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U+4EA1, 亡
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4EA1

[U+4EA0]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+4EA2]

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 8, +1, 3 strokes, cangjie input 卜女 (YV), four-corner 00710, composition𠃊(GV) or ⿱(HTJK))

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 88, character 3
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 287
  • Dae Jaweon: page 184, character 13
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 279, character 5
  • Unihan data for U+4EA1

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.
variant forms

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
         





References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).

Ideogram (指事): a line on cutting edge of a knife; the original form of (OC *maːŋ, *maŋ, “edge of a knife”).

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *ma (not) + Proto-Sino-Tibetan terminative suffix *-ŋ. Cognate with (OC *maŋ, *maŋs, “to forget”), (OC *mlaŋʔ, “to not have”), (OC *hmaːŋ, *hmaːŋs, “to waste (land, time)”) and (OC *smaːŋs, *smaːŋ, “to lose”).

Pronunciation 1Edit


Note:
  • 3maan - vernacular;
  • 3vaan - literary.

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (4)
Final () (106)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Closed
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/mʉɐŋ/
Pan
Wuyun
/mʷiɐŋ/
Shao
Rongfen
/miuɑŋ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/muaŋ/
Li
Rong
/miuaŋ/
Wang
Li
/mĭwaŋ/
Bernard
Karlgren
/miwaŋ/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
wáng
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
wáng
Middle
Chinese
‹ mjang ›
Old
Chinese
/*maŋ/
English flee; disappear; die

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 12662
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*maŋ/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. to flee
      ―  táowáng  ―  to flee
  2. to lose
      ―  wáng  ―  to be lost
    羊補牢 / 羊补牢  ―  wángyángbǔláo  ―  to repair the pen after sheep is lost
  3. to die; to perish
      ―  wáng  ―  to die
    /   ―  mièwáng  ―  to perish
  4. deceased
      ―  wáng  ―  deceased wife
  5. Alternative form of (wàng, “to forget”).
CompoundsEdit

Pronunciation 2Edit

DefinitionsEdit

  1. Alternative form of (, “not have”).
    夷狄不如諸夏 [Classical Chinese, trad.]
    夷狄不如诸夏 [Classical Chinese, simp.]
    From: The Analects of Confucius, circa 475 – 221 BCE, translated based on James Legge's version
    Yídí zhī yǒu jūn, bùrú zhūxià zhī yě. [Pinyin]
    The rude tribes of the east and north have their princes, and are not like the States of our great land which are without them.
    司馬牛:「兄弟。」 [Classical Chinese, trad.]
    司马牛:“兄弟。” [Classical Chinese, simp.]
    From: The Analects of Confucius, circa 475 – 221 BCE, translated based on James Legge's version
    Sīmǎniú yōu yuē: “Rén jiē yǒu xiōngdì, wǒ dú .” [Pinyin]
    Si Ma Niu, full of anxiety, said, "Other men all have their brothers, I only have not."
  2. Alternative form of (, “don't”).
  3. poor

ReferencesEdit

  • 諸橋轍次 (Morohashi Tetsuji), chief ed. 大漢和辞典 (Dai Kan-Wa Jiten, “Comprehensive Chinese–Japanese Dictionary”). 13 vols. 1955–1960. Revised and enlarged ed. 1984–1986. Tokyo: Taishukan.

JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(grade 6 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. destroy
  2. fall; collapse
  3. not exist; nonexistent
  4. run away

ReadingsEdit

As an alternative form of (not):

CompoundsEdit


KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

(mang, mu) (hangeul , )

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

: Hán Nôm readings: vong,

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

ReferencesEdit