See also: Rake

EnglishEdit

PronunciationEdit

A wooden rake (sense 1) used for gardening.
A heavy-duty metal rake (sense 1) for moving rocks and soil.
A horse-drawn hayrake (sense 1).

Etymology 1Edit

From Middle English rake [and other forms], from Old English raca, racu, ræce (tool with a row of pointed teeth, rake),[1] from Proto-Germanic *rakō, *rekô (tool with a row of pointed teeth, rake), from Proto-Indo-European *h₃reǵ- (to straighten, right oneself). The English word is cognate with Danish rage (chiefly regional), Middle Dutch rāke, rēke (modern Dutch raak, reek (both regional), riek (pitchfork, rake)), Middle Low German rāke, racke (modern German Low German Raak (rake; poker)), Old High German rehho, rech (Middle High German reche, modern German Rechen (rake)), Old Norse reka (shovel) (modern Icelandic reka (shovel)), Old Saxon recho, Old Swedish raka (modern Swedish raka (rake; (long) straight section of a road)).[2]

NounEdit

rake (plural rakes)

  1. (agriculture, horticulture) A garden tool with a row of pointed teeth fixed to a long handle, used for collecting debris, grass, etc., for flattening the ground, or for loosening soil; also, a similar wheel-mounted tool drawn by a horse or a tractor.
    Synonym: horserake (horse-drawn rake)
    • 1879, R[ichard] J[efferies], chapter II, in The Amateur Poacher, London: Smith, Elder, & Co., [], OCLC 752825175:
      Orion hit a rabbit once; but though sore wounded it got to the bury, and, struggling in, the arrow caught the side of the hole and was drawn out. [...]. Ikey the blacksmith had forged us a spearhead after a sketch from a picture of a Greek warrior; and a rake-handle served as a shaft.
  2. (by extension) A similarly shaped tool used for other purposes.
    1. (gambling) A tool with a straight edge at the end used by a croupier to move chips or money across a gaming table.
Derived termsEdit
TranslationsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

The verb is partly derived:[3][4]

The English word is cognate with Middle Dutch rāken (modern Dutch raken (to rake) (regional)), Middle Low German rāken, Old Danish raghæ, rakæ (modern Danish rage (to shave)), Old Swedish raka (modern Swedish raka (to rake; to shave)).[3]

The noun is derived from the verb.[6]

VerbEdit

rake (third-person singular simple present rakes, present participle raking, simple past and past participle raked)

  1. To act upon with a rake, or as if with a rake.
    She is raking the gravel path to keep it even.
    We raked all the leaves into a pile.
    1. (transitive, also figurative) Often followed by in: to gather (things which are apart) together, especially quickly.
      The casino is just raking in the cash; it’s like a licence to print money.
    2. (transitive) Often followed by an adverb or preposition such as away, off, out, etc.: to drag or pull in a certain direction.
    3. (transitive, intransitive, figurative) To claw at; to scrape, to scratch; followed by away: to erase, to obliterate.
      The cat’s sharp claws raked the side of my face.
    4. (transitive, intransitive, figurative) Followed by up: to bring up or uncover (something), as embarrassing information, past misdeeds, etc.
    5. (transitive, intransitive, also figurative) To move (a beam of light, a glance with the eyes, etc.) across (something) with a long side-to-side motion; specifically (often military) to use a weapon to fire at (something) with a side-to-side motion; to spray with gunfire.
      The enemy machine guns raked the roadway.
    6. (transitive, chiefly Ireland, Northern England, Scotland, also figurative) To cover (something) by or as if by raking things over it.
ConjugationEdit
TranslationsEdit

NounEdit

rake (plural rakes)

  1. The act of raking.
  2. Something that is raked.
    1. A share of profits, takings, etc., especially if obtained illegally; specifically (gambling) the scaled commission fee taken by a cardroom operating a poker game.
    2. (chiefly Ireland, Scotland, slang) A lot, plenty.
      Jim has had a rake of trouble with his new car.
TranslationsEdit

Etymology 3Edit

 
Several rakes of wagons (sense 3) in the railway yard at Westfield, Otahuhu, New Zealand.

