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See also:
U+8FB2, 農
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-8FB2

[U+8FB1]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+8FB3]

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Han characterEdit

(radical 161, +6, 13 strokes, cangjie input 廿田一一女 (TWMMV), four-corner 55232, composition)

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 1252, character 24
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 38688
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1733, character 12
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 6, page 3607, character 3
  • Unihan data for U+8FB2

ChineseEdit

trad.
simp.
variant forms

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
       
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*nuː
*rnuːŋ, *nuːŋ
*rnuːŋ, *noŋ
*rnuːŋʔ
*noːŋs
*noːŋs
*nuːŋ
*nuːŋ
*nuːŋ
*nuːŋ
*nuːŋ
*noŋ
*noŋ
*noŋ, *njoŋ
*noŋ, *njoŋ
*noŋ

In current form Ideogrammic compound (會意):  +  (field). Top unrelated to , and previously two hands, one on either side of a bundle – a farmer bringing goods to market, from the field .

EtymologyEdit

Probably Sino-Tibetan. Cognate with (OC *noːɡs, *nuːɡ, “hoe, rake; to weed”), possibly derived from it with the terminative suffix *-ŋ for action with a goal, i.e. "to get a field hoed" > "cultivated"; compare (OC *maŋ, “to disappear”) from (OC *ma, “(there is) no”) (Schuessler, 2007).

Huang (2000), Norman (1983) and Zhou (1986) hypothesised that this is the same etymon as (OC *nuːŋ, “person, I, me”). See there for more.

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • lâng - vernacular;
  • lông - literary.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /nuŋ³⁵/
Harbin /nəŋ²⁴/
Tianjin /nu⁴⁵/
/nuŋ⁴⁵/
Jinan /nuŋ⁴²/
/nu⁴²/
Qingdao /nu⁴²/
Zhengzhou /nuŋ⁴²/
Xi'an /luŋ²⁴/
Xining /luə̃²⁴/
Yinchuan /nuŋ⁵³/
Lanzhou /lũn⁵³/
Ürümqi /luŋ⁵¹/
Wuhan /noŋ²¹³/
Chengdu /noŋ³¹/
Guiyang /noŋ²¹/
Kunming /noŋ³¹/
Nanjing /loŋ²⁴/
Hefei /ləŋ⁵⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /nəŋ¹¹/
/nuəŋ¹¹/
Pingyao /nəŋ¹³/
Hohhot /nə̃ŋ³¹/
Wu Shanghai /noŋ²³/
Suzhou /noŋ¹³/
Hangzhou /noŋ²¹³/
/ȵioŋ²¹³/
Wenzhou /noŋ³¹/
Hui Shexian /lʌ̃⁴⁴/
Tunxi /lin¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /loŋ¹³/
Xiangtan /nən¹²/
Gan Nanchang /luŋ⁴⁵/
Hakka Meixian /nuŋ¹¹/
Taoyuan /nuŋ¹¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /noŋ²¹/
Nanning /nuŋ²¹/
Hong Kong /nuŋ²¹/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /lɔŋ³⁵/
/laŋ³⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /nuŋ⁵³/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /nɔŋ²¹/
Shantou (Min Nan) /loŋ⁵⁵/
/naŋ⁵⁵/
Haikou (Min Nan) /nɔŋ³¹/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (8)
Final () (5)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/nuoŋ/
Pan
Wuyun
/nuoŋ/
Shao
Rongfen
/noŋ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/nawŋ/
Li
Rong
/noŋ/
Wang
Li
/nuoŋ/
Bernard
Karlgren
/nuoŋ/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
nóng
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
nóng
Middle
Chinese
‹ nowng ›
Old
Chinese
/*nˁ[o]ŋ/
English agriculture; to farm

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 9571
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*nuːŋ/
Notes

DefinitionsEdit

  1. to cultivate; to farm
  2. land cultivation; farming; agriculture
  3. farmer; grower

