See also: , , , , , and 🈷

U+6708, 月
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-6708

[U+6707]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+6709]
U+2F49, ⽉
KANGXI RADICAL MOON

[U+2F48]
Kangxi Radicals
[U+2F4A]

U+2E9D, ⺝
CJK RADICAL MOON

[U+2E9C]
CJK Radicals Supplement
[U+2E9E]
U+322A, ㈪
PARENTHESIZED IDEOGRAPH MOON

[U+3229]
Enclosed CJK Letters and Months
[U+322B]
U+328A, ㊊
CIRCLED IDEOGRAPH MOON

[U+3289]
Enclosed CJK Letters and Months
[U+328B]
Commons:Category
Commons:Category
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Translingual edit

Stroke order
 
Stroke order
 

Han character edit

(Kangxi radical 74, +0, 4 strokes, cangjie input (B), four-corner 77220, composition 𠄠)

  1. Kangxi radical #74, .

Usage notes edit

Do not confuse with , a form of (flesh, meat) when used as the left-hand radical of a character. is used for parts of the body such as (back) or (liver). These may be written identically as , but in careful use they are distinguished, with the inside of being written with unattached diagonal strokes. This is particularly an issue in looking up characters by radical; compare the 月 index and 肉 index.

Older/orthodox forms such as the Kangxi dictionary forms may additionally distinguish components that are related to neither nor , such as e.g. , or where the two horizontal strokes would be written as two unattached dots instead. Also, the bottom part of () components would be written as . The orthodox and components, while similar, would still be distinguished slightly: they both use horizontal strokes, but connects them to the shape on both sides, and only connects them on the left side.

Derived characters edit

References edit

  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 504, character 19
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 14330
  • Dae Jaweon: page 879, character 20
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 3, page 2041, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+6708

Further reading edit

Chinese edit

simp. and trad.
alternative forms 𡇹
𠥱
 
Wikipedia has articles on:
  • (Written Standard Chinese?)
  • goe̍h (Southern Min)

Glyph origin edit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
         

Pictogram (象形) – pictographic representation of a crescent moon. Compare ().

Etymology 1 edit

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *s-ŋʷ(j)a-t (moon; star), whence also Magar [Term?] (gya hot, moon), Proto-Lolo-Burmese *mwatᴸ (star; moon) (whence Lahu məʔ-kə (star)), Drung gurmet (star) (Matisoff, 1980; LaPolla, 1987; STEDT).

Various alternative etymologies have also been proposed:

  • Unger (1992) proposes cognation with Tibetan ངོ (ngo, waxing and waning moon; half moon) (as in མར་ངོ (mar ngo, waning moon) and ཡར་ངོ (yar ngo, waxing moon)), which Schuessler (2007) connects to Proto-Sino-Tibetan *s-ŋow (white; light colour). However, Sagart (1999) points out that the Tibetan word may be analyzed as a derivative of Tibetan ངོ (ngo, face), which would mean the semantic connection between “moon” and “face” had to occur either independently in Chinese and Tibetan or in Proto-Sino-Tibetan; it also requires positing a suffix -t in Chinese.
  • Pulleybank (1995a) proposes another etymology based on the glyph for (míng) (reconstructed as *màŋʲ), which he analyses as a phono-semantic compound of phonetic (, moon) and semantic (kǒu, mouth). He suggests that the phonetic component represents a lost word *màŋʲ (moon), and reconstructs as *mŋʲ (consonantal frame of “moon”) + *-at (suffix) > *ŋʲʷat. However, there are more straightforward ways of explaining the glyph origin of (míng) (see there), which would nullify the hypothesis of the lost word.
  • Related to (to pass over; to cross over) in some way.
    • Mei (1979) derives from (OC **gjot > *gwjat): **N-gjot > *ngwjat. Also in this proposed word family is (OC **s-gjots > *skwjadh, “year”). The semantics of this word family is centred around "to pass; to elapse". While Matisoff (1980) seems supportive of this word family, STEDT reconstructs Proto-Sino-Tibetan *grwat (to travel; to go through) for and (suì), separate from the root for .
    • Ferlus (2012) reconstructs the Old Chinese as *ŋ.wat and puts it in a word family formed from a Chinese root *wat, having a meaning of "circularity" or "circular boundary". This proposed word family includes (OC *wat, “to cross over”), as in "to cross the enclosure of the village", and (OC *ŋ.wat-s, “outside”), as in "out of the enclosure of the village".

