See also: 女子
U+597D, 好
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-597D

[U+597C]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+597E]

Translingual

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Stroke order
 
Stroke order
 

Han character

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(Kangxi radical 38, +3, 6 strokes, cangjie input 女弓木 (VND), four-corner 47447, composition )

Derived characters

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References

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  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 255, character 11
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 6053
  • Dae Jaweon: page 518, character 12
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 2, page 1028, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+597D

Chinese

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trad.
simp. #
alternative forms

Glyph origin

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Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
       

Ideogrammic compound (會意会意) : (woman) + (child).

The widely accepted meaning of this character is that the characters for female () and child () were put together to form a compound because it was good for a woman to have a child. Similarly, it has been proposed that the compound originally refers to the mutual affection between the mother and child, which then extended to mean good. These theories are supported by the smaller found in some oracle bones and bronze inscriptions.

However, broader interpretations of the second character could lead to other theories. could also mean son, so it may have meant two children, a boy and a girl next to each other, which is a good fortune to have a boy and a girl. could also mean man, so it may have referred to the love between a man and a woman, which is good. Duan Yucai, in his annotated version of Shuowen, interpreted it as originally referring to the beauty of woman. Lastly, it could mean that the attitude of a girl was considered good.

Etymology

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The two pronunciations are cognate – pronunciation 2 is the *-s suffixed form, or exoactive/putative of pronunciation 1, literally to consider good. Compare (OC *qaːɡ, “bad; evil”) > (OC *qaːɡs, “to consider bad; to hate”).

This word has been compared with Proto-Sino-Tibetan *hu (to raise; to rear; to nourish): Proto-Lolo-Burmese *hu³, Abor-Miri (Tani) u, Mawo Northern Qiang χu, which is only attested in a limited number of languages. If this is correct, it may be related to (OC *l̥ʰuɡs, *l̥ʰuɡ, *hluɡ, “to raise; to rear; domesticated animal”). Alternatively, compare Tibetan མཁོ (mkho, necessary, important).

Cognate with Central Bai hux (good), which may be a loanword from Chinese.

Pronunciation 1

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Note:
  • hó/hó͘ - vernacular;
  • hóⁿ - literary.
Note:
  • ho2 - vernacular;
  • hoh4 - vernacular (“very”);
  • hao2 - literary.

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2
Initial () (32)
Final () (89)
Tone (調) Rising (X)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Baxter xawX
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/hɑuX/
Pan
Wuyun
/hɑuX/
Shao
Rongfen
/xɑuX/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/hawX/
Li
Rong
/xɑuX/
Wang
Li
/xɑuX/
Bernard
Karlgren
/xɑuX/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
hǎo
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
hou2
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
hǎo
Middle
Chinese
‹ xawX ›
Old
Chinese
/*qʰˁuʔ/
English good

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2
No. 4913
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*qʰuːʔ/
Notes