From Middle English rake, rakke (pass, path, track; type of fencing thrust; pasture land (?)),[7] and then partly:[8]

The English word is cognate with Icelandic rák (streak, stripe; notch in a rock; vein in stone or wood), Norwegian råk (channel (in ice); cow path; trail), Norwegian Nynorsk råk (channel (in ice); cow path; trail; furrow; stripe), Swedish råk (crack or channel in ice; river valley), Westrobothnian råk (crack or hole in ice; channel; swath, windrow; hair parting); and probably cognate with Old Danish rag (modern Danish rag (stiff; taut) (regional)), Old Norse rakr (straight), Swedish rak (straight).[8]

NounEdit

rake (plural rakes)

  1. (Northern England and climbing, also figurative) A course, a path, especially a narrow and steep path or route up a hillside.
  2. (mining) A fissure or mineral vein of ore traversing the strata vertically, or nearly so.
  3. (Britain, originally Northern England, Scotland) A series, a succession; specifically (rail transport) a set of coupled rail vehicles, normally coaches or wagons.
    Synonym: consist
    The train was formed of a locomotive and a rake of six coaches.
    • 1959 April, “Motive Power Miscellany: London Midland Region”, in Trains Illustrated, page 222:
      On February 21 Class "O4/1" 2-8-0 No. 63635 passed through Manchester (Victoria) heading in the Rochdale direction with a rake of empty wagons.
  4. (systems theory) In cellular automata: a puffer that emits a stream of spaceships rather than a trail of debris.
  5. (Midlands, Northern England) Alternative spelling of raik (a course, a way; pastureland over which animals graze; a journey to transport something between two places; a run; also, the quantity of items so transported)
TranslationsEdit

VerbEdit

rake (third-person singular simple present rakes, present participle raking, simple past and past participle raked)

  1. Alternative spelling of raik (“(intransitive, Midlands, Northern England, Scotland) to walk; to roam, to wander; of animals (especially sheep): to graze; (transitive, chiefly Scotland) to roam or wander through (somewhere)”)

Etymology 4Edit

The verb is derived from Middle English raken (to go, proceed; to move quickly, hasten, rush; to roam, wander) [and other forms], from Old English racian (to go forward, move, run; to hasten; to take a course or direction; to control, direct, govern, rule),[9] from Proto-Germanic *rakōną (to take a course or direction; to run), from Proto-Indo-European *h₃reǵ- (to straighten; to direct oneself). The English word is cognate with Middle Dutch rāken (to acquire; to hit (not miss); to reach; to touch) (modern Dutch raken (to hit (not miss); to touch; to become)), Middle Low German rāken, rōken (to hit (not miss); to reach; to touch), Old High German rahhōn (to narrate, speak), and probably Swedish raka (to rush off).[10]

The noun is derived from the verb.[11]

VerbEdit

rake (third-person singular simple present rakes, present participle raking, simple past and past participle raked)

  1. (intransitive, chiefly Midlands, Northern England, Scotland) To move swiftly; to proceed rapidly.
  2. (intransitive, falconry) Of a bird of prey: to fly after a quarry; also, to fly away from the falconer, to go wide of the quarry being pursued.

NounEdit

rake (plural rakes)

  1. (Scotland) Rate of progress; pace, speed.
Alternative formsEdit

Etymology 5Edit

A coble (flat-bottomed fishing boat) in Northumberland, England, UK. The transom (flat part of the stern) of the boat has been raked (verb sense 2.1) – it slants forward and extends beyond the keel.
A chart showing the correct rakes (noun sense 2) or rake angles for various cutting tools.[n 1]

The origin of the verb is uncertain, but it may be related to:[12]

The noun is probably derived from the verb.[13]

VerbEdit

rake (third-person singular simple present rakes, present participle raking, simple past and past participle raked)

  1. (transitive, intransitive) To incline (something) from a perpendicular direction.
    Synonym: slope
    A mast rakes aft.
  2. (nautical) Senses relating to watercraft.
    1. (transitive) To provide (the bow or stern of a watercraft) with a rake (a slant that causes it to extend beyond the keel).
    2. (intransitive, rare) Of a watercraft: to have a rake at its bow or stern.
TranslationsEdit

NounEdit

rake (plural rakes)

  1. A divergence from the horizontal or perpendicular; a slant, a slope.
  2. (specifically) In full, angle of rake or rake angle: the angle between the edge or face of a tool (especially a cutting tool) and a plane (usually one perpendicular to the object that the tool is being applied to).
  3. (geology) The direction of slip during the movement of a fault, measured within the fault plane.
  4. (nautical) Senses relating to watercraft.
    1. A slant that causes the bow or stern of a watercraft to extend beyond the keel; also, the upper part of the bow or stern that extends beyond the keel.
    2. A slant of some other part of a watercraft (such as a funnel or mast) away from the perpendicular, usually towards the stern.
  5. (roofing) The sloped edge of a roof at or adjacent to the first or last rafter.
TranslationsEdit

Etymology 6Edit

 
The Tavern Scene, the third of eight paintings in the series called A Rake’s Progress (1732–1734) by William Hogarth.[n 2] It depicts a rake named Tom Rakewell (right) having a wild party in a brothel.

