See also: and
U+9E7D, 鹽
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-9E7D

[U+9E7C]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+9E7E]

Translingual

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Traditional
Shinjitai
Simplified

Han character

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(Kangxi radical 197, +13, 24 strokes, cangjie input 尸田月廿 (SWBT), four-corner 78107, composition ⿱⿰𠂉)

References

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  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 1508, character 7
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 47579
  • Dae Jaweon: page 2036, character 8
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 4, page 2574, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+9E7D

Chinese

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trad.
simp.
alternative forms

Glyph origin

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Historical forms of the character
Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
   

Phono-semantic compound (形聲形声, OC *ɡ·lam, *ɡ·lams) : phonetic (OC *kraːm, *kraːms) + semantic (salt).

Etymology

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From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *g-rjum (salt). The Min forms point to a fricative initial in Proto-Min *ziem (a white encrustation formed from saltwater or brine).

Pronunciation 1

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Note:
  • sièng - vernacular;
  • ièng - literary.
Note:
  • iâm - literary (“salt”);
  • sîⁿ - vernacular (“pickled food product; efflorescence”).

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /ian³⁵/
Harbin /ian²⁴/
Tianjin /ian⁴⁵/
Jinan /iã⁴²/
Qingdao /iã⁴²/
Zhengzhou /ian⁴²/
Xi'an /iã²⁴/
Xining /iã²⁴/
Yinchuan /ian⁵³/
Lanzhou /iɛ̃n⁵³/
Ürümqi /ian⁵¹/
Wuhan /iɛn²¹³/
Chengdu /ian³¹/
Guiyang /ian²¹/
Kunming /iɛ̃³¹/
Nanjing /ien²⁴/
Hefei /iĩ⁵⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /ie¹¹/
Pingyao /ie̞¹³/
Hohhot /ie³¹/
Wu Shanghai /ɦi²³/
Suzhou /ɦiɪ¹³/
Hangzhou /ɦiẽ̞²¹³/
Wenzhou /ji³¹/
Hui Shexian /ie⁴⁴/
Tunxi /iɛ⁴⁴/
Xiang Changsha /iẽ¹³/
Xiangtan /iẽ¹²/
Gan Nanchang /iɛn⁴⁵/
Hakka Meixian /iam¹¹/
Taoyuan /ʒɑm¹¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /jim²¹/
Nanning /jim²¹/
Hong Kong /jim²¹/
Min Xiamen (Hokkien) /iam³⁵/
/sĩ³⁵/
Fuzhou (Eastern Min) /sieŋ⁵³/
Jian'ou (Northern Min) /iŋ³³/
Shantou (Teochew) /iam⁵⁵/
Haikou (Hainanese) /iam³¹/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2
Initial () (36)
Final () (153)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Baxter yem
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/jiᴇm/
Pan
Wuyun
/jiɛm/
Shao
Rongfen
/jæm/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/jiam/
Li
Rong
/iɛm/
Wang
Li
/jĭɛm/
Bernard
Karlgren
/i̯ɛm/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
yán
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
jim4
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
yán
Middle
Chinese
‹ yem ›
Old
Chinese
/*[ɢr][o]m/
English salt (n.)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2
No. 6116
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ɡ·lam/

Definitions

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  1. salt; salty substance, especially table salt
      ―  Yán fàng duō le.  ―  Too much salt is added.
  2. (chemistry) salt
  3. (Southern Min) food product pickled with salt
  4. (Southern Min) sweat stain; salt efflorescence
  5. (cryptography) salt
Synonyms
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Compounds

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Descendants

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Sino-Xenic ():
  • Japanese: (えん) (en)
  • Korean: 염(鹽) (yeom)
  • Vietnamese: diêm ()

Pronunciation 2

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trad.
simp.
alternative forms (Wu)

Note:
  • sīⁿ - vernacular (usually substituted by );
  • iām - literary.

Rime
Character
Reading # 2/2
Initial () (36)
Final () (153)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Baxter yemH
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/jiᴇmH/
Pan
Wuyun
/jiɛmH/
Shao
Rongfen
/jæmH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/jiamH/
Li
Rong
/iɛmH/
Wang
Li
/jĭɛmH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/i̯ɛmH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
yàn
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
jim6
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 2/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
yàn
Middle
Chinese
‹ yemH ›
Old
Chinese
/*[ɢr][o]m-s/
English salt (v.)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 2/2
No. 6117
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ɡ·lams/

Definitions

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  1. (Classical, Min or Wu) to salt; to lay in brine; to pickle; to marinate
  2. (Eastern Min) to devote oneself to; to invest
  3. (Southern Min, of a wound) irritated; painful (from salt or medication)
  4. (Ningbonese, of one's body) to be drenched in sweat
  5. (Ningbonese) to apply soap to; to dab or cover with soap
  6. Alternative form of (yàn, to envy)

Compounds

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References

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Japanese

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Shinjitai

Kyūjitai

Kanji

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(Hyōgai kanjikyūjitai kanji, shinjitai form )

  1. kyūjitai form of (salt)

Readings

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Korean

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Hanja

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(eumhun 소금 (sogeum yeom))

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Vietnamese

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Han character

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: Hán Nôm readings: diêm[1][2], diễm

  1. (in compounds) salt

Derived terms

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References

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