See also: Rake and råke

English

edit

Pronunciation

edit
A wooden rake (sense 1) used for gardening.
A heavy-duty metal rake (sense 1) for moving rocks and soil.
A horse-drawn hayrake (sense 1).

Etymology 1

edit

From Middle English rake [and other forms], from Old English raca, racu, ræce (tool with a row of pointed teeth, rake),[1] from Proto-Germanic *rakō, *rekô (tool with a row of pointed teeth, rake), from Proto-Indo-European *h₃reǵ- (to straighten, right oneself).

Noun

edit

rake (plural rakes)

  1. (agriculture, horticulture) A garden tool with a row of pointed teeth fixed to a long handle, used for collecting debris, grass, etc., for flattening the ground, or for loosening soil; also, a similar wheel-mounted tool drawn by a horse or a tractor.
    Synonym: (horse-drawn rake) horserake
    • 1879, R[ichard] J[efferies], “The Old Punt: A Curious ‘Turnpike’”, in The Amateur Poacher, London: Smith, Elder, & Co., [], →OCLC, pages 19–20:
      Orion hit a rabbit once; but though sore wounded it got to the bury, and, struggling in, the arrow caught the side of the hole and was drawn out. [] Ikey the blacksmith had forged us a spearhead after a sketch from a picture of a Greek warrior; and a rake-handle served as a shaft.
  2. (by extension) A similarly shaped tool used for other purposes.
    1. (gambling) A tool with a straight edge at the end used by a croupier to move chips or money across a gaming table.
  3. (cellular automata) A type of puffer train that leaves behind a stream of spaceships as it moves.
    • 1991 January 10, Paul Callahan, “Questions and comments about Conway's Life (long)”, in comp.theory.cell-automata[1] (Usenet):
      I've been dealing primarily with rake and spaceship interactions for ease of experimentation (a rake will invariably escape before being eaten by even its most hellish progeny, and a spaceship is easy to redraw on the spot).
    • 2003 August 19, Ilmari Karonen, “Inquiries about Conway's game of life”, in comp.theory.cell-automata[2] (Usenet):
      That would mean building rake guns or glider gun arrays to construct moving walls.
    • 2015, Paul Rendell, Turing Machine Universality of the Game of Life, page 133:
      The switch engine is unstable but a number of them working in combination can form stable puffers, spaceships and rakes.
Derived terms
edit
Translations
edit

Etymology 2

edit

The verb is partly derived[3][4] from rake (tool with a row of pointed teeth) (see etymology 1) and from Middle English raken (to rake; to gather by raking; to rake away (debris); to cover with something; (figurative) to conceal, hide; to destroy) [and other forms],[5] from Old Norse raka (to scrape), from Proto-Germanic *raką, probably ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *h₃reǵ- (to straighten, right oneself).

The noun is derived from the verb.[6]

Verb

edit

rake (third-person singular simple present rakes, present participle raking, simple past and past participle raked)

