U+751F, 生
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-751F

[U+751E]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+7520]
See also: and

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 
Japanese
stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 100 +0, 5 strokes, cangjie input 竹手一 (HQM), four-corner 25100, composition𠂉)

  1. Kangxi radical #100, (life).

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 754, character 26
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 21670
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1162, character 4
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 4, page 2575, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+751F

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Large seal script Small seal script
       
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*sʰlɯː
*sʰleːns
*sʰleːns, *ʔsreːŋ
*sʰleːns, *sʰleŋs
*sʰleːns
*sʰeːns
*sʰeːns
*sʰleːŋ, *sreŋs
*sreŋ
*sreŋ
*sreŋ
*sreŋ, *sleːŋ
*sreŋ
*sreŋ, *sreŋs
*sreŋ, *seːŋ
*sreŋ
*sreŋʔ
*sreŋs
*zreːŋ
*ʔsleŋ, *ʔsleŋs
*ʔsleŋ
*ʔsleŋ, *sʰleːŋ
*ʔsleŋ, *sʰleːŋ
*ʔsleŋ
*ʔsleŋ, *zleŋs, *zleŋʔ
*ʔsleŋ, *sʰleŋʔ
*ʔsleŋ
*ʔsleŋ
*ʔsleŋ
*sʰleŋ
*sʰleŋ
*sʰleŋʔ, *zleŋs, *zleŋ
*sʰleŋs
*zleŋs, *zleŋ
*zleŋs
*zleŋ
*zleŋ
*zleŋ
*zleŋʔ
*zleŋʔ
*seŋʔ, *seːŋs
*seŋʔ, *seːŋ
*sleŋs
*sleŋs
*l̥ʰeŋs
*ʔljeŋ, *sʰleːŋ
*sʰleːŋ
*sʰleːŋ, *sʰleːŋs
*sʰleːŋs
*sleːŋ
*sleːŋ
*sleːŋ
*sleːŋ
*seːŋ, *seːŋs
*seːŋ
*seːŋ, *seːŋʔ, *seːŋs
*seːŋ

Ideogrammic compound (會意): (bud) + (ground)sprouting from the ground.

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *s-riŋ ~ s-r(j)aŋ(to live; to be alive; to give birth; raw; green). Cognate with Burmese ရှင်(hrang, to live; alive), Mizo hring(to bear; to bring forth; to give birth to; green).

Schuessler (2007) proposes that Proto-Sino-Tibetan *sriŋ is derived from the root *sri(to exist) (whence possibly Chinese (OC *r̥ʰiːʔ, “body; shape; form”)) + *-ŋ(terminative suffix).

Both level tone and falling tone readings are found in Middle Chinese, but the latter has since been lost and is merged into the level-tone reading in modern dialects.

Related to (OC *sʰleːŋ, “blue-green”), (OC *sʰaːŋ, *sʰaːŋʔ, “dark blue; deep green”).

Derivatives: (OC *sleŋs, “nature; character; personality; quality”), (OC *sleŋs, “family name”).

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • saang1 - vernacular;
  • sang1 - literary.
Note:
  • sâng - vernacular;
  • sên - literary.
Note:
  • sng/seng - literary;
  • siⁿ/seⁿ/chhiⁿ/chheⁿ - vernacular.
Note:
  • 1san - vernacular;
  • 1sen - literary.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /ʂəŋ⁵⁵/
Harbin /ʂəŋ⁴/
Tianjin /səŋ²¹/
Jinan /ʂəŋ²¹³/
Qingdao /ʂəŋ²¹³/
Zhengzhou /səŋ²⁴/
Xi'an /səŋ²¹/
Xining /sə̃⁴⁴/
Yinchuan /səŋ⁴⁴/
Lanzhou /ʂə̃n³¹/
Ürümqi /sɤŋ⁴⁴/
Wuhan /sən⁵⁵/
Chengdu /sən⁵⁵/
Guiyang /sen⁵⁵/
Kunming /sə̃/
Nanjing /sən³¹/
Hefei /sən²¹/
Jin Taiyuan /səŋ¹¹/
Pingyao /səŋ¹³/
/ʂʐ̩e̞¹³/
Hohhot /sə̃ŋ³¹/
Wu Shanghai /səŋ⁵³/
Suzhou /sã⁵⁵/
Hangzhou /sen³³/
Wenzhou /siɛ³³/
Hui Shexian /sʌ̃³¹/
/sɛ³¹/
Tunxi /ɕiɛ¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /sən³³/
Xiangtan /siẽ³³/
/sən³³/
Gan Nanchang /sɑŋ⁴²/
/sɛn⁴²/ ~意
Hakka Meixian /saŋ⁴⁴/
Taoyuan /sɑŋ²⁴/
Cantonese Guangzhou /sɐŋ⁵³/
/saŋ⁵³/
Nanning /saŋ⁵⁵/
Hong Kong /sɐŋ⁵⁵/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /siŋ⁵⁵/
/sĩ⁵⁵/ ~死
/t͡sʰĩ⁵⁵/ ~肉
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /saŋ⁴⁴/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /saiŋ⁵⁴/ 學~
/t͡sʰaŋ⁵⁴/ ~熟
Shantou (Min Nan) /seŋ³³/
/sẽ³³/
/t͡sʰẽ³³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /seŋ²³/
/sɔŋ²³/
/tɛ²³/ ~活
/sɛ²³/ 不熟

