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U+85CD, 藍
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-85CD

[U+85CC]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+85CE]

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Han characterEdit

(radical 140, +14 in Chinese and Korean, 艸+15 in Japanese, 18 strokes in traditional Chinese, Japanese and Korean, 17 strokes in mainland China, cangjie input 廿尸戈廿 (TSIT) or 廿尸一廿 (TSMT), four-corner 44107, composition)

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 1064, character 16
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 32258
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1528, character 35
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 5, page 3311, character 8
  • Unihan data for U+85CD

ChineseEdit

trad.
simp.
variant forms second round simplified

Glyph originEdit

Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*ɡ·raːm
*ɡ·raːm
*ɡ·raːm
*ɡ·raːm, *ɡ·raːms
*ɡ·raːm
*ɡ·raːm, *qʰlaːms
*ɡ·raːmʔ
*ɡ·raːmʔ
*ɡ·raːmʔ
*ɡ·raːmʔ, *ɡ·raːms, *ɡ·rams
*ɡ·raːmʔ
*ɡ·raːmʔ
*ɡ·raːms, *ɡraːmʔ
*ɡ·raːms, *kʰlaːms, *qʰlaːmʔ
*ɡ·raːms
*kraːm, *kraːms
*kraːm
*kraːm, *kraːms, *kraːms
*ɡraːmʔ
*ɡraːmʔ, *ɡraːms
*ɡraːmʔ
*ɡraːmʔ
*ɡ·lam, *ɡ·lams

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *ɡ·raːm): semantic  (grass) + phonetic  (OC *kraːm, *kraːms): The indigo plant

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *g-ram (indigo). Cognate with Tibetan རམས (rams, indigo), which Laufer (1916) considers to be a Chinese loan. Also compare Proto-Vietic *ɟaːm (indigo) (> Vietnamese chàm) and Proto-Austronesian *taRum (indigo plant and dye) (> Malay tarum).

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • nâ - vernacular;
  • lâm - literary.
Note:
  • lam5 - Chaozhou;
  • nam5 - Shantou;
  • na5 - surname.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /lan³⁵/
    Harbin /lan²⁴/
    Tianjin /lan⁴⁵/
    Jinan /lã⁴²/
    Qingdao /lã⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /lan⁴²/
    Xi'an /lã²⁴/
    Xining /lã²⁴/
    Yinchuan /lan⁵³/
    Lanzhou /lɛ̃n⁵³/
    Ürümqi /lan⁵¹/
    Wuhan /nan²¹³/
    Chengdu /nan³¹/
    Guiyang /nan²¹/
    Kunming /lã̠³¹/
    Nanjing /laŋ²⁴/
    Hefei /læ̃⁵⁵/
    Jin Taiyuan /læ̃¹¹/
    Pingyao /lɑŋ¹³/
    Hohhot /læ̃³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /le²³/
    Suzhou /le̞¹³/
    Hangzhou /lẽ̞²¹³/
    Wenzhou /la³¹/
    Hui Shexian /lɛ⁴⁴/
    Tunxi /lɔ⁴⁴/
    Xiang Changsha /lan¹³/
    Xiangtan /nan¹²/
    Gan Nanchang /lan⁴⁵/
    Hakka Meixian /lam¹¹/
    Taoyuan /lɑm¹¹/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /lam²¹/
    Nanning /lam²¹/
    Hong Kong /lam²¹/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /lam³⁵/
    /na³⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /laŋ⁵³/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /laŋ³³/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /lam⁵⁵/
    /nã⁵⁵/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /lam³¹/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (37)
    Final () (143)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /lɑm/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /lɑm/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /lɑm/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /lam/
    Li
    Rong
    /lɑm/
    Wang
    Li
    /lɑm/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /lɑm/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    lán
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    lán
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ lam ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[N-k.]rˤam/
    English indigo

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 6082
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ɡ·raːm/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. blue
      /   ―  lán  ―  blue color
    2. indigo plant; Indigofera tinctoria
    3. (politics) related to the pro-unification pan-Blue coalition of Taiwan
    4. A surname​. Lan

    DescendantsEdit

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese:  (らん) (ran)
    • Korean: (, nam)
    • Vietnamese: lam ()

    Others:

    CompoundsEdit


    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (common “Jōyō” kanji)

    1. the Japanese indigo or Chinese indigo plant, Persicaria tinctoria
    2. the color indigo
    3. kanji used to transliterate Buddhist terms borrowed from Sanskrit

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    EtymologyEdit

     
    Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia ja
     
    Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia ja
     
    English Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia
     
    Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia ja
     
    English Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia
     
    (ai): the color indigo.
    Kanji in this term
    あい
    Grade: S
    kun’yomi

    /awi/ → */aji//ai/

    From Old Japanese.

    There are various theories regarding the ultimate derivation, all suggesting a relation to (awo → ao, blue):

    • May be an alteration from 青色 (awoiro → aoiro):
      ⟨awoiro2/awiro//airo//ai/
    • May simply be an alteration from (awo → ao):
      /awo//awi/ → */aji//ai/
    • May be derived from a compound of (awo → ao) +‎ (wi → i, there is), expressing the sense that the indigo plant contains the color blue:
      /awowi/ → */awːi//awi/ → */aji//ai/

    Given that many Old Japanese terms have been derived from adding an empathic nominative particle (i), and the spelling was historically awi, the second derivation seems likely.

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana あい, katakana アイ, rōmaji ai, historical hiragana あゐ, historical katakana アヰ)

    1. the Japanese indigo or Chinese indigo plant, Persicaria tinctoria
      Synonyms: 藍蓼 (aitade), 蓼藍 (tade-ai)
      Hypernym: (tade)
    2. the color indigo, from the dye processed from the stems and leaves of various indigo plants
      Synonyms: 藍色 (aiiro, ranshoku), インジゴ (injigo), インディゴ (indigo)
    3. Short for 藍蝋 (airō): indigo pigment made from boiled-down indigo dye liquid

    Usage notesEdit

    As with many terms that name organisms, this term is often spelled in katakana, especially in biological contexts, as アイ.

    Derived termsEdit

    ProverbsEdit

    Proper nounEdit

    (hiragana あい, rōmaji Ai, historical hiragana あゐ)

    1. a female given name
    2. a surname

    ReferencesEdit

    1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    2. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN
    3. ^ 1997, 新明解国語辞典 (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Fifth Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    • 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan

    Further readingEdit


    KoreanEdit

    HanjaEdit

    (ram>nam) (hangeul >, McCune–Reischauer ram>nam, Yale lam>nam)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    (lam, chàm, rôm, rườm, trôm, xám)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    ReferencesEdit