See also: , , 🈷, , and
gw u6708.svg
U+6708, 月
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-6708

[U+6707]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+6709]
U+2F49, ⽉
KANGXI RADICAL MOON

[U+2F48]
Kangxi Radicals
[U+2F4A]
Commons:Category
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TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 
Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 74, +0, 4 strokes, cangjie input 月 (B), four-corner 77220, composition𠄠)

  1. Kangxi radical #74, .

Usage notesEdit

Do not confuse with , a form of (flesh, meat) when used as the left-hand radical of a character. is used for parts of the body such as (back) or (liver). These may be written identically as , but in careful use they are distinguished, with the inside of being written with unattached diagonal strokes. This is particularly an issue in looking up characters by radical; compare the 月 index and 肉 index.

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 504, character 19
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 14330
  • Dae Jaweon: page 879, character 20
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 3, page 2041, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+6708

Further readingEdit


ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.
alternative forms 𡇹
𠥱
 
Wikipedia has articles on:

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
         

Pictogram (象形) – pictographic representation of a crescent moon. Compare .

Etymology 1Edit

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *s-ŋʷ(j)a-t (moon; star), whence also Magar [script needed] (gya hot, moon), Proto-Lolo-Burmese *mwatᴸ (star; moon) (whence Lahu məʔ-kə (star)), Drung gurmet (star) (Matisoff, 1980; LaPolla, 1987; STEDT).

Various alternative etymologies have also been proposed:

  • Unger (1992) proposes cognation with Tibetan ངོ (ngo, waxing and waning moon; half moon) (as in མར་ངོ (mar ngo, waning moon) and ཡར་ངོ (yar ngo, waxing moon)), which Schuessler (2007) connects to Proto-Sino-Tibetan *s-ŋow (white; light colour). However, Sagart (1999) points out that the Tibetan word may be analyzed as a derivative of Tibetan ངོ (ngo, face), which would mean the semantic connection between “moon” and “face” had to occur either independently in Chinese and Tibetan or in Proto-Sino-Tibetan; it also requires positing a suffix -t in Chinese.
  • Pulleybank (1995a) proposes another etymology based on the glyph for (reconstructed as *màŋʲ), which he analyses as a phono-semantic compound of phonetic (“moon”) and semantic (“mouth”). He suggests that the phonetic component represents a lost word *màŋʲ (moon), and reconstructs as *mŋʲ (consonantal frame of “moon”) + *-at (suffix) > *ŋʲʷat. However, there are more straightforward ways of explaining the glyph origin of (see there), which would nullify the hypothesis of the lost word.
  • Related to (“to pass over; to cross over”) in some way.
    • Mei (1979) derives from (OC **gjot > *gwjat): **N-gjot > *ngwjat. Also in this proposed word family is (OC **s-gjots > *skwjadh, “year”). The semantics of this word family is centred around "to pass; to elapse". While Matisoff (1980) seems supportive of this word family, STEDT reconstructs Proto-Sino-Tibetan *grwat (to travel; to go through) for and , separate from the root for .
    • Ferlus (2012) reconstructs the Old Chinese as *ŋ.wat and puts it in a word family formed from a Chinese root *wat, having a meaning of "circularity" or "circular boundary". This proposed word family includes (OC *wat, “to cross over”), as in "to cross the enclosure of the village", and (OC *ŋ.wat-s, “outside”), as in "out of the enclosure of the village".