SynonymsEdit

Dialectal synonyms of 農民 (“farmer; peasant”) [map]
Variety Location Words
Classical Chinese , 農民, 農人, 農夫
Formal (Written Standard Chinese) 農民, 農人
Mandarin Beijing 農民, 莊稼人, 莊稼漢 male
Taiwan 農夫, 農民, 農人
Harbin 農民, 莊稼人, 莊稼漢 male, 莊稼佬兒 derogatory
Hailar 老農, 種地的
Ulanhot 莊稼人
Tongliao 老農, 種地的
Chifeng 莊稼漢
Bayanhot 種田的, 莊稼漢
Jinan 農民, 農哥兒們, 農哥們兒, 農哥兒們兒
Muping 農民, 莊稼人, 莊戶孫, 老農 honorific or humorous, 莊稼霸子 derogatory
Luoyang 農民, 莊稼人, 莊稼漢, 種地的
Wanrong 莊稼戶, 做莊稼的, 農民
Xi'an 做莊稼的, 莊稼人, 農民
Qingdao 莊戶人
Zhengzhou 莊稼人
Xining 莊稼人
Xuzhou 種地的, 莊戶人
Yinchuan 莊戶, 莊稼漢, 農人 dated
Lanzhou 莊稼人
Ürümqi 農民
Wuhan 農民, 農人, 種田的
Chengdu 農民, 農村人, 鄉下人, 鄉巴佬兒 derogatory, 鄉巴佬 derogatory, 鄉廣廣 derogatory, 老坎 derogatory, 黃泥巴腳桿 derogatory, 泥巴腳桿 derogatory, 彎腳桿 derogatory, 農二哥 derogatory, 欒二哥 dated, derogatory, 欒二 dated, derogatory, 欒豁皮 dated, derogatory, 欒豁 dated, derogatory, 老欒 dated, derogatory, 欒民 dated, derogatory
Guiyang 農人
Liuzhou 種田的, 農民, 農民佬
Yangzhou 種田的, 二哥哥, 捧牛屁股的 dated, derogatory
Nanjing 種田的, 農民
Nantong 種田哩
Sokuluk (Gansu Dungan) 戶家
Cantonese Guangzhou 農民, 耕田佬, 㩧佬 derogatory
Hong Kong 農夫, 農人, 耕田佬, 㩧佬 derogatory
Hong Kong (San Tin Weitou) 耕田佬
Hong Kong (Kam Tin Weitou) 耕田佬
Hong Kong (Ting Kok) 耕田佬
Hong Kong (Tung Ping Chau) 耕田佬
Macau 農民
Panyu 農民, 耕田佬
Huadu (Huashan) 農民, 耕田佬
Conghua 耕田佬
Zengcheng 農民, 耕田佬
Foshan 農民, 耕田佬
Nanhai (Shatou) 農民, 耕田佬
Shunde 農民
Sanshui 農民, 耕田佬
Gaoming (Mingcheng) 耕田佬
Zhongshan (Shiqi) 農民
Zhuhai (Qianshan) 農民
Doumen (Shangheng Tanka) 耕田佬
Doumen 耕田佬
Jiangmen (Baisha) 耕田佬
Xinhui 耕田佬
Taishan 農民
Kaiping (Chikan) 農民
Enping (Niujiang) 農民, 耕田佬
Heshan (Yayao) 耕田佬
Dongguan 農民, 耕田佬
Bao'an (Shajing) 耕田佬
Shaoguan 農民
Yunfu 耕田佬, 撚泥頭
Xinyi 耕田佬
Lianjiang 農民, 㩧佬, 耕田佬
Kuala Lumpur 耕田佬
Ho Chi Minh City 耕田佬
Gan Nanchang 作田個
Lichuan 作田個
Pingxiang 作田人, 農民
Hakka Meixian 耕田佬, 耕田儕
Changting 做田人
Wuping 作田儕
Ninghua 做田個
Yudu 作田佬
Miaoli (N. Sixian) 耕田人, 耕種人, 耕田儕, 農民, 農家人
Liudui (S. Sixian) 耕田人, 耕種人, 農民, 農民仔, 農家人
Hsinchu (Hailu) 耕田人, 耕種人, 農民, 農家人
Dongshi (Dabu) 耕田人, 耕種人, 耕田個, 農民, 農家人
Hsinchu (Raoping) 耕田人, 耕種人, 農民, 農家人
Yunlin (Zhao'an) 作穡人, 農民, 農家人
Hong Kong 耕田佬
Sabah (Longchuan) 農人, 耕田佬
Senai 耕田佬
Huizhou Jixi 農民, 種田仂, 務農佬 derogatory, 務農坯 derogatory