Definitions

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  1. good; well
      ―  hǎorén  ―  good person
      ―  hǎo ma?  ―  How are you?
    [Cantonese]  ―  nei5 hou2 maa3? [Jyutping]  ―  How are you?
    主意主意  ―  Zhēn shì ge hǎo zhǔyì!  ―  That's a good idea!
    Antonym: (huài)
  2. Used as an interjection.
    1. good; very well; nice
    2. OK; alright
      明天明天  ―  Hǎo, míngtiān jiàn.  ―  OK, see you tomorrow.
      我們今天這裡 [MSC, trad.]
      我们今天这里 [MSC, simp.]
      Hǎo, wǒmen jīntiān jiù dào zhèli. [Pinyin]
      Alright, we will stop here today.
    3. fine
  3. friendly; close; acquainted
    朋友  ―  hǎo péngyǒu  ―  good friend
    他們他们  ―  Tāmen duì wǒ hěn hǎo.  ―  They are very kind to me.
  4. (specifically) to start dating; to become romantic partners
      ―  Tā liǎ hǎo shàng le.  ―  They are in a relationship.
  5. done; ready
      ―  Wǒ jiù yào hǎo le.  ―  I'll be ready very soon.
  6. to be good to; easy to
    水龍頭水龙头  ―  Zhè shuǐlóngtóu hǎo nǐng.  ―  This tap turns easily.
    事兒事儿  ―  Zhè shìr bù hǎo bàn.  ―  This matter is not easy to deal with.
  7. (making it) convenient; easy for
    東西收拾乾淨打掃房間 [MSC, trad.]
    东西收拾干净打扫房间 [MSC, simp.]
    Bǎ dōngxī shōushí qiánjìng, wǒ hǎo dǎsǎo fángjiān. [Pinyin]
    Put stuff away so that I can clean the room.
    他們鏡子反射陽光救援飛機發現 [MSC, trad.]
    他们镜子反射阳光救援飞机发现 [MSC, simp.]
    Tāmen yòng jìngzǐ fǎnshè yángguāng, hǎo ràng jiùyuán fēijī fāxiàn. [Pinyin]
    They used a mirror to reflect sunlight and help the search-and-rescue aircraft find them.
  8. to recover from an illness
    [Cantonese, trad.]
    [Cantonese, simp.]
    keoi5 beng6 zo2 gei2 go3 jyut6 dou1 zung6 mei6 hou2. [Jyutping]
    He's been sick for several months and still hasn't recovered.
    [Cantonese]  ―  hou2 faan1 [Jyutping]  ―  to get better; to recover; to heal
  9. very; quite; rather; so
    興奮兴奋  ―  hǎo xīngfèn a!  ―  I'm so excited!
      ―  hǎo jǐ tiān  ―  quite a few days
    中文老師好人 [Guangzhou Cantonese, trad.]
    中文老师好人 [Guangzhou Cantonese, simp.]
    ngo5 go3 zung1 man4-2 lou5 si1 hou2 hou2 jan4 gaa3! [Jyutping]
    My Chinese teacher is a very nice person!
    唔係鍾意 [Cantonese, trad.]
    唔系钟意 [Cantonese, simp.]
    ngo5 m4 hai6 hou2 zung1 ji3 nei5 gam2 zou6. [Jyutping]
    I don't really like you doing it that way.
    潮州話好學潮州話惡學 [Teochew, trad.]
    潮州话好学潮州话恶学 [Teochew, simp.]
    From: [1]
    diê5 ziu17 hoh4 ho2 oh8. diê5 ziu17 hoh4 oh4 oh8. [Peng'im]
    Teochew is very easy to learn. Teochew is very hard to learn.
  10. a pleasure to (do something); good for (doing something)
      ―  hǎochī  ―  delicious
      ―  hǎoyòng  ―  a joy to use
      ―  hǎotīng  ―  pleasant-sounding
    使 [Cantonese, trad.]
    使 [Cantonese, simp.]
    ni1 baa2 dou1 gei2 hou2 sai2. [Jyutping]
    This knife is pretty good to use.
  11. (after a verb) properly; carefully
    記得雨具记得雨具  ―  Jìdé dài hǎo yǔjù!  ―  Remember to bring along rain gear! / Make sure your rain gear is on you!
      ―  Tīng hǎo le!  ―  Now listen carefully!
    𰥛 [Cantonese]  ―  sik6 hou2 fan3 hou2 [Jyutping]  ―  eat well and sleep well
    功課功课 [Cantonese]  ―  zou6 hou2 gung1 fo3 [Jyutping]  ―  to do one's homework (as one should)
  12. Particle used after verbs to denote the completion or near-completion of an action.
    作業作业  ―  Zuòyè zuò hǎo le ma?  ―  Have you finished your homework?
  13. Used after a noun or pronoun as a greeting.
      ―  hǎo  ―  hello
    大家  ―  dàjiā hǎo  ―  hello, everyone
    老師老师  ―  lǎoshī hǎo  ―  hello, teacher
  14. greeting
      ―  wènhǎo  ―  say hello
    [MSC, trad.]
    [MSC, simp.]
    Tì wǒ gěi nǐ mā dài ge hǎor. [Pinyin]
    Say hi for me to your mom.
  15. Particle denoting agreement, support or wish to terminate a conversation.
  16. Particle denoting dissatisfaction in ironical sentences.
  17. (Hokkien) Particle denoting that the listener is still listening or is still interested with what the speaker is saying. (backchanneling)
  18. such; what
    美麗茉莉花 [MSC, trad.]
    美丽茉莉花 [MSC, simp.]
    From: 18ᵗʰ century ᴄᴇ, Molihua, a Jiangnan folk song
    Hǎo yī duǒ měilì de mòlìhuā. [Pinyin]
    What a beautiful jasmine.
  19. (dialectal) can
    進來进来  ―  hǎo jìnlái ma?  ―  Can I come in?
    [Cantonese]  ―  gam2 dou1 hou2 aau3? [Jyutping]  ―  You are really arguing about this? (literally, “That can be argued?”)
  20. (Cantonese, Hakka) should
    十二瞓覺 [Cantonese, trad.]
    十二𰥛觉 [Cantonese, simp.]
    sap6 ji6 dim2 laa3, hou2 heoi3 fan3 gaau3 laa3. [Jyutping]
    It's twelve now. You should go to bed.
  21. (Southwestern Mandarin, Xiang) how (to what degree)
  22. (rail transport) cleared
Synonyms
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Compounds