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • ngut5 - literary;
  • ngut5-4 - “month”;
  • ngut5-4* - “moon”.
  • Gan
  • Hakka
  • Jin
  • Min Bei
  • Min Dong
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • ge̍h/ge̍rh/goe̍h/gōe/gēr - vernacular;
    • goa̍t - literary.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /yɛ⁵¹/
    Harbin /yɛ⁵³/
    Tianjin /ye⁵³/
    Jinan /yə²¹/
    Qingdao /yə⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /yɛ²⁴/
    Xi'an /yɛ²¹/
    Xining /yu⁴⁴/
    Yinchuan /ye¹³/
    Lanzhou /yə¹³/
    Ürümqi /yɤ²¹³/
    Wuhan /ye²¹³/
    Chengdu /ye³¹/
    Guiyang /ie²¹/
    Kunming /iɛ³¹/
    Nanjing /yeʔ⁵/
    Hefei /yɐʔ⁵/
    Jin Taiyuan /yəʔ²/
    Pingyao /yʌʔ⁵³/
    Hohhot /yaʔ⁴³/
    Wu Shanghai /ɦioʔ¹/
    /ȵioʔ¹/
    /ɦyɪʔ¹/
    /ȵyɪʔ¹/
    Suzhou /ŋəʔ³/
    Hangzhou /ɦyəʔ²/
    Wenzhou /ȵy²¹³/
    Hui Shexian /ue²²/
    Tunxi /ȵyɛ¹¹/
    Xiang Changsha /ye²⁴/
    Xiangtan /yæ²⁴/
    Gan Nanchang /ȵyɵʔ²/ ~光
    /ȵyɵʔ⁵/ 一個~
    Hakka Meixian /ŋiat̚⁵/
    Taoyuan /ŋiet̚⁵⁵/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /jyt̚²/
    Nanning /yt̚²²/
    Hong Kong /jyt̚²/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /guat̚⁵/
    /geʔ⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /ŋuoʔ⁵/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /ŋyɛ⁴²/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /gueʔ⁵/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /zuak̚⁵/
    /vue³³/
    /kɔu²¹³/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (31)
    Final () (68)
    Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Closed
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ŋʉɐt̚/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ŋʷiɐt̚/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ŋiuɐt̚/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ŋuat̚/
    Li
    Rong
    /ŋiuɐt̚/
    Wang
    Li
    /ŋĭwɐt̚/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ŋi̯wɐt̚/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    yuè
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    yuè
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ ngjwot ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[ŋ]ʷat/
    English moon, month

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 16319
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    3
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ŋod/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. (literary or dialectal) moon (Classifier: m)
    2. moon-shaped objects
    3. (literary) moonlight
    4. month (Classifier: )
      Synonyms: 月份 (yuèfèn), 號頭号头 (Wu)
    5. monthly
        ―  yuèxīn  ―  monthly wage
    6. Classifier for months.
    7. A surname​.
    QuotationsEdit

    For quotations using this term, see Citations:月.

    SynonymsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    DescendantsEdit

    Sino-Xenic ():

    Others:

    • Bouyei: nguad (month)
    • ? Thai: งวด (ngûuat, appointed time)
    • Zhuang: nyied (moon; month)

    See alsoEdit

    Etymology 2Edit

    For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“meat; flesh; pork; etc.”).
    (This character, , is an ancient form of .)

    Etymology 3Edit

    For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“night; evening; dusk”).
    (This character, , is an ancient form of .)

    Etymology 4Edit

    For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“bright; light; brilliant; clear; limpid; etc.”).
    (This character, , is an ancient form of .)

    ReferencesEdit


    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

    Kanji in this term
    つき
    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    ⟨tuki2 → */tukɨ/ → */t͡sukɨ//t͡suki/

    From Old Japanese (tuki2), ultimately from Proto-Japonic *tukuy.[1]

    Likely a shift from Old Japanese (tuku), derived through a fusion with ancient Japanese emphatic nominal particle (i). Compare the development of (kami, Shinto deity) from older combining form kamu.

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (つき) (tsuki

    1. the moon
      Synonyms: 太陰 (taiin), ムーン (mūn)
    2. (astronomy) a natural satellite
    3. moonlight, moonbeam
      Synonyms: 月光 (gekkō), 月影 (tsukikage)
    4. a 家紋 (kamon, family crest) with various designs of the moon
    5. (tarot) the Moon, the eighteenth trump or major arcana card in most traditional Tarot decks
    6. a month
    7. Short for 月囲い (tsukigakoi): a mistress on a monthly allowance
    8. (archaic) a menstrual cycle, menstruation (believed to be caused by the moon)
      Synonyms: 月経 (gekkei), 月の物 (tsuki no mono)
    CitationsEdit

    For quotations using this term, see Citations:月.

    Derived termsEdit
    Japanese number-counter combinations for (つき) (tsuki)
    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 How many?
    (ひと)(つき) (hitotsuki) (ふた)(つき) (futatsuki) ()(つき) (mitsuki) ()(つき) (yotsuki) (いつ)(つき) (itsutsuki) ()(つき) (mutsuki) (なな)(つき) (nanatsuki) ()(つき) (yatsuki) (ここの)(つき) (kokonotsuki) ()(つき) (totsuki) (なん)(つき) (nantsuki)
    IdiomsEdit

    Proper nounEdit

    (つき) (Tsuki

    1. A female given name
    2. A surname​.

    Etymology 2Edit

    Kanji in this term
    がつ
    Grade: 1
    kan’yōon

    /ɡʷatɨ//ɡʷat͡su//ɡat͡su/

    From Middle Chinese (ŋʉɐt̚). The 慣用音 (kan'yōon) reading, a pronunciation in common usage based on a corruption of the Middle Chinese borrowing.

