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See also:
U+9EA5, 麥
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-9EA5

[U+9EA4]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+9EA6]

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 199, +0, 11 strokes, cangjie input 十人弓戈 (JONI), four-corner 40207, composition)

  1. Kangxi radical #199, .

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 1512, character 8
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 47717
  • Dae Jaweon: page 2041, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 7, page 4600, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+9EA5

ChineseEdit

trad.
simp. *

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
       
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*m·rɯːɡ
*rɯː, *rɯːs
*rɯː
*rɯː, *rɯːs
*rɯː
*rɯː, *ruːlʔ, *ruːlʔ
*rɯː
*rɯː
*rɯː
*rɯː
*rɯː
*rɯː
*rɯː, *rɯ
*rɯː, *rɯːs
*rɯː
*rɯːʔ, *rrɯː
*rɯːs
*rɯːs
*rɯːs
*rɯːs, *r̥ʰɯ, *r̥ʰɯs, *r̥ʰɯs
*rɯ
*ŋrɯns
*ŋrɯns
*mrɯːɡ

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *mrɯːɡ): phonetic  (OC *m·rɯːɡ) + semantic  (foot; to walk slowly). was the original character for “wheat”. Several possible interpretations:

  • This character originally meant “to come”. Because the simpler was commonly used for this (borrowed) sense, its original meaning (“wheat”) switched with .
  • represents the ancient concept that wheat came from the heavens.
  • represents growth of the wheat plant.

EtymologyEdit

Etymologically unrelated to (OC *m·rɯːɡ, “to come”). Schuessler (2007) suggests it is from Proto-Sino-Tibetan *m‑rə(k) (buckwheat) and cognate with Tibetan བྲ་བོ (bra bo, buckwheat); also compare Proto-Lolo-Burmese *g-ra² (buckwheat). STEDT compares (OC *mrɯːɡ, “wheat”) to Proto-Tibeto-Burman *bra (buckwheat) (provisional).

Starostin (2009), on the other hand, compares (OC *mrɯːɡ, “wheat”) to Proto-Tungusic *murgi (barley), Middle Korean (milh, wheat), Old Japanese [script needed] (mugji, wheat; barley)

PronunciationEdit


Note: maak6 - variant.
Note:
  • măk - vernacular;
  • mĕk - literary.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • be̍h/be̍eh - vernacular;
    • be̍k/bia̍k - literary.
  • Wu
  • Xiang

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /mai⁵¹/
    Harbin /mai⁵³/
    Tianjin /mai⁵³/
    Jinan /mei²¹/
    Qingdao /me⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /mɛ²⁴/
    Xi'an /mei²¹/
    Xining /mɨ⁴⁴/
    Yinchuan /mia¹³/
    /mɛ¹³/
    Lanzhou /mə¹³/
    Ürümqi /mai²¹³/
    /mei⁴⁴/
    Wuhan /mɤ²¹³/
    Chengdu /me³¹/
    Guiyang /mɛ²¹/
    Kunming /mə³¹/
    Nanjing /məʔ⁵/
    Hefei /mɐʔ⁵/
    Jin Taiyuan /mai⁴⁵/
    Pingyao /miʌʔ⁵³/
    Hohhot /miaʔ⁴³/
    Wu Shanghai /maʔ¹/
    Suzhou /mɑʔ³/
    Hangzhou /mɑʔ²/
    Wenzhou /ma²¹³/
    Hui Shexian /mɛ²²/
    Tunxi /ma¹¹/
    Xiang Changsha /mə²⁴/
    Xiangtan /mai²⁴/
    Gan Nanchang /mɑʔ²/
    Hakka Meixian /mak̚⁵/
    Taoyuan /mɑk̚⁵⁵/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /mɐk̚²/
    Nanning /mɐk̚²²/
    Hong Kong /mɐk̚²/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /bik̚⁵/
    /beʔ⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /maʔ⁵/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /ma⁴²/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /beʔ⁵/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /vɛ³³/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (4)
    Final () (119)
    Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () II
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /mˠɛk̚/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /mᵚæk̚/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /mɐk̚/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /məɨjk̚/
    Li
    Rong
    /mɛk̚/
    Wang
    Li
    /mæk̚/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /mæk̚/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    mài
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ mɛk ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*m-rˁək/ (dialect: *m-rˁ > *mˁr-)
    English wheat

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 7630
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*mrɯːɡ/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. wheat; barley; oats
    2. (Hainanese) corn; maize
    3. Short for 麥克風麦克风 (màikèfēng, “microphone”).
    4. Short for 麥克斯韋麦克斯韦 (Màikèsīwéi).
    5. A surname​.