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Descendants

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Sino-Xenic ():
  • Japanese: (こう) ()
  • Korean: 호(好) (ho)
  • Vietnamese: hảo ()

Others:

  • Vietnamese: hẩu (kind, good, delicious)

Pronunciation 2

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Rime
Character
Reading # 2/2
Initial () (32)
Final () (89)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Baxter xawH
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/hɑuH/
Pan
Wuyun
/hɑuH/
Shao
Rongfen
/xɑuH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/hawH/
Li
Rong
/xɑuH/
Wang
Li
/xɑuH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/xɑuH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
hào
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
hou3
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 2/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
hào
Middle
Chinese
‹ xawH ›
Old
Chinese
/*qʰˁuʔ-s/
English love, like (v.)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 2/2
No. 4914
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*qʰuːs/

Definitions

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  1. to be fond of; to like
    學不倦学不倦  ―  hàoxuébùjuàn  ―  to like to learn without feeling tired
    餃子這麼口兒 [dialectal Mandarin, trad.]
    饺子这么口儿 [dialectal Mandarin, simp.]
    Jiǎozi duō xiāng a! Wǒ jiù hào zhènme yī kǒur! [Pinyin]
    The dumplings smell so delicious! I indeed like this!
  2. to have a tendency to; to be prone to; good to; easy to
  3. (dialectal Mandarin, Wu) can; to be able to
    流利上海閒話𠲎 [Shanghainese, trad.]
    流利上海闲话𠲎 [Shanghainese, simp.]
    6non 5hau 6lieu-li 8geq 5kaon 6zaon-he-ghe-gho 0vaq [Wugniu]
    Can you speak Shanghainese fluently?
    認得問訊 [Suzhounese, trad.]
    认得问讯 [Suzhounese, simp.]
    Could you not just ask if you don't know the way?
    Synonyms: , 可以
  4. a surname
Synonyms
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Compounds

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Descendants

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Sino-Xenic ():

References

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Japanese

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Kanji

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(grade 4 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. fondness; what one likes

Readings

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Compounds

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Proper noun

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(よしみ) (Yoshimi

  1. a male given name

Korean

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Hanja

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(ho) (hangeul , revised ho, McCune–Reischauer ho)

  1. to like

Vietnamese

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Han character

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: Hán Việt readings: hiếu (()(đáo)(thiết))[1][2][3], hảo (()(hạo)(thiết))[1][2][3]
: Nôm readings: hiếu[1][2][4], háu[1][3][4], háo[1][3], hảo[2][4], hẩu[1][3], hấu[3], hão[4], hếu[4]

  1. (only in compound) chữ Hán form of hiếu (to like, to be fond of).
  2. (only in compound) chữ Hán form of hảo (good, well; kind).
  3. (only in dưa hấu) chữ Hán form of hấu (delicious).

References

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