  1. To act upon with a rake, or as if with a rake.
    She is raking the gravel path to keep it even.
    We raked all the leaves into a pile.
    1. (transitive, also figurative) Often followed by in: to gather (things which are apart) together, especially quickly.
      The casino is just raking in the cash; it’s like a licence to print money.
    2. (transitive) Often followed by an adverb or preposition such as away, off, out, etc.: to drag or pull in a certain direction.
    3. (transitive, intransitive, figurative) To claw at; to scrape, to scratch; followed by away: to erase, to obliterate.
      The cat’s sharp claws raked the side of my face.
      • c. 1580 (date written), Philip Sidney, “The Fifth Booke”, in Mary Sidney, editor, The Countesse of Pembrokes Arcadia [] [The New Arcadia], London: [] [John Windet] for William Ponsonbie, published 1593, →OCLC; republished in Albert Feuillerat, editor, The Last Part of The Countesse of Pembrokes Arcadia [] (Cambridge English Classics: The Complete Works of Sir Philip Sidney; II), Cambridge, Cambridgeshire: University Press, 1922, →OCLC, page 220:
        Pas could not stay, but over him did rake, / And crown'd the earth with his first touching crowne: [...]
      • 1835 November 30 (date composed), William Wordsworth, “Extempore Effusion upon the Death of James Hogg”, in Henry [Hope] Reed, editor, The Complete Poetical Works of William Wordsworth, Philadelphia, Pa.: Hayes & Zell, [], published 1860, →OCLC, page 286, column 2:
        Like clouds that rake the mountain-summits, / Or waves that own no curbing hand, / How fast has brother followed brother, / From sunshine to the sunless land!
    4. (transitive, intransitive, figurative) Followed by up: to bring up or uncover (something), as embarrassing information, past misdeeds, etc.
    5. (transitive, intransitive, also figurative) To move (a beam of light, a glance with the eyes, etc.) across (something) with a long side-to-side motion; specifically (often military) to use a weapon to fire at (something) with a side-to-side motion; to spray with gunfire.
      The enemy machine guns raked the roadway.
      • 1847 January – 1848 July, William Makepeace Thackeray, Vanity Fair [], London: Bradbury and Evans [], published 1848, →OCLC:
        George took the glass again and raked the vessel. "How she does pitch!" he said.
      • 2021 March 10, Drachinifel, 17:51 from the start, in Guadalcanal Campaign - The Big Night Battle: Night 1 (IJN 3(?) : 2 USN)[3], archived from the original on 17 October 2022:
        Armor-piercing shells were heading up the shell hoists, but this procedure took a few minutes, allowing the battered American flagship to reply in kind, the gunners somewhat motivated to set new records for the rate of fire as the cruiser raked the larger ship from stem to stern in response.
      1. (military, nautical) To fire upon an enemy vessel from a position in line with its bow or stern, causing one's fire to travel through the length of the enemy vessel for maximum damage.
    6. (transitive, chiefly Ireland, Northern England, Scotland, also figurative) To cover (something) by or as if by raking things over it.
Conjugation
edit
Derived terms
edit
Translations
edit

Noun

edit

rake (plural rakes)

  1. The act of raking.
  2. Something that is raked.
    1. A share of profits, takings, etc., especially if obtained illegally; specifically (gambling) the scaled commission fee taken by a cardroom operating a poker game.
    2. (chiefly Ireland, Scotland, slang) A lot, plenty.
      Jim has had a rake of trouble with his new car.
Translations
edit

Etymology 3

edit
 
Several rakes of wagons (sense 3) in the railway yard at Westfield, Otahuhu, New Zealand.

From Middle English rake, rakke (pass, path, track; type of fencing thrust; pasture land (?)),[7] and then partly:[8]

Noun

edit

rake (plural rakes)

  1. (Northern England and climbing, also figurative) A course, a path, especially a narrow and steep path or route up a hillside.
  2. (mining) A fissure or mineral vein of ore traversing the strata vertically, or nearly so.
  3. (British, originally Northern England, Scotland) A series, a succession; specifically (rail transport) a set of coupled rail vehicles, normally coaches or wagons.
    Synonym: consist
    The train was formed of a locomotive and a rake of six coaches.
    • 1959 April, “Motive Power Miscellany: London Midland Region”, in Trains Illustrated, London: Ian Allan Publishing, →OCLC, page 222:
      On February 21 Class "O4/1" 2-8-0 No. 63635 passed through Manchester (Victoria) heading in the Rochdale direction with a rake of empty wagons.
  4. (Midlands, Northern England) Alternative spelling of raik (a course, a way; pastureland over which animals graze; a journey to transport something between two places; a run; also, the quantity of items so transported)
Translations
edit

Verb

edit

rake (third-person singular simple present rakes, present participle raking, simple past and past participle raked)

  1. Alternative spelling of raik (“(intransitive, Midlands, Northern England, Scotland) to walk; to roam, to wander; of animals (especially sheep): to graze; (transitive, chiefly Scotland) to roam or wander through (somewhere)”)

Etymology 4

edit

The verb is derived from Middle English raken (to go, proceed; to move quickly, hasten, rush; to roam, wander) [and other forms], from Old English racian (to go forward, move, run; to hasten; to take a course or direction; to control, direct, govern, rule),[9] from Proto-West Germanic *rakōn (to take a course or direction; to run), from Proto-Indo-European *h₃reǵ- (to straighten; to direct oneself).

The noun is derived from the verb.[11]

Verb

edit

rake (third-person singular simple present rakes, present participle raking, simple past and past participle raked)

  1. (intransitive, chiefly Midlands, Northern England, Scotland) To move swiftly; to proceed rapidly.
  2. (intransitive, falconry) Of a bird of prey: to fly after a quarry; also, to fly away from the falconer, to go wide of the quarry being pursued.