Jin Taiyuan 莊稼人, 農民, 受苦人 self-appellation
Xinzhou 農業上哩, 受苦人 dated, 莊戶人 dated, 黑脊背 dated
Baochang 莊戶人
Jining 莊戶人
Hohhot 莊戶人
Baotou 莊戶人
Dongsheng 莊戶人
Linhe 莊戶人
Haibowan 莊稼漢
Min Bei Jian'ou 打粗人, 打塍人
Min Dong Fuzhou 農民, 做塍其, 做塍儂
Fuqing 做塍其儂, 農民
Matsu 做塍儂
Min Nan Xiamen 作塍儂, 作穡儂, 農民, 農哥 slightly derogatory or humble
Quanzhou 作塍儂, 作穡儂, 農民, 農哥 slightly derogatory or humble
Jinjiang 作塍儂, 作穡儂
Yongchun 作塍儂
Zhangzhou 作塍儂, 農民, 農哥 slightly derogatory or humble
Longhai 作塍儂
Changtai 作塍儂
Hua'an 作塍儂
Pinghe 作塍儂
Zhangpu 作塍儂
Dongshan 作穡儂, 農民
Taipei 做穡的
Kaohsiung 作穡的, 作穡儂
Tainan 作穡的, 作園的, 作穡儂
Taichung 作穡儂, 作塍儂
Wuqi 作穡儂
Hsinchu 作穡儂
Taitung 作穡儂
Lukang 作穡的, 作園的, 作塍儂
Sanxia 作塍儂
Yilan 作穡的, 作園的, 作塍儂
Magong 做穡的, 做山的
Penang 種塍的儂
Singapore 作巴的
Zhangping (Yongfu) 做塍儂
Shantou 作塍儂
Johor Bahru 作塍儂
Haikou 做百姓個, 做農個, 農民, 做塍爹 male, 做塍姩 female
Puxian Min Putian 農夫
Pinghua Nanning 農民
Shehua Fu'an 做田人
Fuding 做田人
Luoyuan 做田人
Shunchang 做田人
Hua'an 做田人
Guixi 做田人
Cangnan 做田人
Jingning 做田人
Lishui 做田人
Longyou 做田人
Chaozhou 做田人
Fengshun 做田人
Wu Shanghai 種田個, 農民
Suzhou 農民, 鄉下人, 種田個
Hangzhou 農民
Wenzhou 種田人
Chongming 種田地人, 種田人
Danyang 農民, 種田人
Jinhua 種田地個, 種田個, 農民
Tangxi 種田儂
Ningbo 種田人
Xiang Changsha 農民, 作田的
Loudi 作田個

CompoundsEdit


JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. agriculture, farming

ReadingsEdit

EtymologyEdit

 
Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja
Kanji in this term
のう
Grade: 3
on’yomi

From Middle Chinese (nowng, agriculture, farming).

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

(hiragana のう, rōmaji )

  1. agriculture, farming
  2. a farmer

Usage notesEdit

For the farmer sense, the terms 農家 (nōka) or 農夫 (nōfu, male farmer) or 農婦 (nōfu, female farmer) may be used more often.

Derived termsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  2. ^ 1997, 新明解国語辞典 (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Fifth Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

(nong)

  • Eumhun:
    • Sound (hangeul): (revised: nong, McCune–Reischauer: nong, Yale: nong)
    • Name (hangeul): 농사
  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

(nông, nong, nôn, núng)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.