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See also:
U+8FB2, 農
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-8FB2

[U+8FB1]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+8FB3]

TranslingualEdit

Han characterEdit

(radical 161, +6, 13 strokes, cangjie input 廿田一一女 (TWMMV), four-corner 55232, composition)

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 1252, character 24
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 38688
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1733, character 12
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 6, page 3607, character 3
  • Unihan data for U+8FB2

ChineseEdit

trad.
simp.
variant forms

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
       
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*nuː
*rnuːŋ, *nuːŋ
*rnuːŋ, *noŋ
*rnuːŋʔ
*noːŋs
*noːŋs
*nuːŋ
*nuːŋ
*nuːŋ
*nuːŋ
*nuːŋ
*noŋ
*noŋ
*noŋ, *njoŋ
*noŋ, *njoŋ
*noŋ

In current form Ideogrammic compound (會意):  +  (field). Top unrelated to , and previously two hands, one on either side of a bundle – a farmer bringing goods to market, from the field .

EtymologyEdit

Probably Sino-Tibetan. Cognate with (OC *noːɡs, *nuːɡ, “hoe, rake; to weed”), possibly derived from it with the terminative suffix *-ŋ for action with a goal, i.e. "to get a field hoed" > "cultivated"; compare (OC *maŋ, “to disappear”) from (OC *ma, “(there is) no”) (Schuessler, 2007).

Huang (2000), Norman (1983) and Zhou (1986) hypothesised that this is the same etymon as (OC *nuːŋ, “person, I, me”). See there for more.

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • lâng - vernacular;
  • lông - literary.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /nuŋ³⁵/
    Harbin /nəŋ²⁴/
    Tianjin /nu⁴⁵/
    /nuŋ⁴⁵/
    Jinan /nuŋ⁴²/
    /nu⁴²/
    Qingdao /nu⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /nuŋ⁴²/
    Xi'an /luŋ²⁴/
    Xining /luə̃²⁴/
    Yinchuan /nuŋ⁵³/
    Lanzhou /lũn⁵³/
    Ürümqi /luŋ⁵¹/
    Wuhan /noŋ²¹³/
    Chengdu /noŋ³¹/
    Guiyang /noŋ²¹/
    Kunming /noŋ³¹/
    Nanjing /loŋ²⁴/
    Hefei /ləŋ⁵⁵/
    Jin Taiyuan /nəŋ¹¹/
    /nuəŋ¹¹/
    Pingyao /nəŋ¹³/
    Hohhot /nə̃ŋ³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /noŋ²³/
    Suzhou /noŋ¹³/
    Hangzhou /noŋ²¹³/
    /ȵioŋ²¹³/
    Wenzhou /noŋ³¹/
    Hui Shexian /lʌ̃⁴⁴/
    Tunxi /lin¹¹/
    Xiang Changsha /loŋ¹³/
    Xiangtan /nən¹²/
    Gan Nanchang /luŋ⁴⁵/
    Hakka Meixian /nuŋ¹¹/
    Taoyuan /nuŋ¹¹/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /noŋ²¹/
    Nanning /nuŋ²¹/
    Hong Kong /nuŋ²¹/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /lɔŋ³⁵/
    /laŋ³⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /nuŋ⁵³/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /nɔŋ²¹/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /loŋ⁵⁵/
    /naŋ⁵⁵/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /nɔŋ³¹/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (8)
    Final () (5)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /nuoŋ/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /nuoŋ/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /noŋ/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /nawŋ/
    Li
    Rong
    /noŋ/
    Wang
    Li
    /nuoŋ/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /nuoŋ/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    nóng
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    nóng
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ nowng ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*nˁ[o]ŋ/
    English agriculture; to farm

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 9571
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*nuːŋ/
    Notes

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. to cultivate; to farm
    2. land cultivation; farming; agriculture
    3. farmer; grower