The noun is a clipping of rakehell ((archaic) lewd or wanton person, debauchee, rake),[14] from to rake (out) hell (“to search through hell thoroughly”), in the sense of a person so evil or immoral that they cannot be found in hell even after an extensive search: see rake (to search through (thoroughly)).

The verb is derived from the noun.[15]

NounEdit

rake (plural rakes)

  1. A person (usually a man) who is stylish but habituated to hedonistic and immoral conduct.
    Synonym: roué
TranslationsEdit

VerbEdit

rake (third-person singular simple present rakes, present participle raking, simple past and past participle raked)

  1. (intransitive, dated, rare) To behave as a rake; to lead a hedonistic and immoral life.
    Synonyms: see Thesaurus:harlotize
    (Can we find and add a quotation of Shenstone to this entry?)

NotesEdit

  1. ^ From “Grinding and Setting Lathe and Planer Cutting Tools”, in Canadian Machinery and Manufacturing News, volume XVIII, issue 1, Toronto, Ont.: MacLean Publishing Company, 5 July 1917, OCLC 317246317, page 21.
  2. ^ From the collection of Sir John Soane’s Museum in London, England, U.K.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ rāke, n.(1)” in MED Online, Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan, 2007.
  2. ^ rake, n.1”, in OED Online  , Oxford: Oxford University Press, June 2008; “rake1, n.” in Lexico, Dictionary.com; Oxford University Press.
  3. 3.0 3.1 rake, v.2”, in OED Online  , Oxford: Oxford University Press, June 2008.
  4. ^ rake1, v.” in Lexico, Dictionary.com; Oxford University Press.
  5. ^ rāken, v.(1)” in MED Online, Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan, 2007.
  6. ^ rake, n.8”, in OED Online  , Oxford: Oxford University Press, June 2008; “rake1, n.” in Lexico, Dictionary.com; Oxford University Press.
  7. ^ rāke, n.(3)” in MED Online, Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan, 2007.
  8. 8.0 8.1 rake, n.3”, in OED Online  , Oxford: Oxford University Press, June 2008; “rake4, n.” in Lexico, Dictionary.com; Oxford University Press.
  9. ^ rāken, v.(2)” in MED Online, Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan, 2007.
  10. ^ rake, v.1”, in OED Online  , Oxford: Oxford University Press, June 2008.
  11. ^ rake, n.4”, in OED Online  , Oxford: Oxford University Press, June 2008.
  12. ^ rake, v.3”, in OED Online  , Oxford: Oxford University Press, June 2008; “rake3, v.” in Lexico, Dictionary.com; Oxford University Press.
  13. ^ rake, n.6”, in OED Online  , Oxford: Oxford University Press, June 2008; “rake3, n.” in Lexico, Dictionary.com; Oxford University Press.
  14. ^ rake, n.7”, in OED Online  , Oxford: Oxford University Press, June 2008; “rake2, n.” in Lexico, Dictionary.com; Oxford University Press.
  15. ^ rake, v.4”, in OED Online  , Oxford: Oxford University Press, June 2008.

Further readingEdit

AnagramsEdit


DutchEdit

PronunciationEdit

AdjectiveEdit

rake

  1. Inflected form of raak

VerbEdit

rake

  1. (archaic) singular present subjunctive of raken

HausaEdit

EtymologyEdit

Borrowed from Yoruba ireke.

NounEdit

ràkē m (possessed form ràken)

  1. sugarcane

Norwegian BokmålEdit

AdjectiveEdit

rake

  1. definite singular/plural of rak

Norwegian NynorskEdit

AdjectiveEdit

rake

  1. definite singular/plural of rak

VerbEdit

rake (present tense rakar, past tense raka, past participle raka, passive infinitive rakast, present participle rakande, imperative rak)

  1. Alternative form of raka

ScotsEdit

Alternative formsEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Middle English raken, from Old English racian (to direct; rule; take a course or direction; run).

VerbEdit

rake (third-person singular present rakes, present participle rakin, past rakit, past participle rakit)

  1. To proceed with speed; go; make one's way
  2. To journey; travel
  3. (of animals) To move across or search for pasture; wander; roam
  4. To stray

SwedishEdit

AdjectiveEdit

rake

  1. absolute definite natural masculine form of rak.

AnagramsEdit


TeopEdit

VerbEdit

rake

  1. to want

ReferencesEdit