Pronunciation edit


Note:
  • ngut5 - literary;
  • ngut5-4 - “month”;
  • ngut5-4* - “moon”.
Note:
  • ge̍h/ge̍rh/goe̍h/gōe/gēr - vernacular;
  • goa̍t - literary.
Note:
  • (Shanghainese) 8yuq, 8yoq - common;
  • (Shanghainese) 8gniuq, 8gnioq - expected from historical rime;
  • (Suzhounese) 8ngeq - colloquial;
  • (Suzhounese) 8yuq - literary.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /yɛ⁵¹/
Harbin /yɛ⁵³/
Tianjin /ye⁵³/
Jinan /yə²¹/
Qingdao /yə⁴²/
Zhengzhou /yɛ²⁴/
Xi'an /yɛ²¹/
Xining /yu⁴⁴/
Yinchuan /ye¹³/
Lanzhou /yə¹³/
Ürümqi /yɤ²¹³/
Wuhan /ye²¹³/
Chengdu /ye³¹/
Guiyang /ie²¹/
Kunming /iɛ³¹/
Nanjing /yeʔ⁵/
Hefei /yɐʔ⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /yəʔ²/
Pingyao /yʌʔ⁵³/
Hohhot /yaʔ⁴³/
Wu Shanghai /ɦioʔ¹/
/ȵioʔ¹/
/ɦyɪʔ¹/
/ȵyɪʔ¹/
Suzhou /ŋəʔ³/
Hangzhou /ɦyəʔ²/
Wenzhou /ȵy²¹³/
Hui Shexian /ue²²/
Tunxi /ȵyɛ¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /ye²⁴/
Xiangtan /yæ²⁴/
Gan Nanchang /ȵyɵʔ²/ ~光
/ȵyɵʔ⁵/ 一個~
Hakka Meixian /ŋiat̚⁵/
Taoyuan /ŋiet̚⁵⁵/
Cantonese Guangzhou /jyt̚²/
Nanning /yt̚²²/
Hong Kong /jyt̚²/
Min Xiamen (Hokkien) /guat̚⁵/
/geʔ⁵/
Fuzhou (Eastern Min) /ŋuoʔ⁵/
Jian'ou (Northern Min) /ŋyɛ⁴²/
Shantou (Teochew) /gueʔ⁵/
Haikou (Hainanese) /zuak̚⁵/
/vue³³/
/kɔu²¹³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (31)
Final () (68)
Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
Openness (開合) Closed
Division () III
Fanqie
Baxter ngjwot
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ŋʉɐt̚/
Pan
Wuyun
/ŋʷiɐt̚/
Shao
Rongfen
/ŋiuɐt̚/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ŋuat̚/
Li
Rong
/ŋiuɐt̚/
Wang
Li
/ŋĭwɐt̚/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ŋi̯wɐt̚/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
yuè
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
jyut6
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
yuè
Middle
Chinese
‹ ngjwot ›
Old
Chinese
/*[ŋ]ʷat/
English moon, month

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 16319
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
3
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ŋod/

Definitions edit

  1. (literary or dialectal) moon (Classifier: m)
  2. moon-shaped; round like a moon
      ―  yuèqín  ―  yueqin, moon zither
  3. (literary) moonlight
  4. (Cantonese, in compounds) Short for 月餅月饼 (“mooncake”).
    雙黃蓮蓉双黄莲蓉 [Cantonese]  ―  soeng1 wong4-2 lin4 jung4 jyut6-2 [Jyutping]  ―  lotus seed paste mooncake with two yolks
  5. month (Classifier: m c;  h)
    Synonyms: 月份 (yuèfèn), 號頭号头 (6ghau-deu) (Wu)
  6. monthly
      ―  yuèxīn  ―  monthly wage
  7. Classifier for months.
  8. a surname
Quotations edit

For quotations using this term, see Citations:月.

