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See also:
U+9E7D, 鹽
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-9E7D

[U+9E7C]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+9E7E]

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Traditional
Shinjitai
Simplified

Han characterEdit

(radical 197, +13, 24 strokes, cangjie input 尸田月廿 (SWBT), four-corner 78107, composition ⿱⿰𠂉)

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 1508, character 7
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 47579
  • Dae Jaweon: page 2036, character 8
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 4, page 2574, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+9E7D

ChineseEdit

trad.
simp.
variant forms

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
   
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*ɡ·raːm
*ɡ·raːm
*ɡ·raːm
*ɡ·raːm, *ɡ·raːms
*ɡ·raːm
*ɡ·raːm, *qʰlaːms
*ɡ·raːmʔ
*ɡ·raːmʔ
*ɡ·raːmʔ
*ɡ·raːmʔ, *ɡ·raːms, *ɡ·rams
*ɡ·raːmʔ
*ɡ·raːmʔ
*ɡ·raːms, *ɡraːmʔ
*ɡ·raːms, *kʰlaːms, *qʰlaːmʔ
*ɡ·raːms
*kraːm, *kraːms
*kraːm
*kraːm, *kraːms, *kraːms
*ɡraːmʔ
*ɡraːmʔ, *ɡraːms
*ɡraːmʔ
*ɡraːmʔ
*ɡ·lam, *ɡ·lams

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *ɡ·lam, *ɡ·lams): phonetic  (OC *kraːm, *kraːms) + semantic  (salt).

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *g-rjum. The Min forms point to a fricative initial in Proto-Min: *ziem (“a white encrustation formed from saltwater or brine”).

Pronunciation 1Edit


Note:
  • sièng - vernacular;
  • ièng - literary.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • iâm - literary (“salt”);
    • sîⁿ - vernacular (“pickled food product; efflorescence”).
  • Wu

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /ian³⁵/
    Harbin /ian²⁴/
    Tianjin /ian⁴⁵/
    Jinan /iã⁴²/
    Qingdao /iã⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /ian⁴²/
    Xi'an /iã²⁴/
    Xining /iã²⁴/
    Yinchuan /ian⁵³/
    Lanzhou /iɛ̃n⁵³/
    Ürümqi /ian⁵¹/
    Wuhan /iɛn²¹³/
    Chengdu /ian³¹/
    Guiyang /ian²¹/
    Kunming /iɛ̃³¹/
    Nanjing /ien²⁴/
    Hefei /iĩ⁵⁵/
    Jin Taiyuan /ie¹¹/
    Pingyao /ie̞¹³/
    Hohhot /ie³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /ɦi²³/
    Suzhou /ɦiɪ¹³/
    Hangzhou /ɦiẽ̞²¹³/
    Wenzhou /ji³¹/
    Hui Shexian /ie⁴⁴/
    Tunxi /iɛ⁴⁴/
    Xiang Changsha /iẽ¹³/
    Xiangtan /iẽ¹²/
    Gan Nanchang /iɛn⁴⁵/
    Hakka Meixian /iam¹¹/
    Taoyuan /ʒɑm¹¹/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /jim²¹/
    Nanning /jim²¹/
    Hong Kong /jim²¹/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /iam³⁵/
    /sĩ³⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /sieŋ⁵³/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /iŋ³³/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /iam⁵⁵/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /iam³¹/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Initial () (36)
    Final () (153)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /jiᴇm/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /jiɛm/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /jæm/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /jiam/
    Li
    Rong
    /iɛm/
    Wang
    Li
    /jĭɛm/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /i̯ɛm/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    yán
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    yán
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ yem ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[ɢr][o]m/
    English salt (n.)

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    No. 6116
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ɡ·lam/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. salt; salty substance, especially table salt
    2. (chemistry) salt
    3. (Min Nan) food product pickled with salt
    4. (Min Nan) sweat stain; salt efflorescence

    CompoundsEdit

    Pronunciation 2Edit


    Note:
    • sīⁿ - vernacular (usually substituted by );
    • iām - literary.

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Initial () (36)
    Final () (153)
    Tone (調) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /jiᴇmH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /jiɛmH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /jæmH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /jiamH/
    Li
    Rong
    /iɛmH/
    Wang
    Li
    /jĭɛmH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /i̯ɛmH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    yàn
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    yàn
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ yemH ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[ɢr][o]m-s/
    English salt (v.)

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    No. 6117
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ɡ·lams/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. (Min) to salt; to lay in brine; to pickle; to marinate
    2. (Min Dong) to devote oneself to; to invest
    3. (Min Nan, of a wound) irritated; painful (from salt or medication)
    4. Alternative form of (yàn, “to envy”).

    JapaneseEdit

    Shinjitai

    Kyūjitai

    KanjiEdit

    (uncommon “Hyōgai” kanjikyūjitai kanji, shinjitai form )

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    ReadingsEdit

    NounEdit

    (kyūjitai kanji, shinjitai kanji , hiragana しお, rōmaji shio, historical hiragana しほ)

    1. salt

    KoreanEdit

    HanjaEdit

    (yeom)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    (diêm)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.