    SynonymsEdit

    Dialectal synonyms of 農民 (“farmer; peasant”) [map]
    Variety Location Words
    Classical Chinese , 農民, 農人, 農夫
    Formal (Written Standard Chinese) 農民, 農人
    Mandarin Beijing 農民, 莊稼人, 莊稼漢 male
    Taiwan 農夫, 農民, 農人
    Harbin 農民, 莊稼人, 莊稼漢 male, 莊稼佬兒 derogatory
    Hailar 老農, 種地的
    Ulanhot 莊稼人
    Tongliao 老農, 種地的
    Chifeng 莊稼漢
    Bayanhot 種田的, 莊稼漢
    Jinan 農民, 農哥兒們, 農哥們兒, 農哥兒們兒
    Muping 農民, 莊稼人, 莊戶孫, 老農 honorific or humorous, 莊稼霸子 derogatory
    Luoyang 農民, 莊稼人, 莊稼漢, 種地的
    Wanrong 莊稼戶, 做莊稼的, 農民
    Xi'an 做莊稼的, 莊稼人, 農民
    Qingdao 莊戶人
    Zhengzhou 莊稼人
    Xining 莊稼人
    Xuzhou 種地的, 莊戶人
    Yinchuan 莊戶, 莊稼漢, 農人 dated
    Lanzhou 莊稼人
    Ürümqi 農民
    Wuhan 農民, 農人, 種田的
    Chengdu 農民, 農村人, 鄉下人, 鄉巴佬兒 derogatory, 鄉巴佬 derogatory, 鄉廣廣 derogatory, 老坎 derogatory, 黃泥巴腳桿 derogatory, 泥巴腳桿 derogatory, 彎腳桿 derogatory, 農二哥 derogatory, 欒二哥 dated, derogatory, 欒二 dated, derogatory, 欒豁皮 dated, derogatory, 欒豁 dated, derogatory, 老欒 dated, derogatory, 欒民 dated, derogatory
    Guiyang 農人
    Liuzhou 種田的, 農民, 農民佬
    Yangzhou 種田的, 二哥哥, 捧牛屁股的 dated, derogatory
    Nanjing 種田的, 農民
    Nantong 種田哩
    Sokuluk (Gansu Dungan) 戶家
    Cantonese Guangzhou 農民, 耕田佬, 㩧佬 derogatory
    Hong Kong 農夫, 農人, 耕田佬, 㩧佬 derogatory
    Hong Kong (San Tin Weitou) 耕田佬
    Hong Kong (Kam Tin Weitou) 耕田佬
    Hong Kong (Ting Kok) 耕田佬
    Hong Kong (Tung Ping Chau) 耕田佬
    Macau 農民
    Panyu 農民, 耕田佬
    Huadu (Huashan) 農民, 耕田佬
    Conghua 耕田佬
    Zengcheng 農民, 耕田佬
    Foshan 農民, 耕田佬
    Nanhai (Shatou) 農民, 耕田佬
    Shunde 農民
    Sanshui 農民, 耕田佬
    Gaoming (Mingcheng) 耕田佬
    Zhongshan (Shiqi) 農民
    Zhuhai (Qianshan) 農民
    Doumen (Shangheng Tanka) 耕田佬
    Doumen 耕田佬
    Jiangmen (Baisha) 耕田佬
    Xinhui 耕田佬
    Taishan 農民
    Kaiping (Chikan) 農民
    Enping (Niujiang) 農民, 耕田佬
    Heshan (Yayao) 耕田佬
    Dongguan 農民, 耕田佬
    Bao'an (Shajing) 耕田佬
    Shaoguan 農民
    Yunfu 耕田佬, 撚泥頭
    Xinyi 耕田佬
    Lianjiang 農民, 㩧佬, 耕田佬
    Kuala Lumpur 耕田佬
    Ho Chi Minh City 耕田佬
    Gan Nanchang 作田個
    Lichuan 作田個
    Pingxiang 作田人, 農民
    Hakka Meixian 耕田佬, 耕田儕
    Changting 做田人
    Wuping 作田儕
    Ninghua 做田個
    Yudu 作田佬
    Miaoli (N. Sixian) 耕田人, 耕種人, 耕田儕, 農民, 農家人
    Liudui (S. Sixian) 耕田人, 耕種人, 農民, 農民仔, 農家人
    Hsinchu (Hailu) 耕田人, 耕種人, 農民, 農家人
    Dongshi (Dabu) 耕田人, 耕種人, 耕田個, 農民, 農家人
    Hsinchu (Raoping) 耕田人, 耕種人, 農民, 農家人
    Yunlin (Zhao'an) 作穡人, 農民, 農家人
    Hong Kong 耕田佬
    Sabah (Longchuan) 農人, 耕田佬
    Senai 耕田佬
    Huizhou Jixi 農民, 種田仂, 務農佬 derogatory, 務農坯 derogatory