    PronunciationEdit

    • Some dictionaries apparently classify this reading as both 呉音 (goon) and 慣用音 (kan'yōon).

    SuffixEdit

    (がつ) (-gatsuぐわつ (gwatu)?

    1. month of the year
    Derived termsEdit
    Japanese number-counter combinations for (がつ) (gatsu)
    1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th 11th 12th Which month?
    (いち)(がつ) (ichigatsu) ()(がつ) (nigatsu) (さん)(がつ) (sangatsu) ()(がつ) (shigatsu) ()(がつ) (gogatsu) (ろく)(がつ) (rokugatsu) (しち)(がつ) (shichigatsu)
    (なな)(がつ) (nanagatsu)
    (はち)(がつ) (hachigatsu) ()(がつ) (kugatsu) (じゅう)(がつ) (jūgatsu) (じゅう)(いち)(がつ) (jūichigatsu) (じゅう)()(がつ) (jūnigatsu) (なん)(がつ) (nangatsu)

    AffixEdit

    (がつ) (-gatsuぐわつ (gwatu)?

    1. moon
    2. month
    Derived termsEdit
    Usage notesEdit

    When used in most compounds or when counting a number of months with (ka), is pronounced げつ (getsu). When used in compounds for modern months of the year, it is pronounced がつ (gatsu). When used for poetic or lunar months, it is pronounced つき (tsuki).

    Etymology 3Edit

    Kanji in this term
    げつ
    Grade: 1
    kan’on

    /ɡʷetu//ɡet͡su/

    From Middle Chinese (ŋʉɐt̚).

    The 漢音 (kan'on) reading, so likely a later borrowing. Compare modern Hakka (ngie̍t), Min Nan (ge̍h).

    PronunciationEdit

    CounterEdit

    (げつ) (-getsuぐゑつ (gwetu)?

    1. a month as a duration of time
    2. (possibly obsolete) month of the year
    Usage notesEdit

    When used in most compounds or when counting a number of months with (ka), is pronounced げつ (getsu). When used in compounds for modern months of the year, it is pronounced がつ (gatsu). When used for poetic or lunar months, it is pronounced つき (tsuki).

    Derived termsEdit

    NounEdit

    (げつ) (getsu

    1. Short for 月曜日 (getsuyōbi): Monday

    AffixEdit

    (げつ) (getsu

    1. moon
    2. month
    3. menstruation, menstrual cycle
    Derived termsEdit

    Etymology 4Edit

    Kanji in this term
    がち
    Grade: 1
    goon

    /ɡʷat͡ɕi//ɡat͡ɕi/

    First attested in the Edo period.

    Appears to be a poetic use of the 呉音 (goon) reading, in reference to a rank of 端女郎 (hashi jorō, low-end prostitute) in the Kansai region. According to a popular song, a (gachi, moon) prostitute cost one (monme, old unit of currency, worth roughly 3.75 grams of silver), a (kage, shadow) prostitute cost two monme, and a (shio, tide; loveliness) prostitute cost three monme.[2][4]

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (がち) (gachiぐわち (gwati)?

    1. (Kansai, historical) during the Edo period, a low rank of low-end prostitute
    Derived termsEdit

    Etymology 5Edit

    Kanji in this term
    がち
    Grade: 1
    goon

    Either a shift in sense from the low-ranking prostitute meaning above, or a shift in pronunciation from 頑痴 (ganchi, stubborn and stupid).[2][4]

    PronunciationEdit

    Alternative formsEdit

    AdjectiveEdit

    (がち) (gachiぐわち (gwati)? -nari

    1. (archaic, possibly obsolete) crude, unrefined, hickish
      Synonym: 野暮 (yabo)
    InflectionEdit

    NounEdit

    (がち) (gachiぐわち (gwati)?

    1. (archaic, possibly obsolete) something or someone that/who is crude, unrefined, hickish
      Synonym: 野暮 (yabo)

    ReferencesEdit

    1. ^ Pellard, Thomas (2012) , “日琉祖語の分岐年代”, in 琉球諸語と古代日本語に関する比較言語学的研究」ワークショップ[1], page 6
    2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    3. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN
    4. 4.0 4.1 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan

    KoreanEdit

    EtymologyEdit

    From Middle Chinese (MC ŋʉɐt̚).

    Historical Readings
    Dongguk Jeongun Reading
    Dongguk Jeongun, 1448 ᅌᅯᇙ〮 (Yale: ngwélq)
    Middle Korean
    Text Eumhun
    Gloss Reading
    Hunmong Jahoe, 1527 ᄃᆞᆯ〮 (Yale: tól) 월〮 (Yale: wél)

    PronunciationEdit

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    HanjaEdit

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun (dal wol))

    1. Hanja form? of (month). [noun]
    2. Hanja form? of (moon). [affix]
    3. Hanja form? of (Short for 월요일(月曜日) (woryoil, Monday).).

