See also: and
U+5F9E, 從
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5F9E

[U+5F9D]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5F9F]

TranslingualEdit

Traditional
Shinjitai
Simplified

Han characterEdit

(radical 60, +8, 11 strokes, cangjie input 竹人人人人 (HOOOO), four-corner 28281, composition)

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 368, character 18
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 10152
  • Dae Jaweon: page 692, character 14
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 2, page 829, character 12
  • Unihan data for U+5F9E

ChineseEdit

trad.
simp.
alternative forms
𠚪

𬽡

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
     

Ideogrammic compound (會意): (walk) + (follow). Represents original meaning in Classical Chinese, 'to follow'

Etymology 1Edit

Etymology not certain. Perhaps cognate with Tibetan རྫོང་བ (rdzong ba, to dispatch; to dismiss) (Schuessler, 2007). Alternatively, compare Tibetan སྟོངས་པ (stongs pa, to accompany), or perhaps (OC *sloːŋs, “to escort; to send”).

Pronunciation 2 is a derivation of pronunciation 1.

Pronunciation 1Edit


Note: chêng, chn̂g - vernacular, chiông - literary.

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/3
Initial () (15)
Final () (7)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/d͡zɨoŋ/
Pan
Wuyun
/d͡zioŋ/
Shao
Rongfen
/d͡zioŋ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/d͡zuawŋ/
Li
Rong
/d͡zioŋ/
Wang
Li
/d͡zĭwoŋ/
Bernard
Karlgren
/d͡zʱi̯woŋ/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
cóng
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
cung4
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/3
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
cóng
Middle
Chinese
‹ dzjowng ›
Old
Chinese
/*[dz]oŋ/
English to follow

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 2/3
No. 1858
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*zloŋ/
DefinitionsEdit

  1. to follow; to come after
  2. to comply with; to submit to
    差點 / 差点  ―  Chādiǎn jiù cóng le tā le!  ―  (I) nearly gave in to him (and became his girlfriend). (slang)
  3. to obey; to accept
  4. to join; to be engaged in
  5. from (a place or time); since
    中國 / 中国  ―  cóng zhōngguó lái.  ―  He comes from China.
    國家 [MSC, trad.]
    国家 [MSC, simp.]
    Nǐ shì cóng nǎ ge guójiā lái de? [Pinyin]
    Where are you from? (Which country are you from?)
    我們我們錯誤學習 [MSC, trad.]
    我们我们错误学习 [MSC, simp.]
    Wǒmen zhǐ néng cóng wǒmen de cuòwù zhōng xuéxí. [Pinyin]
    We can learn only from our mistakes.
    郵局經過 [MSC, trad.]
    邮局经过 [MSC, simp.]
    Wǒ měi tiān dōu cóng yóujú jīngguò. [Pinyin]
    I go past the post-office every day.
    早上9晚上6 [MSC, trad.]
    早上9晚上6 [MSC, simp.]
    Zhè jiā diàn cóng zǎoshàng 9 diǎn kāi dào wǎnshàng 6 diǎn. [Pinyin]
    This shop is open from 9 a.m. to 6 p.m.
    我們小學年級就是朋友 [MSC, trad.]
    我们小学年级就是朋友 [MSC, simp.]
    Wǒmen cóng xiǎoxué sān niánjí jiùshì péngyǒu le. [Pinyin]
    We have been friends since the third grade.
  6. through; via; by
    清風窗口 [MSC, trad.]
    清风窗口 [MSC, simp.]
    Yī zhèn qīngfēng cóng chuāngkǒu chuī lái. [Pinyin]
    A cool breeze came in through the window.
  7. (followed by negative) never; ever
    以前從沒 [MSC, trad.]
    以前从没 [MSC, simp.]
    Wǒ yǐqián cóngméi jiàn guò tā. [Pinyin]
    I have never seen her before
    從不違約 / 从不违约  ―  cóngbù wéiyuē.  ―  I never break my promise.
  8. 19th tetragram of the Taixuanjing; "following" (𝌘)
  9. A surname​.
CompoundsEdit

