chhiⁿ/chheⁿ - colloquial (“raw”);
    • seng/sng - literary.
    Note:
    • sên1 - colloquial;
    • cên1 - colloquial (“raw”);
    • sêng1 - literary (“student”).
  • Wu
  • Note:
    • 1san - colloquial;
    • 1sen - literary.

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /ʂəŋ⁵⁵/
    Harbin /ʂəŋ⁴/
    Tianjin /səŋ²¹/
    Jinan /ʂəŋ²¹³/
    Qingdao /ʂəŋ²¹³/
    Zhengzhou /səŋ²⁴/
    Xi'an /səŋ²¹/
    Xining /sə̃⁴⁴/
    Yinchuan /səŋ⁴⁴/
    Lanzhou /ʂə̃n³¹/
    Ürümqi /sɤŋ⁴⁴/
    Wuhan /sən⁵⁵/
    Chengdu /sən⁵⁵/
    Guiyang /sen⁵⁵/
    Kunming /sə̃/
    Nanjing /sən³¹/
    Hefei /sən²¹/
    Jin Taiyuan /səŋ¹¹/
    Pingyao /səŋ¹³/
    /ʂʐ̩e̞¹³/
    Hohhot /sə̃ŋ³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /səŋ⁵³/
    Suzhou /sã⁵⁵/
    Hangzhou /sen³³/
    Wenzhou /siɛ³³/
    Hui Shexian /sʌ̃³¹/
    /sɛ³¹/
    Tunxi /ɕiɛ¹¹/
    Xiang Changsha /sən³³/
    Xiangtan /siẽ³³/
    /sən³³/
    Gan Nanchang /sɑŋ⁴²/
    /sɛn⁴²/ ~意
    Hakka Meixian /saŋ⁴⁴/
    Taoyuan /sɑŋ²⁴/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /sɐŋ⁵³/
    /saŋ⁵³/
    Nanning /saŋ⁵⁵/
    Hong Kong /sɐŋ⁵⁵/
    /saŋ⁵⁵/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /siŋ⁵⁵/
    /sĩ⁵⁵/ ~死
    /t͡sʰĩ⁵⁵/ ~肉
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /saŋ⁴⁴/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /saiŋ⁵⁴/ 學~
    /t͡sʰaŋ⁵⁴/ ~熟
    Shantou (Min Nan) /seŋ³³/
    /sẽ³³/
    /t͡sʰẽ³³/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /seŋ²³/
    /sɔŋ²³/
    /tɛ²³/ ~活
    /sɛ²³/ 不熟

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    Initial () (21) (21)
    Final () (109) (109)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Open Open
    Division () II II
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ʃˠæŋ/ /ʃˠæŋH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ʃᵚaŋ/ /ʃᵚaŋH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ʃaŋ/ /ʃaŋH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ʂaɨjŋ/ /ʂaɨjŋH/
    Li
    Rong
    /ʃɐŋ/ /ʃɐŋH/
    Wang
    Li
    /ʃɐŋ/ /ʃɐŋH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ʂɐŋ/ /ʂɐŋH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    shēng shèng
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/3 2/3 3/3
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    shēng shēng shēng
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ sræng › ‹ sræng › ‹ srjæng ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*sreŋ/ (MC srj- > sr-; or *s.reŋ ?) /*sreŋ/ /*sreŋ/ (or *s.reŋ ?)
    English bear, be born; live fresh, raw bear, be born; live