    CompoundsEdit

    ReferencesEdit

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [3]

    KunigamiEdit

    KanjiEdit

    EtymologyEdit

    From Proto-Ryukyuan *tuki.

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana しちー, romaji shichī)

    1. the moon

    MiyakoEdit

    KanjiEdit

    EtymologyEdit

    From Proto-Ryukyuan *tuki.

    PronunciationEdit

    • (Hirara) IPA(key): /t͡sɨ̥.kˢɨ/
    • (Ōgami) IPA(key): /ks̩.ks̩/

    NounEdit

    (hiragana つぃきぃ, romaji tsïksï)

    1. the moon
    2. a month
    3. (abbreviation) Monday

    OkinawanEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    Alternative formsEdit

    • (topicalized) 月ぇ (chichē)

    Etymology 1Edit

    Kanji in this term
    ちち
    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    From Proto-Ryukyuan *tuki, from Proto-Japonic *tukuy.

    Cognate with Japanese (tsuki).

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana ちち, rōmaji chichi, historical hiragana つぃち)

    1. the moon
    2. a month
    Derived termsEdit

    Etymology 2Edit

    Kanji in this term
    ぐゎち
    Grade: 1
    on’yomi

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana ぐゎち, rōmaji gwachi)

    1. month of the year

    SuffixEdit

    (hiragana ぐゎち, rōmaji -gwachi)

    1. month of the year

    Further readingEdit

    ReferencesEdit

    1. ^ チチ” in Okinawa Center of Language Study, Shuri-Naha Dialect Dictionary.

    Old JapaneseEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

    From Proto-Japonic *tukuy.

    Likely a shift from tuku below, derived through a fusion with (i2, emphatic nominal particle). Compare the development of (kamu → kami2, Shinto deity).

    NounEdit

    (tuki2) (kana つき)

    1. the moon
    2. a month
    3. a menstrual cycle, menstruation (believed to be caused by the moon)
    CitationsEdit

    For quotations using this term, see Citations:月.

    Derived termsEdit

    Etymology 2Edit

    Possibly from Proto-Japonic *tuku.

    NounEdit

    (tuku) (kana つく)

    1. (regional, Eastern Old Japanese) the moon
    2. (regional, Eastern Old Japanese) a month
    3. Combining form of ツキ (tuki2) above
    CitationsEdit

    For quotations using this term, see Citations:月.

    Derived termsEdit

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    : Hán Việt readings: nguyệt ((ngư)(quyết)(thiết))[1][2][3][4][5], ngoạt[3][4][5], nhục ((nhi)(lục)(thiết))[2][4]
    : Nôm readings: nguyệt[1][2][4][6], ngoạt[4][6], nhục[2][4]

    1. Hán tự form of nguyệt, ngoạt (moon; month).
    2. Hán tự form of Lua error: not enough memory.

    CompoundsEdit

    • See Lua error: not enough memory.

    ReferencesEdit

    1. 1.0 1.1 [[Wiktionary:About Vietnamese/references#Lua error: not enough memory|Nguyễn (2014).]]
    2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 [[Wiktionary:About Vietnamese/references#Lua error: not enough memory|Nguyễn et al. (2009).]]
    3. 3.0 3.1 [[Wiktionary:About Vietnamese/references#Lua error: not enough memory|Trần (2004).]]
    4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 [[Wiktionary:About Vietnamese/references#Lua error: not enough memory|Bonet (1899).]]
    5. 5.0 5.1 [[Wiktionary:About Vietnamese/references#Lua error: not enough memory|Génibrel (1898).]]
    6. 6.0 6.1 [[Wiktionary:About Vietnamese/references#Lua error: not enough memory|Taberd & Pigneau de Béhaine (1838).]]

    YaeyamaEdit

    KanjiEdit

    Lua error: not enough memory Lua error: not enough memory

    EtymologyEdit

    From Lua error: not enough memory.

    PronunciationEdit

    • Lua error: not enough memory

    NounEdit

    Lua error: not enough memory

    1. the moon

    Lua error: not enough memory


    YonaguniEdit

    KanjiEdit

    Lua error: not enough memory Lua error: not enough memory

    EtymologyEdit

    From Lua error: not enough memory.

    PronunciationEdit

    • Lua error: not enough memory

    NounEdit

    Lua error: not enough memory

    1. the moon

    Lua error: not enough memory