Pronunciation 2Edit



Rime
Character
Reading # 3/3
Initial () (15)
Final () (7)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/d͡zɨoŋH/
Pan
Wuyun
/d͡zioŋH/
Shao
Rongfen
/d͡zioŋH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/d͡zuawŋH/
Li
Rong
/d͡zioŋH/
Wang
Li
/d͡zĭwoŋH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/d͡zʱi̯woŋH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
zòng
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
zung6
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 3/3
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
zòng
Middle
Chinese
‹ dzjowngH ›
Old
Chinese
/*[dz]oŋ-s/
English follower

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 3/3
No. 1859
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*zloŋs/
DefinitionsEdit

  1. (of relatives) paternal (with the same surname)
    /   ―  cóngxiōng  ―  paternal male cousin elder than oneself with the same surname
  2. auxiliary; subsidiary
  3. follower; attendant; entourage
CompoundsEdit
DescendantsEdit
  • Korean: (jong, servant; slave)

Etymology 2Edit

PronunciationEdit


Note: literary reading.

Rime
Character
Reading # 2/3
Initial () (14)
Final () (7)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/t͡sʰɨoŋ/
Pan
Wuyun
/t͡sʰioŋ/
Shao
Rongfen
/t͡sʰioŋ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/t͡sʰuawŋ/
Li
Rong
/t͡sʰioŋ/
Wang
Li
/t͡sʰĭwoŋ/
Bernard
Karlgren
/t͡sʰi̯woŋ/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
cōng
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
cung1
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/3
No. 1856
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*zloŋ/
DefinitionsEdit

  1. Only used in 從容从容 (cóngróng, “calm; at ease”).

Etymology 3Edit

PronunciationEdit



BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 2/3
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
zōng
Middle
Chinese
‹ tsjowng ›
Old
Chinese
/*tsoŋ/
English longitudinal

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
DefinitionsEdit

  1. Alternative form of (zòng, “straight; vertical”).
  2. Alternative form of (zòng, “to give free reign to”).

CompoundsEdit

Etymology 4Edit

PronunciationEdit


DefinitionsEdit

  1. Alternative form of (zōng).

ReferencesEdit


JapaneseEdit

Shinjitai

Kyūjitai

KanjiEdit

(“Jinmeiyō” kanji used for nameskyūjitai kanji, shinjitai form )

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

ReadingsEdit


KoreanEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From Middle Chinese (MC d͡zɨoŋ).

Historical Readings
Dongguk Jeongun Reading
Dongguk Jeongun, 1448 Recorded as Middle Korean 쬬ᇰ (Yale: ccyòng) in Dongguk Jeongun (東國正韻 / 동국정운), 1448.
Middle Korean
Text Eumhun
Gloss (hun) Reading
Hunmong Jahoe, 1527[2] 조ᄎᆞᆯ Recorded as Middle Korean  (Yale: cyong) in Sinjeung Yuhap (新增類合 / 신증유합), 1576.
Early Modern Korean
Text Final (韻) Reading
Samun Seonghwi, 1751 조ᄎᆞᆯ Recorded as Early Modern Korean  (Yale: cyong) in Juhae Cheonjamun (註解千字文 / 주해천자문), 1804.

PronunciationEdit

HanjaEdit

Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun 좇을 (jocheul jong))

  1. Hanja form? of (to follow; to pursue).
  2. Hanja form? of (to obey; to comply).
  3. Hanja form? of (from; since).

CompoundsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

From Middle Chinese (MC d͡zɨoŋH).

Historical Readings
Dongguk Jeongun Reading
Dongguk Jeongun, 1448 Recorded as Middle Korean 쬬ᇰ〮 (Yale: ccyóng) in Dongguk Jeongun (東國正韻 / 동국정운), 1448.
Early Modern Korean
Text Final (韻) Reading
Samun Seonghwi, 1751 결ᄂᆡ 죵 Recorded as Early Modern Korean  (Yale: cyong) in Juhae Cheonjamun (註解千字文 / 주해천자문), 1804.

PronunciationEdit

  • (SK Standard/Seoul) IPA(key): [t͡ɕo̞(ː)ŋ]
  • Phonetic hangul: [(ː)]
    • Long vowel distinction only applies at the initial position. Most speakers no longer distinguish vowel length at any position.

HanjaEdit

(eum (jong))

  1. Hanja form? of (prefix indicating cousinhood).
    Synonym: ( (dang))

CompoundsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [3]

VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

: Hán Nôm readings: tòng, tùng, thủng, tuồng, thong, thung, thùng, tồng, tụng

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

ReferencesEdit