Noun

edit

rake (plural rakes)

  1. (Scotland) Rate of progress; pace, speed.
Alternative forms
edit

Etymology 5

edit
A coble (flat-bottomed fishing boat) in Northumberland, England, UK. The transom (flat part of the stern) of the boat has been raked (verb sense 2.1) – it slants forward and extends beyond the keel.
A chart showing the correct rakes (noun sense 2) or rake angles for various cutting tools.[n 1]

The origin of the verb is uncertain.[12] The noun is probably derived from the verb.[13]

Verb

edit

rake (third-person singular simple present rakes, present participle raking, simple past and past participle raked)

  1. (transitive, intransitive) To incline (something) from a perpendicular direction.
    Synonym: slope
    A mast rakes aft.
  2. (nautical) Senses relating to watercraft.
    1. (transitive) To provide (the bow or stern of a watercraft) with a rake (a slant that causes it to extend beyond the keel).
    2. (intransitive, rare) Of a watercraft: to have a rake at its bow or stern.
Translations
edit

Noun

edit

rake (plural rakes)

  1. A divergence from the horizontal or perpendicular; a slant, a slope.
  2. (specifically) In full, angle of rake or rake angle: the angle between the edge or face of a tool (especially a cutting tool) and a plane (usually one perpendicular to the object that the tool is being applied to).
  3. (geology) The direction of slip during the movement of a fault, measured within the fault plane.
  4. (nautical) Senses relating to watercraft.
    1. A slant that causes the bow or stern of a watercraft to extend beyond the keel; also, the upper part of the bow or stern that extends beyond the keel.
    2. A slant of some other part of a watercraft (such as a funnel or mast) away from the perpendicular, usually towards the stern.
  5. (roofing) The sloped edge of a roof at or adjacent to the first or last rafter.
Translations
edit

Etymology 6

edit
 
The Tavern Scene, the third of eight paintings in the series called A Rake’s Progress (1732–1734) by William Hogarth.[n 2] It depicts a rake named Tom Rakewell (right) having a wild party in a brothel.

The noun is a clipping of rakehell ((archaic) lewd or wanton person, debauchee, rake),[14] from to rake (out) hell (“to search through hell thoroughly”), in the sense of a person so evil or immoral that they cannot be found in hell even after an extensive search: see rake (to search through (thoroughly)).

The verb is derived from the noun.[15]

Noun

edit

rake (plural rakes)

  1. A person (usually a man) who is stylish but habituated to hedonistic and immoral conduct.
    Synonym: roué
    • 1711 March 27 (Gregorian calendar), [Joseph Addison; Richard Steele et al.], “FRIDAY, March 16, 1710–1711”, in The Spectator, number 14; republished in Alexander Chalmers, editor, The Spectator; a New Edition, [], volume I, New York, N.Y.: D[aniel] Appleton & Company, 1853, →OCLC, page 151:
      We have now and then rakes in the habit of Roman senators, and grave politicians in the dress of rakes. The misfortune of the thing is, that people dress themselves in what they have a mind to be, and not what they are fit for.
      The spelling has been modernized.
    • 1807, William Wordsworth, “Address to the Sons of Burns after Visiting Their Father’s Grave, Aug. 14th, 1803”, in Poems, in Two Volumes, volume II, London: [] Longman, Hurst, Rees, and Orme, [], →OCLC, stanza 3, page 30:
      For honest men delight will take, / To shew you favour for his sake, / Will flatter you; and Fool and Rake / Your steps pursue: / And of your Father's name will make / A snare for you.
    • 1886, Peter Christen Asbjørnsen, translated by H.L. Brækstad, Folk and Fairy Tales, page 77:
      "He was a big old rake, full of marks and scars, and he had only an ear and a half."
    • 2009, The Onion, 2:27 from the start, in Bad Boy Fencing Star Implicated In Yet Another Jewel Heist[4], spoken by Reggie Greengrass (Beau Baxtor):
      I have no choice but to take up the foil once again and vanquish this rake.
Translations
edit

Verb

edit

rake (third-person singular simple present rakes, present participle raking, simple past and past participle raked)

  1. (intransitive, dated, rare) To behave as a rake; to lead a hedonistic and immoral life.
    Synonyms: see Thesaurus:harlotize
    • 1758, William Shenstone, Epilogue to Cleone:
      When women hid their necks , and veil'd their faces ,
      Nor romp'd , nor raked , nor stared at public places

Notes

edit
  1. ^ From “Grinding and Setting Lathe and Planer Cutting Tools”, in Canadian Machinery and Manufacturing News, volume XVIII, number 1, Toronto, Ont.: MacLean Publishing Company, 1917 July 5, →OCLC, page 21.
  2. ^ From the collection of Sir John Soane’s Museum in London, England, U.K.

