See also: 女子

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order

Han characterEdit

(radical 38 +3, 6 strokes, cangjie input 女弓木 (VND), four-corner 47447, composition)

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 255, character 11
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 6053
  • Dae Jaweon: page 518, character 12
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 2, page 1028, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+597D

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Large seal script Small seal script

Ideogrammic compound (會意):  ‎(woman) +  ‎(child)

The widely accepted meaning of this character is that the characters for "female" (女) and "child" (子) were put together to form a compound because it was good for a woman to have a child. Similarly, it has been proposed that the compound originally refers to the mutual affection between the mother and child, which then extended to mean "good". These theories are supported by the smaller 子 found in some oracle bones and bronze inscriptions.

However, broader interpretations of the second character 子 could lead to other theories. 子 could also mean "son", so it may have meant two children, a boy and a girl next to each other, which is a good fortune to have a boy and a girl. 子 could also mean "man", so it may have referred to the love between a man and a woman, which is good. Duan Yucai, in his annotated version of Shuowen, interpreted it as originally referring to the beauty of 女子 (nǚzǐ, “woman”). Lastly, it could mean that the "attitude" of a girl was considered good.

EtymologyEdit

The two pronunciations are cognate – pronunciation 2 is the *-s suffixed form, or exoactive/putative of pronunciation 1, literally "to consider good".

This word has been compared with Proto-Tibeto-Burman *hu ("raise, rear, nourish"): Proto-Lolo-Burmese *hu3, Abor-Miri u, Qiang (Mawo) χu. This root is only attested in a limited number of languages and does not seem very reliable. Alternatively, compare Tibetan མཁོ ‎(mkho, necessary, important).

Cognate with Central Bai hux ‎(good), which may be a loanword from Chinese.

Pronunciation 1Edit



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2
Initial () (32)
Final () (89)
Tone (調) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/hɑuX/
Pan
Wuyun
/hɑuX/
Shao
Rongfen
/xɑuX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/hawX/
Li
Rong
/xɑuX/
Wang
Li
/xɑuX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/xɑuX/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
hǎo
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle
Chinese
‹ xawX ›
Old
Chinese
/*qʰˤuʔ/
English good

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2
No. 4913
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*qʰuːʔ/
Notes

DefinitionsEdit

  1. good; well
  2. nice; kind
  3. done; ready
    •   ―  Wǒ jiù yào hǎo le.  ―  I'll be ready very soon.
  4. to be good to, easy to
  5. (making it) convenient, easy for
  6. so that
  7. to recover from an illness
  8. (somewhat dialectal) very; quite; rather; so
  9. a pleasure to VERB
      ―  hǎochī  ―  delicious
    •   ―  hǎoyòng  ―  a joy to use
    • /   ―  hǎotīng  ―  pleasant-sounding
  10. Particle used after verbs to denote the completion or near-completion of an action.
  11. Particle denoting agreement, support or wish to terminate a conversation.
  12. Particle denoting dissatisfaction in ironical sentences.
SynonymsEdit
  • (very):
Dialectal synonyms of ("very; quite")
Variety Location Words
Classical Classical
Formal Formal 非常十分
Mandarin Beijing
Taiwan
Tianjin
Jinan
Xi'an
Wuhan
Chengdu
Yangzhou
Hefei
Cantonese Guangzhou
Hong Kong
Taishan
Yangjiang
Gan Nanchang
Hakka Meixian
Miaoli (N. Sixian)
Liudui (S. Sixian)
Hsinchu (Hailu)
Dongshi (Dabu)
Taiwanese Raoping
Yunlin (Zhao'an) 實在
Jin Taiyuan
Min Bei Jian'ou
Min Dong Fuzhou
Min Nan Quanzhou
Xiamen
Zhangzhou
Taipei
Kaohsiung 有夠
Tainan 有夠
Taichung
Yilan 有夠
Lukang
Sanxia
Kinmen
Magong
Hsinchu
Malaysia 真正
Chaozhou
Wu Shanghai
Suzhou
Wenzhou
Xiang Changsha
Shuangfeng

CompoundsEdit

DescendantsEdit

Sino-Xenic ():

Others:

  • Vietnamese: hẩu ‎(kind, good, delicious)

Pronunciation 2Edit



Rime
Character
Reading # 2/2
Initial () (32)
Final () (89)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/hɑuH/
Pan
Wuyun
/hɑuH/
Shao
Rongfen
/xɑuH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/hawH/
Li
Rong
/xɑuH/
Wang
Li
/xɑuH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/xɑuH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
hào
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 2/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
hào
Middle
Chinese
‹ xawH ›
Old
Chinese
/*qʰˤuʔ-s/
English love, like (v.)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 2/2
No. 4914
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*qʰuːs/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. to be fond of; to like
  2. to have a tendency to; to be prone to; good to; easy to
  3. (dialectal Mandarin, Wu) can; to be able to

CompoundsEdit

DescendantsEdit

Sino-Xenic ():

ReferencesEdit


JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(grade 4 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. fondness; what one likes

ReadingsEdit

CompoundsEdit

Proper nounEdit

‎(hiragana よしみ, romaji Yoshimi)

  1. A male given name

KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

‎(ho) (hangeul , revised ho, McCune-Reischauer ho)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

(hảo, háo, háu, hão, hếu, hiếu, hấu, hẩu)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.
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