Synonyms edit

Compounds edit

Descendants edit

Sino-Xenic ():

Others:

  • Bouyei: nguad (month)
  • ? Thai: งวด (ngûuat, appointed time)
  • Zhuang: nyied (moon; month)

See also edit

Etymology 2 edit

For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“meat; flesh; pork; etc.”).
(This character is an ancient form of ).

Etymology 3 edit

For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“night; evening; dusk”).
(This character is an ancient form of ).

Etymology 4 edit

For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“bright; light; brilliant; clear; limpid; etc.”).
(This character is an ancient form of ).

References edit

Japanese edit

Kanji edit

(grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings edit

Compounds edit

Etymology 1 edit

Kanji in this term
つき
Grade: 1
kun’yomi

⟨tuki2 → */tukɨ/ → */t͡sukɨ//t͡suki/

From Old Japanese (tuki2), ultimately from Proto-Japonic *tukui.[1] For the vowel alternation, see WT:AJPX#Standalone forms and combining forms.

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

(つき) (tsuki

  1. the moon
    Synonyms: 太陰 (taiin), ムーン (mūn)
  2. (astronomy) a natural satellite
  3. moonlight, moonbeam
    Synonyms: 月光 (gekkō), 月影 (tsukikage)
  4. a 家紋 (kamon, family crest) with various designs of the moon
  5. (tarot) the Moon, the eighteenth trump or major arcana card in most traditional Tarot decks
  6. a month
  7. Short for 月囲い (tsukigakoi): a mistress on a monthly allowance
  8. (archaic) a menstrual cycle, menstruation (believed to be caused by the moon)
    Synonyms: 月経 (gekkei), 月の物 (tsuki no mono)
Quotations edit

For quotations using this term, see Citations:月.

Derived terms edit
Japanese number-counter combinations for (つき) (tsuki)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 How many?
(ひと)(つき) (hitotsuki) (ふた)(つき) (futatsuki) ()(つき) (mitsuki) ()(つき) (yotsuki) (いつ)(つき) (itsutsuki) ()(つき) (mutsuki) (なな)(つき) (nanatsuki) ()(つき) (yatsuki) (ここの)(つき) (kokonotsuki) ()(つき) (totsuki) (なん)(つき) (nantsuki)
Idioms edit

Proper noun edit

(つき) (Tsuki

  1. a female given name
  2. a surname

Etymology 2 edit

Kanji in this term
がつ
Grade: 1
kan’yōon

/ɡʷatɨ//ɡʷat͡su//ɡat͡su/

From Middle Chinese (ŋʉɐt̚). The 慣用音 (kan'yōon) reading, a pronunciation in common usage based on a corruption of the Middle Chinese borrowing.

Pronunciation edit

  • Some dictionaries apparently classify this reading as both 呉音 (goon) and 慣用音 (kan'yōon).

Suffix edit

(がつ) (-gatsuぐわつ (gwatu)?

  1. month of the year
Derived terms edit
Japanese number-counter combinations for (がつ) (gatsu)
1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th 11th 12th Which month?
(いち)(がつ) (ichigatsu) ()(がつ) (nigatsu) (さん)(がつ) (sangatsu) ()(がつ) (shigatsu) ()(がつ) (gogatsu) (ろく)(がつ) (rokugatsu) (しち)(がつ) (shichigatsu)
(なな)(がつ) (nanagatsu)
(はち)(がつ) (hachigatsu) ()(がつ) (kugatsu) (じゅう)(がつ) (jūgatsu) (じゅう)(いち)(がつ) (jūichigatsu) (じゅう)()(がつ) (jūnigatsu) (なん)(がつ) (nangatsu)

Affix edit

(がつ) (-gatsuぐわつ (gwatu)?

  1. moon
  2. month
Usage notes edit

When used in most compounds or when counting a number of months with (ka), is pronounced げつ (getsu). When used in compounds for modern months of the year, it is pronounced がつ (gatsu). When used for poetic or lunar months, it is pronounced つき (tsuki).

Derived terms edit

Etymology 3 edit

Kanji in this term
げつ
Grade: 1
kan’on

/ɡʷetu//ɡet͡su/

From Middle Chinese (ŋʉɐt̚).