    Jin Taiyuan 莊稼人, 農民, 受苦人 self-appellation
    Xinzhou 農業上哩, 受苦人 dated, 莊戶人 dated, 黑脊背 dated
    Baochang 莊戶人
    Jining 莊戶人
    Hohhot 莊戶人
    Baotou 莊戶人
    Dongsheng 莊戶人
    Linhe 莊戶人
    Haibowan 莊稼漢
    Min Bei Jian'ou 打粗人, 打塍人
    Min Dong Fuzhou 農民, 做塍其, 做塍儂
    Fuqing 做塍其儂, 農民
    Matsu 做塍儂
    Min Nan Xiamen 作塍儂, 作穡儂, 農民, 農哥 slightly derogatory or humble
    Quanzhou 作塍儂, 作穡儂, 農民, 農哥 slightly derogatory or humble
    Jinjiang 作塍儂, 作穡儂
    Yongchun 作塍儂
    Zhangzhou 作塍儂, 農民, 農哥 slightly derogatory or humble
    Longhai 作塍儂
    Changtai 作塍儂
    Hua'an 作塍儂
    Pinghe 作塍儂
    Zhangpu 作塍儂
    Dongshan 作穡儂, 農民
    Taipei 做穡的
    Kaohsiung 作穡的, 作穡儂
    Tainan 作穡的, 作園的, 作穡儂
    Taichung 作穡儂, 作塍儂
    Wuqi 作穡儂
    Hsinchu 作穡儂
    Taitung 作穡儂
    Lukang 作穡的, 作園的, 作塍儂
    Sanxia 作塍儂
    Yilan 作穡的, 作園的, 作塍儂
    Magong 做穡的, 做山的
    Penang 種塍的儂
    Singapore 作巴的
    Zhangping (Yongfu) 做塍儂
    Shantou 作塍儂
    Johor Bahru 作塍儂
    Haikou 做百姓個, 做農個, 農民, 做塍爹 male, 做塍姩 female
    Puxian Min Putian 農夫
    Pinghua Nanning (Tingzi) 農民
    Shehua Fu'an 做田人
    Fuding 做田人
    Luoyuan 做田人
    Shunchang 做田人
    Hua'an 做田人
    Guixi 做田人
    Cangnan 做田人
    Jingning 做田人
    Lishui 做田人
    Longyou 做田人
    Chaozhou 做田人
    Fengshun 做田人
    Wu Shanghai 種田個, 農民
    Suzhou 農民, 鄉下人, 種田個
    Hangzhou 農民
    Wenzhou 種田人
    Chongming 種田地人, 種田人
    Danyang 農民, 種田人
    Jinhua 種田地個, 種田個, 農民
    Tangxi 種田儂
    Ningbo 種田人
    Xiang Changsha 農民, 作田的
    Loudi 作田個

    CompoundsEdit


    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 3 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. agriculture, farming

    ReadingsEdit

    EtymologyEdit

     
    Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia ja
    Kanji in this term
    のう
    Grade: 3
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese (nowng, agriculture, farming).

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana のう, rōmaji )

    1. agriculture, farming
    2. a farmer

    Usage notesEdit

    For the farmer sense, the terms 農家 (nōka) or 農夫 (nōfu, male farmer) or 農婦 (nōfu, female farmer) may be used more often.

    Derived termsEdit

    ReferencesEdit

    1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    2. ^ 1997, 新明解国語辞典 (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Fifth Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

    KoreanEdit

    HanjaEdit

    (nong) (hangeul )

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    (nông, nong, nôn, núng)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.