See also: 女子
U+597D, 好
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-597D

[U+597C]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+597E]

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 
Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 38, +3, 6 strokes, cangjie input 女弓木 (VND), four-corner 47447, composition)

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 255, character 11
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 6053
  • Dae Jaweon: page 518, character 12
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 2, page 1028, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+597D

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.
alternative forms

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
       

Ideogrammic compound (會意):  (woman) +  (child).

The widely accepted meaning of this character is that the characters for "female" () and "child" () were put together to form a compound because it was good for a woman to have a child. Similarly, it has been proposed that the compound originally refers to the mutual affection between the mother and child, which then extended to mean "good". These theories are supported by the smaller found in some oracle bones and bronze inscriptions.

However, broader interpretations of the second character could lead to other theories. could also mean "son", so it may have meant two children, a boy and a girl next to each other, which is a good fortune to have a boy and a girl. could also mean "man", so it may have referred to the love between a man and a woman, which is good. Duan Yucai, in his annotated version of Shuowen, interpreted it as originally referring to the beauty of 女子 (nǚzǐ, “woman”). Lastly, it could mean that the "attitude" of a girl was considered good.

EtymologyEdit

The two pronunciations are cognate – pronunciation 2 is the *-s suffixed form, or exoactive/putative of pronunciation 1, literally "to consider good". Compare (OC *qaːɡ, “bad; evil”) > (OC *qaːɡs, “to consider bad; to hate”).

This word has been compared with Proto-Sino-Tibetan *hu (to raise; to rear; to nourish): Proto-Lolo-Burmese *hu³, Abor-Miri (Tani) u, Mawo Northern Qiang χu, which is only attested in a limited number of languages. If this is correct, it may be related to (OC *l̥ʰuɡs, *l̥ʰuɡ, *hluɡ, “to raise; to rear; domesticated animal”). Alternatively, compare Tibetan མཁོ (mkho, necessary, important).

Cognate with Central Bai hux (good), which may be a loanword from Chinese.

Pronunciation 1Edit


Note:
  • ho2 - vernacular;
  • hoh4 - vernacular (“very”);
  • hao2 - literary.
  • Wu

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Initial () (32)
    Final () (89)
    Tone (調) Rising (X)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /hɑuX/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /hɑuX/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /xɑuX/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /hawX/
    Li
    Rong
    /xɑuX/
    Wang
    Li
    /xɑuX/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /xɑuX/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    hǎo
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    hǎo
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ xawX ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*qʰˁuʔ/
    English good

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    No. 4913
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*qʰuːʔ/
    Notes