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    No. 11312 11322
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0 0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*sʰleːŋ/ /*sreŋs/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. to live; to subsist; to exist
    2. to grow; to develop; to bud
    3. (causative) to bear; to give birth; to bring up; to rear
      妻子雙胞胎女孩 [MSC, trad.]
      妻子双胞胎女孩 [MSC, simp.]
      Tā qīzǐ shēng le yī duì shuāngbāotāi nǚhái. [Pinyin]
      His wife gave birth to twin girls.
    4. to be born; to come into existence
      中國 / 中国  ―  shēng zài zhōngguó.  ―  He was born in China.
    5. offspring; descendant
    6. pupil; disciple; student
      作為全日制必須定期上課 [MSC, trad.]
      作为全日制必须定期上课 [MSC, simp.]
      Nǐ zuòwèi quánrìzhì shēng bìxū dìngqī shàngkè. [Pinyin]
      As a full-time student, you should attend classes on a regular basis.
    7. (historical) scholar; Confucian scholar
    8. (opera) actor or male character
    9. Short for 先生 (xiānsheng, “gentleman”).
    10. (Cantonese) Short for 先生 (xiānsheng, “Mr.”).
      / [Cantonese]  ―  can4 saang1 [Jyutping]  ―  Mr. Chan
    11. life; existence; being; living
      /   ―  shāshēng  ―  to destroy a life
    12. fresh; not stale
    13. unripe
    14. raw; uncooked
      Antonyms: (shú)
      洋蔥 / 洋葱  ―  shēng yángcōng  ―  raw onions
      覺得仲係 [Cantonese, trad.]
      觉得仲系 [Cantonese, simp.]
      Ngo5 gok3 dak1 ni1 faai3 juk6 zung6 hai6 taai3 saang1. [Jyutping]
      I think this piece of meat is too raw.
    15. (historical ethnography) uncultured; uncultivated; wild; uncivilized; savage
        ―  shēng  ―  wild Li
    16. strange; unfamiliar
        ―  shēngrén  ―  stranger
    17. mechanically; forcedly
    18. very; quite; extremely
    19. vivid; strong; forceful
    20. innate; natural; born with
    21. Original form of (xìng, “intelligence; natural endowment”).
    22. living things; organism
    23. livelihood; subsistence
      /   ―  móushēng  ―  to make a living
    24. lifetime; all one's life
      /   ―  láishēng  ―  afterlife
    25. birthday; anniversary
      /   ―  qìngshēng  ―  to celebrate one's birthday
    26. to bring back to life; to revive; to rescue
    27. to generate; to breed; to create
    28. to manufacture; to produce
    29. to happen; to occur; to take place
    30. to catch (a disease)
      什麼 / 什么  ―  shēng le shénme bìng?  ―  What disease have I got?
      [Min Nan]  ―  seⁿ-chôa [Pe̍h-ōe-jī]  ―  to have shingles
    31. (transitive) to be infested by a parasite
      跳蚤  ―  shēng tiàozǎo  ―  to be infested with fleas
      蝨乸 / 虱乸 [Cantonese]  ―  saang1 sat1 naa2 [Jyutping]  ―  to be infested with lice
    32. (Buddhism) to go into society; to be reincarnated
    33. (dialectal) to set up; to put in; to settle
    34. to light; to ignite (a fire)
      母親爐子 / 母亲炉子  ―  Mǔqīn méi yǒu shēng lúzi.  ―  Mother did not light the stove.
    35. A surname​.

    CompoundsEdit

    DescendantsEdit

    Sino-Xenic ():

    JapaneseEdit

    Stroke order (Japan)
     
    Stroke order
    (Japan)
     

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

    Kanji in this term
    なま
    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    From Old Japanese. Numerous derivatives already in use in the Heian period.[1][2]

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana なま, rōmaji nama)

    1. a raw, uncooked state
       (にく) (なま)のまま ()べると、 (はら) (こわ)すことがある。
      Niku o nama no mama taberu to, hara o kowasu koto ga aru.
      You may have a stomachache if you eat raw meat.
    2. Short for 生ビール (draft beer).

    PrefixEdit

    (hiragana なま, rōmaji nama-)

    1. (broadcasting) live
       (なま)演奏 (えんそう)
      namaensō
      live performance
    2. fresh, draft
       (なま)クリーム
      nama kurīmu
      fresh cream
       (なま)ビール
      nama bīru
      draft beer
    3. raw, uncooked, rare
       (なま) (たまご)
      nama tamago
      a raw egg
    4. natural, unprocessed

    Derived termsEdit

    Etymology 2Edit

    Kanji in this term
    せい
    Grade: 1
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese (MC ʃˠæŋ, ʃˠæŋH, “alive; fresh; raw; unprocessed”).

