U+8C5A, 豚
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-8C5A

[U+8C59]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+8C5B]

Translingual

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Han character

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(Kangxi radical 152, +4, 11 strokes, cangjie input 月一尸人 (BMSO), four-corner 71232, composition )

  1. small pig, suckling pig
  2. used in names for dolphins and porpoises in combination with other characters, such as in 海豚 (dolphin).

Derived characters

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References

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  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 1194, character 23
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 36352
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1657, character 13
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 6, page 3611, character 8
  • Unihan data for U+8C5A

Chinese

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Glyph origin

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Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
       

Ideogrammic compound (會意会意) : (meat) + (pig).

Etymology 1

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trad.
simp. #
alternative forms
 
Wikipedia has articles on:

Probably related to (OC *l̥ʰoːns, “running pig”) and (OC *tʰoːn, “hog badger”) (Schuessler, 2007).

Outside of Chinese, it is probably related to Proto-Mien *duŋᴮ (pig) (Sagart, 1999; Schuessler, 2007; Ratliff, 2010).

Vovin speculates a link to Common Turkic *toŋuz (pig) and Middle Korean (twòth, pig) (Vovin, 2011).

Pronunciation

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Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (7)
Final () (55)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Closed
Division () I
Fanqie
Baxter dwon
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/duən/
Pan
Wuyun
/duon/
Shao
Rongfen
/duən/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/dwən/
Li
Rong
/duən/
Wang
Li
/duən/
Bernard
Karlgren
/dʱuən/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
tún
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
teon4
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 2/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
tún
Middle
Chinese
‹ dwon ›
Old
Chinese
/*lˁu[n]/
English young pig

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 12582
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
2
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*duːn/
 

Definitions

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  1. piglet; suckling pig
  2. (by extension) pig
  3. (Internet slang, derogatory) This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.
  4. a surname
Synonyms
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Compounds

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Etymology 2

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For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“vulva”).
(This character is a variant form of ).

Etymology 3

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For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“mound”).
(This character is an obsolete form of ).

Japanese

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Kanji

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(common “Jōyō” kanji)

Readings

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Compounds

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Etymology

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Kanji in this term
ぶた
Grade: S
kun’yomi
Alternative spelling
 
Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja
 
English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia

First attested in the mid-Muromachi period, some time in the late 1480s.[1]

Derivation ultimately unknown.

Some sources list possible theories:[2][3][4]

  • A shift from (futo, fatty (fat individual), fatness)
    The vowel shift and voicing required to go from futo to buta seem problematic, considering Japanese sound shift patterns.
  • Cognate with Okinawan ぶたさん (butasan, fat).
  • An onomatopoeia from the sound the animal makes, realized in Japanese as ブー ()
    The final -ta remains unexplained.
  • Some combination of the two above
  • A shift from 猪太 (ibuto, literally swine + fatty)
    Attestable online, but not found in Japanese etymological resources. Difficult to judge provenance or timing.
  • A borrowing from Korean or Mongolian
    Neither Korean 돼지 (dwaeji, “pig”) nor Mongolian гахай (gaxaj, pig) show any phonological resemblance to buta, ruling out these possibilities.

The word butakal appears in several languages of the Philippines with a sense of boar (male pig), suggesting a possible source. However, any connection with an Austronesian language is only speculation.

The kanji is from Chinese (tún, suckling pig). Compare Japanese (inoshishi, boar) from Chinese (zhū, pig) and Japanese (saru, monkey) from Chinese (yuán, ape).