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. good; well
      /   ―  hǎo ma?  ―  How are you?
      / [Cantonese]  ―  Nei5 hou2 maa3? [Jyutping]  ―  How are you?
      主意 / 主意  ―  Zhēn shì ge hǎo zhǔyì!  ―  That's a good idea!
      Antonym: (huài)
    2. Used as an interjection.
      1. good; very well; nice
      2. OK; alright
      3. fine
    3. nice; kind
      他們 / 他们  ―  Tāmen duì wǒ hěn hǎo.  ―  They are very kind to me.
    4. friendly; close; acquainted
      朋友  ―  hǎo péngyǒu  ―  good friend
    5. to form a friendly or close relationship; to be friends; to be on good terms
    6. (specifically) to start dating; to become romantic partners
      /   ―  Tā liǎ hǎo shàng le.  ―  (please add an English translation of this example)
    7. done; ready
        ―  Wǒ jiù yào hǎo le.  ―  I'll be ready very soon.
    8. to be good to; easy to
      水龍頭 / 水龙头  ―  Zhè shuǐlóngtóu hǎo nǐng.  ―  This tap turns easily.
    9. (making it) convenient; easy for
      東西收拾乾淨打掃房間 [MSC, trad.]
      东西收拾干净打扫房间 [MSC, simp.]
      Bǎ dōngxī shōushí qiánjìng, wǒ hǎo dǎsǎo fángjiān. [Pinyin]
      Put stuff away so that I can clean the room.
      他們鏡子反射陽光救援飛機發現 [MSC, trad.]
      他们镜子反射阳光救援飞机发现 [MSC, simp.]
      Tāmen yòng jìngzǐ fǎnshè yángguāng, hǎo ràng jiùyuán fēijī fāxiàn. [Pinyin]
      They used a mirror to reflect sunlight and help the search-and-rescue aircraft find them.
    10. so that
    11. to recover from an illness
      [Cantonese, trad.]
      [Cantonese, simp.]
      Keoi5 beng6 zo2 gei2 go3 jyut6 dou1 zung6 mei6 hou2. [Jyutping]
      He's been sick for several months and still hasn't recovered.
      [Cantonese]  ―  hou2 faan1 [Jyutping]  ―  to get better; to recover; to heal
    12. (somewhat dialectal) very; quite; rather; so
      興奮 / 兴奋  ―  hǎo xīngfèn a!  ―  I'm so excited!
      /   ―  hǎo jǐ tiān  ―  quite a few days
      中文老師 [Guangzhou Cantonese, trad.]
      中文老师 [Guangzhou Cantonese, simp.]
      Ngo5 go3 zung1 man4-2 lou5 si1 hou2 hou2 jan4 gaa3! [Jyutping]
      My Chinese teacher is a very nice person!
    13. a pleasure to VERB
        ―  hǎochī  ―  delicious
        ―  hǎoyòng  ―  a joy to use
      /   ―  hǎotīng  ―  pleasant-sounding
    14. properly; carefully
      記得雨具 / 记得雨具  ―  Jìdé dài hǎo yǔjù!  ―  Remember to bring along rain gear! / Make sure your rain gear is on you!
      /   ―  Tīng hǎo le!  ―  Now listen carefully!
    15. Particle used after verbs to denote the completion or near-completion of an action.
      作業 / 作业  ―  Zuòyè zuò hǎo le ma?  ―  Have you finished your homework?
    16. Used after a noun or pronoun as a greeting.
        ―  hǎo  ―  hello
      大家  ―  dàjiā hǎo  ―  hello, everyone
      老師 / 老师  ―  lǎoshī hǎo  ―  hello, teacher
    17. greeting
      /   ―  wènhǎo  ―  say hello
      [MSC, trad.]
      [MSC, simp.]
      Tì wǒ gěi nǐ mā dài ge hǎor. [Pinyin]
      Say hi for me to your mom.
    18. Particle denoting agreement, support or wish to terminate a conversation.
    19. Particle denoting dissatisfaction in ironical sentences.
    20. such; what
      美麗茉莉花 [MSC, trad.]
      美丽茉莉花 [MSC, simp.]
      Hǎo yī duǒ měilì de mòlìhuā. [Pinyin]
      What a beautiful jasmine.
    SynonymsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    DescendantsEdit

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese: (こう) ()
    • Korean: (, ho)
    • Vietnamese: hảo ()

    Others:

    • Vietnamese: hẩu (kind, good, delicious)

    Pronunciation 2Edit



    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Initial () (32)
    Final () (89)
    Tone (調) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /hɑuH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /hɑuH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /xɑuH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /hawH/
    Li
    Rong
    /xɑuH/
    Wang
    Li
    /xɑuH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /xɑuH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    hào
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    hào
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ xawH ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*qʰˁuʔ-s/
    English love, like (v.)

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    No. 4914
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*qʰuːs/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. to be fond of; to like
      學不倦 / 学不倦  ―  hàoxuébùjuàn  ―  to like to learn without feeling tired
      餃子這麼口兒 [dialectal Mandarin, trad.]
      饺子这么口儿 [dialectal Mandarin, simp.]
      Jiǎozi duō xiāng a! Wǒ jiù hào zhènme yī kǒur! [Pinyin]
      The dumplings smell so delicious! I indeed like this!
    2. to have a tendency to; to be prone to; good to; easy to
    3. (dialectal Mandarin, Wu) can; to be able to
      流利上海話𠲎 [Shanghainese, trad.]
      流利上海话𠲎 [Shanghainese, simp.]
      Can you speak Shanghainese fluently?
      Synonyms: (huì), 可以 (kěyǐ)
    4. A surname​.
    SynonymsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    DescendantsEdit

    Sino-Xenic ():

    ReferencesEdit


    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 4 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. fondness; what one likes

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    Proper nounEdit

    (よしみ) (Yoshimi

    1. A male given name

    KoreanEdit

    HanjaEdit

    (ho) (hangeul , revised ho, McCune–Reischauer ho)

    1. to like

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    : Hán Việt readings: hiếu (()(đáo)(thiết))[1][2][3], hảo (()(hạo)(thiết))[1][2][3]
    : Nôm readings: hiếu[1][2][4], háu[1][3][4], háo[1][3], hảo[2][4], hẩu[1][3], hấu[3], hão[4], hếu[4]

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    ReferencesEdit