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana せい, rōmaji sei)

    1. a living
       (せい) (いとな)
      sei o itonamu
      make a living
    2. life
       (せい) (よろこ)
      sei no yorokobi
      the joys of life
      Synonym: (inochi)

    PronounEdit

    (hiragana せい, rōmaji sei)

    1. (humble) I or me, the first person singular (used by males)

    SuffixEdit

    (hiragana せい, rōmaji -sei)

    1. a student
      中学 (ちゅうがく) (せい)大学 (だいがく) (せい)受験 (じゅけん) (せい)
      chūgakusei, daigakusei, jukensei
      middle-school student, university student, test-taking student → examinee
    2. (be) born in
      1950 (せんきゅうひゃくごじゅう) (ねん) (せい)
      sen-kyūhyaku-gojū-nen sei
      born in 1950
      Antonym: 歿 (botsu) ("died in")

    Derived termsEdit

    Etymology 3Edit

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    Likely a contraction from 生き (iki, life, living; freshness).[1]

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana , rōmaji ki)

    1. purity, a lack of any admixture, a state of being undiluted
      ウィスキーを () ()
      wisukī o ki de nomu
      drink whiskey straight

    PrefixEdit

    (hiragana , rōmaji ki-)

    1. unrefined
       () (いと)
      kiito
      raw silk
    2. pure, undefiled, unadulterated
       () (むすめ)
      kimusume
      innocent young girl

    Derived termsEdit

    Etymology 4Edit

    Kanji in this term
    しょう
    Grade: 1
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese (MC ʃˠæŋ, ʃˠæŋH). The 呉音 (goon) reading, so likely the initial borrowing from Middle Chinese.

    PronunciationEdit

    AffixEdit

    (hiragana しょう, rōmaji shō)

    1. life; lifetime
    Derived termsEdit

    See alsoEdit

    ReferencesEdit

    1. 1.0 1.1 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

    KoreanEdit

    EtymologyEdit

    From Middle Chinese (MC ʃˠæŋ, ʃˠæŋH). Attested in 훈몽자회/訓蒙字會 as Middle Korean ᄉᆡᇰ (soyng).

    HanjaEdit

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun (nal saeng))

    1. Hanja form? of (raw; uncooked).
    2. Hanja form? of (of life; to be born).
    3. Hanja form? of (to produce).

    CompoundsEdit

    ReferencesEdit

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [1]

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    : Hán Việt readings: sinh[1][2][3][4], sanh (()(canh)(thiết))[3][4]
    : Nôm readings: sanh[1][2][5][4][6][7], siêng[1][3][5][4][6][7], sinh[1][2][3][4][7], xinh[1][2][3][5], xênh[1][3][5], sống[1], xanh[1]

    1. Hán tự form of sinh (to produce; to yield; to give birth to).
    2. Hán tự form of sanh (to be born).
    3. Nôm form of siêng (dilligent; assiduous).

    CompoundsEdit

    ReferencesEdit

    1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 [[Wiktionary:About Vietnamese/references#Lua error: not enough memory|Nguyễn (2014).]]
    2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 [[Wiktionary:About Vietnamese/references#Lua error: not enough memory|Nguyễn et al. (2009).]]
    3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 [[Wiktionary:About Vietnamese/references#Lua error: not enough memory|Trần (2004).]]
    4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 [[Wiktionary:About Vietnamese/references#Lua error: not enough memory|Bonet (1899).]]
    5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 [[Wiktionary:About Vietnamese/references#Lua error: not enough memory|Hồ (1976).]]
    6. 6.0 6.1 [[Wiktionary:About Vietnamese/references#Lua error: not enough memory|Génibrel (1898).]]
    7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 [[Wiktionary:About Vietnamese/references#Lua error: not enough memory|Taberd & Pigneau de Béhaine (1838).]]