Pronunciation

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Noun

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(ぶた) or (ブタ) (buta

  1. [from late 1480s] pig; swine
  2. [from 1703] (derogatory) a fat person, an unattractive woman
  3. [from 1846] pork (the meat)
  4. [from 1960] a wild boar
    Synonym: (i, inoshishi)
  5. [from 1723] a hand of cards worth zero (such as 8–9–3 totalling 20, which is equivalent to zero), in Baccarat-like three-card games such as おいちょかぶ
    • 1723 (享保八年), 竹田出雲 [Takeda Izumo] and 和田文耕堂 [Matsuda Bunkōdō],〈大塔宮曦鎧〉 [Ōtō no Miya Asahi no Yoroi]
      しらがまじりがまく歌流多。かはゝ川越播磨(かはごへはりま)ノ守。六々八のひつはりぶた。先六はらのあたまをちよつる。次のかるたは八九三。是もめでたし鎌倉ぶた()こぎにしやんとかき(こみ)し親は。二三四のぼり九寸(がう)
  6. [from ???] (colloquial, poker) synonym of ハイカード (hai kādo, high card): a no pair, a hand without even a pair (probably a modification of the term for a zero-valued card hand)
    • 2000 July 7 [2000 May 17], Seimaru Amagi with Sato, Fumiya, “FILE(ファイル) 1(いち) (さつ)(じん)ポーカー Unlucky Men in the Rain 〈(もん)(だい)(へん) [FILE 1: Murderous Poker: Unlucky Men in the Rain ‹Problem›]”, in 明智警視の優雅なる事件簿 [Superintendent Akechi Elegant Case Files], 3rd edition (fiction), Tokyo: Kodansha, →ISBN:
      (あか)(びし)さんのカードは(はち)(ジャック)のツーペア‥‥(みつ)()さんは(エース)のスリーカード (くも)()さんは(クイーン)のワンペア (みとり)(かわ)さんは役なし(ブタ)‥‥
      Akabishi-san no kādo wa hachi to jakku no tsū-pea... Mitsuya-san wa ēsu no surī-kādo, Kumoma-san wa kuīn no wan-pea, Midorikawa-san wa buta...
      Akabishi-san’s hand would have a two pair, eights and jacks‥‥ Mitsuya-san’s a three of a kind, aces. Kumoma-san’s a one pair, queens. Midorikawa-san’s a high card...

Usage notes

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  • As with many terms that name organisms, this term is often spelled in katakana, especially in biological contexts (where katakana is customary), as ブタ.

Derived terms

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  • Ainu: プタ (puta)

See also

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  • (i, inoshishi, wild boar)
  • アグー (agū, Okinawan pig breed)

References

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  1. ^ 豚・豕”, in 日本国語大辞典 [Nihon Kokugo Daijiten]‎[1] (in Japanese), concise edition, Tokyo: Shogakukan, 2000
  2. ^ ブタ/豚/ぶた”, in 語源由来辞典 (Gogen Yurai Jiten, Etymology Derivation Dictionary) (in Japanese), 2003–2024.
  3. ^ 日本辞典 (Nihon Jiten, Japan Dictionary), entry for buta available online here (in Japanese)
  4. ^ 由来・語源辞典 (Yurai / Gogen Jiten, Derivation / Etymology Dictionary), entry for buta available online here (in Japanese)
  5. ^ Matsumura, Akira, editor (2006), 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tokyo: Sanseidō, →ISBN

Korean

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Etymology

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From Middle Chinese (MC dwon).

Recorded as Middle Korean  (Yale: ttwon) in Dongguk Jeongun (東國正韻 / 동국정운), 1448.

Recorded as Middle Korean (twon) (Yale: twon) in Hunmong Jahoe (訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회), 1527.

Hanja

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Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun 돼지 (dwaeji don))

  1. Hanja form? of (pig).

Compounds

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References

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  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [2]

Okinawan

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Kanji

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(common “Jōyō” kanji)

Readings

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Etymology

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/ʔuwaː//ʔwaː/

From Proto-Ryukyuan *uwa. Cognate with Yoron っわー ('wā, pig), Toku-No-Shima っわー ('wā, pig), Miyako わー (wā, vā, pig), Yaeyama おー (ō, pig), Yonaguni わー (, pig).

Likely not related to Japanese (buta, pig, swine, hog).

Pronunciation

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Noun

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(っわー) ('wā

  1. a pig, hog, swine

References

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Vietnamese

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Han character

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: Hán Nôm readings: đồn

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.