See also:

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Han characterEdit

(radical 140 +14, 20 strokes, cangjie input 廿尸戈廿 (TSIT) or 廿尸一廿 (TSMT), four-corner 44107, composition)

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 1064, character 16
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 32258
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1528, character 35
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 5, page 3311, character 8
  • Unihan data for U+85CD

ChineseEdit

trad.
simp.

Glyph originEdit

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *ɡ·raːm): semantic  ‎(grass) + phonetic  ‎(OC *kraːm, *kraːms): The indigo plant

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *g-ram ‎(indigo). Cognate with Tibetan རམས ‎(rams, indigo), which Laufer (1916) considers to be a Chinese loan. Also compare Proto-Vietic *ɟaːm ‎(indigo) (> Vietnamese chàm) and Proto-Austronesian *taRum ‎(indigo plant and dye) (> Malay tarum).

PronunciationEdit


Dialectal pronunciations ()
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /lan³⁵/
Harbin /lan²⁴/
Tianjin /lan⁴⁵/
Jinan /lã⁴²/
Qingdao /lã⁴²/
Zhengzhou /lan⁴²/
Xi'an /lã²⁴/
Xining /lã²⁴/
Yinchuan /lan⁵³/
Lanzhou /lɛ̃n⁵³/
Ürümqi /lan⁵¹/
Wuhan /nan²¹³/
Chengdu /nan³¹/
Guiyang /nan²¹/
Kunming /lã̠³¹/
Nanjing /laŋ²⁴/
Hefei /læ̃⁵⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /læ̃¹¹/
Pingyao /lɑŋ¹³/
Hohhot /læ̃³¹/
Wu Shanghai /le¹³/
Suzhou /le̞¹³/
Hangzhou /lẽ̞²¹³/
Wenzhou /la³¹/
Hui Shexian /lɛ⁴⁴/
Tunxi /lɔ⁴⁴/
Xiang Changsha /lan¹³/
Xiangtan /nan¹²/
Gan Nanchang /lan⁴⁵/
Hakka Meixian /lam¹¹/
Taoyuan /lɑm¹¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /lam²¹/
Nanning /lam²¹/
Hong Kong /lam²¹/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /lam³⁵/
/na³⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /laŋ⁵³/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /laŋ³³/
Shantou (Min Nan) /lam⁵⁵/
/nã⁵⁵/
Haikou (Min Nan) /lam³¹/
Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (), Pronunciation 1/1

Initial: (37)
Final: (143)
Tone: Level (Ø)

Openness: Open
Division: I
Fanqie:

Expected Mandarin reflex: lán
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Pan
Wuyun
Shao
Rongfen
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Li
Rong
Wang
Li
Bernard
Karlgren
/lɑm/ /lɑm/ /lɑm/ /lam/ /lɑm/ /lɑm/ /lɑm/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
lán ‹ lam › /*[N-k.]rˤam/ indigo

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
6082 1 /*ɡ·raːm/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. blue
    /   ―  lán  ―  blue color
  2. indigo plant; Indigofera tinctoria
  3. A surname​. Lan

DescendantsEdit

Sino-Xenic ():

Others:

CompoundsEdit


JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(common “Jōyō” kanji)

  1. The color indigo; the indigo plant.

ReadingsEdit

CompoundsEdit

EtymologyEdit

Kanji in this term
あい
Grade: S
kun'yomi

Various theories, all suggesting a relation to ‎(ao, formerly awo, blue).

  • May be an alteration from 青色 ‎(awoiro): /awoiro/ > /awiro/ > /airo/ > /ai/
  • May simply be an alteration from ‎(awo): /awo/ > /awi/ > /ai/
  • May be derived from a compound of ‎(awo, blue) +‎ ‎(i, formerly wi, there is), expressing the sense that the plant contains the color blue: /awowi/ > /awi/ > /ai/

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

‎(hiragana あい, romaji ai, historical hiragana あゐ)

  1. the color indigo
  2. the indigo plant, species Indigofera tinctoria and related plants

Proper nounEdit

‎(hiragana あい, romaji Ai)

  1. A female given name

KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

‎(ram>nam) (hangeul >, McCune-Reischauer ram>nam, Yale lam>nam)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

(lam, chàm, rôm, rườm, trôm, xám)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

ReferencesEdit

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