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See also:
U+718A, 熊
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-718A

[U+7189]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+718B]

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Han characterEdit

(radical 86, +10, 14 strokes, cangjie input 戈心火 (IPF), four-corner 21331, composition)

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 679, character 10
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 19294
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1090, character 32
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 3, page 2227, character 5
  • Unihan data for U+718A

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.
 
Wikipedia has an article on:
 

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
   




References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *ɢʷlɯm): phonetic  (OC *nɯː, *nɯːs, *nɯːŋ, *nɯːŋʔ) + semantic  (fire).

This character originally represented an onomatopoetic word (see 熊熊). Later its phonetic compound , the character for the Old Chinese word "bear", was borrowed for another word. This character thus began to represent the word "bear" instead.

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *d-wam. Cognate with Tibetan དོམ (dom, bear), Burmese ဝံ (wam) (in ဝက်ဝံ (wak-wam, bear)).

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • hîm - vernacular;
  • hiông - literary.
Note:
  • hing5 - Chenghai;
  • him5 - other places.
  • Wu

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /ɕyŋ³⁵/
    Harbin /ɕyŋ²⁴/
    Tianjin /ɕyŋ⁴⁵/
    Jinan /ɕyŋ⁴²/
    Qingdao /ɕiŋ⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /ɕyuŋ⁴²/
    Xi'an /ɕyŋ²⁴/
    Xining /ɕyə̃²⁴/
    Yinchuan /ɕyŋ⁵³/
    Lanzhou /ɕỹn⁵³/
    Ürümqi /ɕyŋ⁵¹/
    Wuhan /ɕioŋ²¹³/
    Chengdu /ɕyoŋ³¹/
    Guiyang /ɕioŋ²¹/
    Kunming /ɕiŋ³¹/
    Nanjing /ɕioŋ²⁴/
    Hefei /ɕiŋ⁵⁵/
    Jin Taiyuan /ɕyəŋ¹¹/
    Pingyao /ɕyŋ¹³/
    Hohhot /ɕỹŋ³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /ɦioŋ²³/
    Suzhou /ɦioŋ¹³/
    Hangzhou /ɦioŋ²¹³/
    Wenzhou /joŋ³¹/
    Hui Shexian /ɕyʌ̃⁴⁴/
    Tunxi /ɕin⁴⁴/
    Xiang Changsha /ɕioŋ¹³/
    Xiangtan /ɕin¹²/
    Gan Nanchang /ɕiuŋ⁴⁵/
    Hakka Meixian /iuŋ¹¹/
    Taoyuan /ʒuŋ¹¹/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /hoŋ²¹/
    Nanning /juŋ²¹/
    Hong Kong /huŋ²¹/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /hiɔŋ³⁵/
    /him³⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /hyŋ⁵³/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /xœyŋ³³/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /him⁵⁵/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /hiɔŋ³¹/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (35)
    Final () (2)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ɦɨuŋ/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ɦiuŋ/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ɣiuŋ/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ɦuwŋ/
    Li
    Rong
    /ɣiuŋ/
    Wang
    Li
    /ɣĭuŋ/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /i̯uŋ/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    yóng
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    xióng
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ hjuwng ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*C.[ɢ]ʷ(r)əm/
    English bear (n.)

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 13906
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ɢʷlɯm/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. bear (mammal) (Classifier: m; )
    2. (colloquial) to scold
    3. to oppress, to tyrannise
    4. mean; malicious; merciless
    5. loutish; oafish
    6. (slang) bear; a large, hairy man, especially homosexual one
    7. A surname​: Xiong (mainland China), Hsiung (Taiwan), Hung (Hong Kong)

    CompoundsEdit


    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (common “Jōyō” kanji)

    1. bear

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    EtymologyEdit

     
    Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia ja
     
    (kuma): a brown bear.
    Kanji in this term
    くま
    Grade: S
    kun’yomi

    From Old Japanese. Probably cognate with (kuma, inside corner; inner bend; hollow or hole in something), perhaps from the way that bears often live in dens. Probably also cognate with Korean (gom, bear; hole).

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana くま, katakana クマ, rōmaji kuma)

    1. a bear (large mammal of family Ursidae)
    2. (slang) a bear, an otter (a hairy man, especially one who is gay)

    Usage notesEdit

    As with many terms that name organisms, this term is often spelled in katakana, especially in biological contexts, as クマ.

    Derived termsEdit

    ReferencesEdit

    1. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN
    2. 2.0 2.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

    KoreanEdit

    HanjaEdit

    (ung)

    1. bear

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    (hùng)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.