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See also:
U+9E7D, 鹽
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-9E7D

[U+9E7C]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+9E7E]

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Traditional
Shinjitai
Simplified

Han characterEdit

(radical 197 +13, 24 strokes, cangjie input 尸田月廿 (SWBT), four-corner 78107, composition ⿱⿰𠂉)

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 1508, character 7
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 47579
  • Dae Jaweon: page 2036, character 8
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 4, page 2574, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+9E7D

ChineseEdit

trad.
simp.
alt. forms

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
   
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*ɡ·raːm
*ɡ·raːm
*ɡ·raːm
*ɡ·raːm, *ɡ·raːms
*ɡ·raːm
*ɡ·raːm, *qʰlaːms
*ɡ·raːmʔ
*ɡ·raːmʔ
*ɡ·raːmʔ
*ɡ·raːmʔ, *ɡ·raːms, *ɡ·rams
*ɡ·raːmʔ
*ɡ·raːmʔ
*ɡ·raːms, *ɡraːmʔ
*ɡ·raːms, *kʰlaːms, *qʰlaːmʔ
*ɡ·raːms
*kraːm, *kraːms
*kraːm
*kraːm, *kraːms, *kraːms
*ɡraːmʔ
*ɡraːmʔ, *ɡraːms
*ɡraːmʔ
*ɡraːmʔ
*ɡ·lam, *ɡ·lams

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *ɡ·lam, *ɡ·lams): phonetic  (OC *kraːm, *kraːms) + semantic  (salt).

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *g-rjum. The Min forms point to a fricative initial in Proto-Min: *ziem (“a white encrustation formed from saltwater or brine”).

Pronunciation 1Edit


Note:
  • sièng - vernacular;
  • ièng - literary.
Note:
  • iâm - literary (“salt”);
  • sîⁿ - vernacular (“pickled food product; efflorescence”).

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /ian³⁵/
Harbin /ian²⁴/
Tianjin /ian⁴⁵/
Jinan /iã⁴²/
Qingdao /iã⁴²/
Zhengzhou /ian⁴²/
Xi'an /iã²⁴/
Xining /iã²⁴/
Yinchuan /ian⁵³/
Lanzhou /iɛ̃n⁵³/
Ürümqi /ian⁵¹/
Wuhan /iɛn²¹³/
Chengdu /ian³¹/
Guiyang /ian²¹/
Kunming /iɛ̃³¹/
Nanjing /ien²⁴/
Hefei /iĩ⁵⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /ie¹¹/
Pingyao /ie̞¹³/
Hohhot /ie³¹/
Wu Shanghai /ɦi²³/
Suzhou /ɦiɪ¹³/
Hangzhou /ɦiẽ̞²¹³/
Wenzhou /ji³¹/
Hui Shexian /ie⁴⁴/
Tunxi /iɛ⁴⁴/
Xiang Changsha /iẽ¹³/
Xiangtan /iẽ¹²/
Gan Nanchang /iɛn⁴⁵/
Hakka Meixian /iam¹¹/
Taoyuan /ʒɑm¹¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /jim²¹/
Nanning /jim²¹/
Hong Kong /jim²¹/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /iam³⁵/
/sĩ³⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /sieŋ⁵³/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /iŋ³³/
Shantou (Min Nan) /iam⁵⁵/
Haikou (Min Nan) /iam³¹/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2
Initial () (36)
Final () (153)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/jiᴇm/
Pan
Wuyun
/jiɛm/
Shao
Rongfen
/jæm/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/jiam/
Li
Rong
/iɛm/
Wang
Li
/jĭɛm/
Bernard
Karlgren
/i̯ɛm/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
yán
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
yán
Middle
Chinese
‹ yem ›
Old
Chinese
/*[ɢr][o]m/
English salt (n.)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2
No. 6116
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ɡ·lam/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. salt; salty substance, especially table salt
  2. (chemistry) salt
  3. (Min Nan) food product pickled with salt
  4. (Min Nan) sweat stain; salt efflorescence

CompoundsEdit

Pronunciation 2Edit


Note:
  • sīⁿ - vernacular (usually substituted by );
  • iām - literary.

Rime
Character
Reading # 2/2
Initial () (36)
Final () (153)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/jiᴇmH/
Pan
Wuyun
/jiɛmH/
Shao
Rongfen
/jæmH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/jiamH/
Li
Rong
/iɛmH/
Wang
Li
/jĭɛmH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/i̯ɛmH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
yàn
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 2/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
yàn
Middle
Chinese
‹ yemH ›
Old
Chinese
/*[ɢr][o]m-s/
English salt (v.)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 2/2
No. 6117
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ɡ·lams/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. (Min) to salt; to lay in brine; to pickle; to marinate
  2. (Min Dong) to devote oneself to; to invest
  3. (Min Nan, of a wound) irritated; painful (from salt or medication)
  4. Alternative form of (yàn, “to envy”).

JapaneseEdit

Shinjitai

Kyūjitai

KanjiEdit

(uncommon “Hyōgai” kanjikyūjitai kanji, shinjitai form )

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

ReadingsEdit

NounEdit

(kyūjitai kanji, shinjitai kanji , hiragana しお, rōmaji shio, historical hiragana しほ)

  1. salt

KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

(yeom)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

(diêm)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.