References

edit
  1. ^ rāke, n.(1)”, in MED Online, Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan, 2007.
  2. ^ rake, n.1”, in OED Online  , Oxford, Oxfordshire: Oxford University Press, June 2008; rake1, n.”, in Lexico, Dictionary.com; Oxford University Press, 2019–2022.
  3. 3.0 3.1 rake, v.2”, in OED Online  , Oxford, Oxfordshire: Oxford University Press, June 2008.
  4. ^ rake1, v.”, in Lexico, Dictionary.com; Oxford University Press, 2019–2022.
  5. ^ rāken, v.(1)”, in MED Online, Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan, 2007.
  6. ^ rake, n.8”, in OED Online  , Oxford, Oxfordshire: Oxford University Press, June 2008; rake1, n.”, in Lexico, Dictionary.com; Oxford University Press, 2019–2022.
  7. ^ rāke, n.(3)”, in MED Online, Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan, 2007.
  8. 8.0 8.1 rake, n.3”, in OED Online  , Oxford, Oxfordshire: Oxford University Press, June 2008; rake4, n.”, in Lexico, Dictionary.com; Oxford University Press, 2019–2022.
  9. ^ rāken, v.(2)”, in MED Online, Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan, 2007.
  10. ^ rake, v.1”, in OED Online  , Oxford, Oxfordshire: Oxford University Press, June 2008.
  11. ^ rake, n.4”, in OED Online  , Oxford, Oxfordshire: Oxford University Press, June 2008.
  12. ^ rake, v.3”, in OED Online  , Oxford, Oxfordshire: Oxford University Press, June 2008; rake3, v.”, in Lexico, Dictionary.com; Oxford University Press, 2019–2022.
  13. ^ rake, n.6”, in OED Online  , Oxford, Oxfordshire: Oxford University Press, June 2008; rake3, n.”, in Lexico, Dictionary.com; Oxford University Press, 2019–2022.
  14. ^ rake, n.7”, in OED Online  , Oxford, Oxfordshire: Oxford University Press, June 2008; rake2, n.”, in Lexico, Dictionary.com; Oxford University Press, 2019–2022.
  15. ^ rake, v.4”, in OED Online  , Oxford, Oxfordshire: Oxford University Press, June 2008.

Further reading

edit

Anagrams

edit

Dutch

edit

Pronunciation

edit

Adjective

edit

rake

  1. inflection of raak:
    1. masculine/feminine singular attributive
    2. definite neuter singular attributive
    3. plural attributive

Verb

edit

rake

  1. (dated or formal) singular present subjunctive of raken

Garo

edit

Adverb

edit

rake

  1. hard
    Na·a poraikana rake poriaha!
    You studied hard for the test!

Hausa

edit

Etymology

edit

Borrowed from Yoruba ireke.

Pronunciation

edit
  • IPA(key): /ɽà.kéː/
    • (Standard Kano Hausa) IPA(key): [ɽə̀.céː]

Noun

edit

ràkē m (possessed form ràken)

  1. sugarcane

Norwegian Bokmål

edit

Adjective

edit

rake

  1. definite singular/plural of rak

Norwegian Nynorsk

edit

Adjective

edit

rake

  1. definite singular/plural of rak

Verb

edit

rake (present tense rakar, past tense raka, past participle raka, passive infinitive rakast, present participle rakande, imperative rake/rak)

  1. Alternative form of raka

Scots

edit

Alternative forms

edit

Etymology

edit

From Middle English raken, from Old English racian (to direct; rule; take a course or direction; run).

Verb

edit

rake (third-person singular simple present rakes, present participle rakin, simple past rakit, past participle rakit)

  1. To proceed with speed; go; make one's way
  2. To journey; travel
  3. (of animals) To move across or search for pasture; wander; roam
  4. To stray

Swedish

edit

Adjective

edit

rake

  1. definite natural masculine singular of rak

Anagrams

edit

Teop

edit

Verb

edit

rake

  1. to want

References

edit