The 漢音 (kan'on) reading, so likely a later borrowing. Compare modern Hakka (ngie̍t), Min Nan (ge̍h).

Pronunciation edit

Counter edit

(げつ) (-getsuぐゑつ (gwetu)?

  1. a month as a duration of time
  2. (possibly obsolete) month of the year
Usage notes edit

When used in most compounds or when counting a number of months with (ka), is pronounced げつ (getsu). When used in compounds for modern months of the year, it is pronounced がつ (gatsu). When used for poetic or lunar months, it is pronounced つき (tsuki).

Derived terms edit

Noun edit

(げつ) (getsu

  1. Short for 月曜日 (getsuyōbi): Monday

Affix edit

(げつ) (getsu

  1. moon
  2. month
  3. menstruation, menstrual cycle
Derived terms edit

Etymology 4 edit

Kanji in this term
がち
Grade: 1
goon

/ɡʷat͡ɕi//ɡat͡ɕi/

First attested in the Edo period.

Appears to be a poetic use of the 呉音 (goon) reading, in reference to a rank of 端女郎 (hashi jorō, low-end prostitute) in the Kansai region. According to a popular song, a (gachi, moon) prostitute cost one (monme, old unit of currency, worth roughly 3.75 grams of silver), a (kage, shadow) prostitute cost two monme, and a (shio, tide; loveliness) prostitute cost three monme.[2][4]

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

(がち) (gachiぐわち (gwati)?

  1. (Kansai, historical) during the Edo period, a low rank of low-end prostitute
Derived terms edit

Etymology 5 edit

Kanji in this term
がち
Grade: 1
goon

Either a shift in sense from the low-ranking prostitute meaning above, or a shift in pronunciation from 頑痴 (ganchi, stubborn and stupid).[2][4]

Alternative forms edit

Pronunciation edit

Adjective edit

(がち) (gachiぐわち (gwati)?-nari

  1. (archaic, possibly obsolete) crude, unrefined, hickish
    Synonym: 野暮 (yabo)
Inflection edit

Noun edit

(がち) (gachiぐわち (gwati)?

  1. (archaic, possibly obsolete) something or someone that/who is crude, unrefined, hickish
    Synonym: 野暮 (yabo)

References edit

  1. ^ Pellard, Thomas (2012) “日琉祖語の分岐年代”, in 琉球諸語と古代日本語に関する比較言語学的研究」ワークショップ[1], page 6
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Matsumura, Akira, editor (2006), 大辞林 (in Japanese), Third edition, Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  3. ^ NHK Broadcasting Culture Research Institute, editor (1998), NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 [NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary] (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK Publishing, →ISBN
  4. 4.0 4.1 Shōgaku Tosho (1988) 国語大辞典(新装版) [Unabridged Dictionary of Japanese (Revised Edition)] (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN

Korean edit

Etymology edit

From Middle Chinese (MC ngjwot).

Historical Readings
Dongguk Jeongun Reading
Dongguk Jeongun, 1448 ᅌᅯᇙ〮 (Yale: ngwélq)
Middle Korean
Text Eumhun
Gloss (hun) Reading
Hunmong Jahoe, 1527[4] ᄃᆞᆯ〮 (Yale: tól) 월〮 (Yale: wél)

Pronunciation edit

Hanja edit

Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun (dal wol))

  1. Hanja form? of (month). [noun]
  2. Hanja form? of (moon). [affix]
  3. Hanja form? of (Short for 월요일(月曜日) (woryoil, Monday).).

Compounds edit

References edit

  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [5]

Kunigami edit

Kanji edit

(grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Ryukyuan *tuki.

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

(しちー) (shichī

  1. the moon

Miyako edit

Kanji edit

(grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Ryukyuan *tuki.

Pronunciation edit

  • (Hirara) IPA(key): /t͡sɨ̥.kˢɨ/
  • (Ōgami) IPA(key): /ks̩.ks̩/

Noun edit

(つぃきぃ) (tsïksï

  1. the moon
  2. a month
  3. (abbreviation) Monday

Okinawan edit

Kanji edit

(grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings edit

Compounds edit