生活

Contents

ChineseEdit

 
to be born; to give birth; life; to grow; student; raw
 
to live; alive; living; work; workmanship
simp. and trad.
(生活)

PronunciationEdit


Middle Chinese pronunciation (生活, reconstructed)
Character (), Pronunciation 1/2

Initial: (21)
Final: (109)
Tone: Level (Ø)

Openness: Open
Division: II
Fanqie:

Expected Mandarin reflex: shēng
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Pan
Wuyun
Shao
Rongfen
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Li
Rong
Wang
Li
Bernard
Karlgren
/ʃɣæŋ/ /ʃɯaŋ/ /ʃaŋ/ /ʂaɨjŋ/ /ʃɐŋ/ /ʃɐŋ/ /ʂɐŋ/
Character (), Pronunciation 2/2

Initial: (21)
Final: (109)
Tone: Departing (H)

Openness: Open
Division: II
Fanqie:

Expected Mandarin reflex: shèng
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Pan
Wuyun
Shao
Rongfen
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Li
Rong
Wang
Li
Bernard
Karlgren
/ʃɣæŋH/ /ʃɯaŋH/ /ʃaŋH/ /ʂaɨjŋH/ /ʃɐŋH/ /ʃɐŋH/ /ʂɐŋH/
Character (), Pronunciation 1/2

Initial: (28)
Final: (64)
Tone: Checked (Ø)

Openness: Closed
Division: I
Fanqie:

Expected Mandarin reflex: guo
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Pan
Wuyun
Shao
Rongfen
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Li
Rong
Wang
Li
Bernard
Karlgren
/kuɑt̚/ /kʷɑt̚/ /kuɑt̚/ /kwat̚/ /kuɑt̚/ /kuɑt̚/ /kuɑt̚/
Character (), Pronunciation 2/2

Initial: (33)
Final: (64)
Tone: Checked (Ø)

Openness: Closed
Division: I
Fanqie:

Expected Mandarin reflex: huó
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Pan
Wuyun
Shao
Rongfen
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Li
Rong
Wang
Li
Bernard
Karlgren
/ɦuɑt̚/ /ɦʷɑt̚/ /ɣuɑt̚/ /ɦwat̚/ /ɣuɑt̚/ /ɣuɑt̚/ /ɣuɑt̚/
Old Chinese pronunciation (生活, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
shēng ‹ sræng › /*sreŋ (MC srj- > sr-; or *s.reŋ ?)/ bear, be born; live
shēng ‹ sræng › /*sreŋ/ fresh, raw
shēng ‹ srjæng › /*sreŋ (or *s.reŋ ?)/ bear, be born; live
huó ‹ hwat › /*[ɡ]ʷˤat/ to live

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
11312 0 /*sʰleːŋ/
11322 0 /*sreŋs/
7568 3 /*koːd/
7585 3 /*ɡoːd/

NounEdit

生活

  1. life; existence
    生活節奏 / 生活节奏  ―  shēnghuó jiēzòu  ―  pace of life
    豪華生活 / 豪华生活  ―  háohuá shēnghuó  ―  high life
    感覺自己生活無聊 [MSC, trad.]
    感觉自己生活无聊 [MSC, simp.]
    Wǒ gǎnjiào zìjǐ de shēnghuó hěn wúliáo. [Pinyin]
    I feel my life is boring.
  2. livelihood

VerbEdit

生活

  1. to live; to exist

Derived termsEdit

See alsoEdit

DescendantsEdit

Sino-Xenic (生活):

JapaneseEdit

Kanji in this term
せい
Grade: 1
かつ
Grade: 2
on'yomi

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

生活 ‎(hiragana せいかつ, romaji seikatsu)

  1. life; livelihood; daily living.

Usage notesEdit

生活 is distinct from (いのち, inochi, life), because it refers to daily life and livelihood as it is experienced, whereas 命 refers to life as a whole (from birth to death), or as an abstract concept. Both are generally translated as life, however, as this distinction is not normally made in English.

SynonymsEdit

CompoundsEdit

VerbEdit

生活する ‎(intransitive, hiragana せいかつする, romaji seikatsu suru)

  1. live a life

ConjugationEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3

KoreanEdit

Hanja in this term

NounEdit

生活 ‎(saenghwal) ‎(hangeul 생활)

  1. Hanja form? of 생활, “lifestyle, way of life, daily living”.

VietnameseEdit

Hán tự in this word

NounEdit

生活

  1. Hán tự form of sinh hoạt, "life"
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