See also:

Contents

TranslingualEdit

EtymologyEdit

EB1911 - Volume 01 - Page 001 - 1.svg This entry lacks etymological information. If you are familiar with the origin of this term, please add it to the page per etymology instructions.

Bear. The 2 dots at bottom signify 4 paws.

Han characterEdit

(radical 86 +10, 14 strokes, cangjie input 戈心火 (IPF), four-corner 21331, composition)

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 679, character 10
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 19294
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1090, character 32
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 3, page 2227, character 5
  • Unihan data for U+718A

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *d-wam.

PronunciationEdit


Dialectal pronunciations ()
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /ɕyŋ³⁵/
Harbin /ɕyŋ²⁴/
Tianjin /ɕyŋ⁴⁵/
Jinan /ɕyŋ⁴²/
Qingdao /ɕiŋ⁴²/
Zhengzhou /ɕyuŋ⁴²/
Xi'an /ɕyŋ²⁴/
Xining /ɕyə̃²⁴/
Yinchuan /ɕyŋ⁵³/
Lanzhou /ɕỹn⁵³/
Ürümqi /ɕyŋ⁵¹/
Wuhan /ɕioŋ²¹³/
Chengdu /ɕyoŋ³¹/
Guiyang /ɕioŋ²¹/
Kunming /ɕiŋ³¹/
Nanjing /ɕioŋ²⁴/
Hefei /ɕiŋ⁵⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /ɕyəŋ¹¹/
Pingyao /ɕyŋ¹³/
Hohhot /ɕỹŋ³¹/
Wu Shanghai /ɦioŋ¹³/
Suzhou /ɦioŋ¹³/
Hangzhou /ɦioŋ²¹³/
Wenzhou /joŋ³¹/
Hui Shexian /ɕyʌ̃⁴⁴/
Tunxi /ɕin⁴⁴/
Xiang Changsha /ɕioŋ¹³/
Xiangtan /ɕin¹²/
Gan Nanchang /ɕiuŋ⁴⁵/
Hakka Meixian /iuŋ¹¹/
Taoyuan /ʒuŋ¹¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /hoŋ²¹/
Nanning /juŋ²¹/
Hong Kong /huŋ²¹/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /hiɔŋ³⁵/
/him³⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /hyŋ⁵³/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /xœyŋ³³/
Shantou (Min Nan) /him⁵⁵/
Haikou (Min Nan) /hiɔŋ³¹/
Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (), Pronunciation 1/1

Initial: (35)
Final: (2)
Tone: Level (Ø)

Openness: Open
Division: III
Fanqie:

Expected Mandarin reflex: yóng
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Pan
Wuyun
Shao
Rongfen
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Li
Rong
Wang
Li
Bernard
Karlgren
/ɦɨuŋ/ /ɦiuŋ/ /ɣiuŋ/ /ɦuwŋ/ /ɣiuŋ/ /ɣĭuŋ/ /i̯uŋ/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
xióng ‹ hjuwng › /*C.[ɢ]ʷ(r)əm/ bear (n.)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
13906 1 /*ɢʷlɯm/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. bear (mammal)
    /   ―  yī zhī xióng  ―  a bear
    /   ―  yī tóu xióng  ―  a bear
  2. (colloquial) to scold
  3. to oppress, to tyrannise
  4. mean; malicious; merciless
  5. loutish; oafish
  6. A surname​: Xiong (mainland China), Hsiung (Taiwan), Hung (Hong Kong)

CompoundsEdit


JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(common “Jōyō” kanji)

  1. bear

ReadingsEdit

CompoundsEdit

EtymologyEdit

Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja
Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia
(kuma): a brown bear.
Kanji in this term
くま
Grade: S
kun'yomi

From Old Japanese. Probably cognate with ‎(kuma, inside corner; inner bend; hollow or hole in something), perhaps from the way that bears often live in dens. Probably also cognate with Korean ‎(gom, bear; hole).

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

‎(hiragana くま, katakana クマ, romaji kuma)

  1. (zoology) a bear
  2. (slang) a bear, an otter: a hairy man, especially one who is gay

Usage notesEdit

As with many terms that name organisms, this term is often spelled in katakana in biological contexts, as クマ.

Derived termsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  2. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3

KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

‎(ung) (hangeul , revised ung, McCune-Reischauer ung, Yale wung)

  1. ( , gom ung): bear

SynonymsEdit


VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

(hùng)

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