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
Initial () (21) (21)
Final () (109) (109)
Tone (調) Level (Ø) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open Open
Division () II II
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ʃˠæŋ/ /ʃˠæŋH/
Pan
Wuyun
/ʃᵚaŋ/ /ʃᵚaŋH/
Shao
Rongfen
/ʃaŋ/ /ʃaŋH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ʂaɨjŋ/ /ʂaɨjŋH/
Li
Rong
/ʃɐŋ/ /ʃɐŋH/
Wang
Li
/ʃɐŋ/ /ʃɐŋH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ʂɐŋ/ /ʂɐŋH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
shēng shèng
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/3 2/3 3/3
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
shēng shēng shēng
Middle
Chinese
‹ sræng › ‹ sræng › ‹ srjæng ›
Old
Chinese
/*sreŋ/ (MC srj- > sr-; or *s.reŋ ?) /*sreŋ/ /*sreŋ/ (or *s.reŋ ?)
English bear, be born; live fresh, raw bear, be born; live

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2 2/2
No. 11312 11322
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0 0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*sʰleːŋ/ /*sreŋs/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. to live; to subsist; to exist
  2. to grow; to develop; to bud
    • 紅豆 / 红豆  ―  Hóngdòu shēng nán guó.  ―  Red berries grow in southern lands.
  3. (causative) to bear; to give birth; to bring up; to rear
  4. to be born; to come into existence
  5. offspring; descendant
  6. pupil; disciple; student
  7. (historical) scholar; Confucian scholar
  8. (opera) actor or male character
  9. Short for 先生 (xiānshēng, “gentleman”).
  10. (Cantonese) Short for 先生 (xiānshēng, “Mr.”).
    • / [Cantonese]  ―  can4 saang1 [Jyutping]  ―  Mr. Chan
  11. life; existence; being; living
  12. fresh; not stale
  13. raw; uncooked
  14. uncultured; uncultivated
  15. strange; unfamiliar
  16. mechanically; forcedly
  17. very; quite; extremely
  18. vivid; strong; forceful
  19. innate; natural; born with
  20. Original form of (xìng, “intelligence; natural endowment”).
  21. living things; organism
  22. livelihood; subsistence
  23. lifetime; all one's life
  24. birthday; anniversary
  25. to bring back to life; to revive; to rescue
  26. to generate; to breed; to create
  27. to manufacture; to produce
  28. to happen; to occur; to take place
  29. (Buddhism) to go into society; to be reincarnated
  30. (dialectal) to set up; to put in; to settle
  31. to light; to ignite (a fire)

CompoundsEdit


JapaneseEdit

Japanese stroke order
 
Japanese
stroke order
 

KanjiEdit

(grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

ReadingsEdit

CompoundsEdit

NounEdit

Kanji in this term
なま
Grade: 1
kun'yomi

‎(hiragana なま, romaji nama)

  1. raw
     (なま) (たまご)
    nama tamago
    a raw egg
     (にく) (なま)のまま ()べると、 (はら) (こわ)すことがある。
    Niku o nama no mama taberu to, hara o kowasu koto ga aru.
    You may have a stomachache if you eat raw meat.
  2. fresh, draft
     (なま)クリーム
    nama kurīmu
    fresh cream
     (なま)ビール
    nama bīru
    draft beer

PrefixEdit

‎(hiragana なま, romaji nama-)

  1. live
  2. raw, uncooked, rare
  3. natural, unprocessed

SuffixEdit

Kanji in this term
せい
Grade: 1
on'yomi

‎(hiragana せい, romaji -sei)

  1. a student
    中学 (ちゅうがく) (せい)大学 (だいがく) (せい)受験 (じゅけん) (せい)
    chūgakusei, daigakusei, jukensei
    middle-school student, university student, test-taking student → examinee

KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

‎(saeng)
Eumhun:

  • Sound (hangeul):  (McCune-Reischauer: saeng, Yale: sayng)
  • Name (hangeul): 나다 (revised: nada, McCune-Reischauer: nada, Yale: nata)

Middle Korean ᄉᆡᆼ, IPA pronunciation estimate is Sʌiŋ.

  1. fresh

CompoundsEdit


VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

(sinh, sanh, siêng, xênh, xinh)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

CompoundsEdit