    SynonymsEdit

    Dialectal synonyms of 玉米 (“corn; maize”) [map]
    Variety Location Words
    Formal (Written Standard Chinese) 玉米, 玉蜀黍
    Taxonomic name 玉米, 玉蜀黍
    Mandarin Beijing 老玉米, 玉米, 棒子
    Taiwan 玉米
    Tianjin 玉米, 棒子
    Harbin 玉米, 包米
    Shenyang 玉米, 包米
    Hailar 包米
    Ulanhot 包米
    Tongliao 包米
    Chifeng 玉米, 包米, 棒子
    Bayanhot 玉米
    Jinan 玉米, 棒子
    Muping 棒棒兒, 包兒米, 玉米
    Luoyang 棒子, 包穀, 玉蜀黍, 蜀黍, 玉蜀黍兒, 老玉米, 玉米
    Wanrong 玉䵚秫, 玉米
    Xi'an 玉米, 包穀, 玉麥
    Qingdao 玉米, 包米兒, 包米
    Zhengzhou 玉蜀黍
    Xining 包穀, 包穀棒子
    Xuzhou 棒子, 玉秫秫, 大秫秫, 玉米棒子
    Yinchuan 玉米
    Lanzhou 包穀
    Ürümqi 包穀, 包米
    Wuhan 包穀, 玉米
    Huanggang 玉榴
    Chengdu 玉麥, 玉米, 包穀
    Guiyang 包穀
    Guilin 包穀, 玉米
    Liuzhou 玉米, 包穀
    Kunming 包穀, 玉麥
    Yangzhou 玉蘆書, 棒頭
    Nanjing 包蘆, 包穀, 玉蜀黍, 玉米
    Hefei 六穀, 玉米
    Nantong 玉米
    Malaysia 玉米
    Singapore 玉米
    Sokuluk (Gansu Dungan) 玉米
    Masanchin (Shaanxi Dungan) 包米
    Cantonese Guangzhou 粟米, 包粟
    Hong Kong 粟米, 包粟
    Hong Kong (San Tin Weitou) 包粟
    Hong Kong (Kam Tin Weitou) 粟米
    Hong Kong (Ting Kok) 包粟
    Hong Kong (Tung Ping Chau) 包粟
    Macau 粟米
    Panyu 粟米
    Huadu (Huashan) 粟米
    Conghua 粟米
    Zengcheng 包粟
    Foshan 粟米
    Nanhai (Shatou) 粟米
    Shunde 粟米
    Sanshui 粟米
    Gaoming (Mingcheng) 粟米
    Zhongshan (Shiqi) 粟米
    Zhuhai (Qianshan) 粟米
    Doumen (Shangheng Tanka) 粟米
    Doumen 粟米
    Jiangmen (Baisha) 粟米
    Xinhui 粟米
    Taishan 粟米
    Kaiping (Chikan) 粟米
    Enping (Niujiang) 包粟
    Heshan (Yayao) 粟米
    Dongguan 包粟, 粟米
    Bao'an (Shajing) 包粟
    Dapeng 包粟
    Shaoguan 包粟
    Yunfu 包粟
    Yangjiang 珍珠粟
    Xinyi 包粟, 飯包粟
    Lianjiang 粟米, 包粟
    Nanning 玉米, 包粟
    Wuzhou 玉米, 包粟
    Yulin 包粟
    Hepu 包粟
    Danzhou 包麥
    Kuala Lumpur 包粟, 楂弓
    Ho Chi Minh City 粟米, 𥟼
    Gan Nanchang 玉米
    Lichuan 包粟, 金豆
    Pingxiang 包粟
    Hakka Meixian 包粟
    Xingning 包粟
    Huizhou (Huicheng Bendihua) 包粟, 包粟米
    Huizhou (Shuikou Bendihua) 包粟
    Huizhou (Hengli Bendihua) 包粟
    Huiyang 包粟
    Huidong (Pingshan Bendihua) 包粟
    Huidong (Daling) 包粟
    Dongguan (Qingxi) 包粟
    Longmen (Pingling Bendihua) 包粟
    Longmen (Luxi Bendihua) 包粟
    Boluo (Bendihua) 包粟
    Shenzhen (Shatoujiao) 包粟
    Zengcheng (Zhengguo) 包粟
    Zhongshan (Wuguishan) 包粟
    Zhongshan (Nanlang Heshui) 包粟
    Wuhua (Shuizhai) 包粟
    Wuhua (Huacheng) 包粟
    Wuhua (Changbu) 包粟
    Wuhua (Mianyang) 包粟
    Heyuan (Bendihua) 包粟
    Zijin (Guzhu Bendihua) 包粟
    Longchuan (Tuocheng Bendihua) 包粟
    Longchuan (Sidu Bendihua) 包粟
    Heping (Linzhai Bendihua) 包粟
    Lianping (Zhongxin Bendihua) 粟米, 包粟
    Lianping (Longjie Bendihua) 包粟
    Qujiang 包粟
    Xinfeng (Matou Bendihua) 包粟
    Xinfeng (Daxi Bendihua) 包粟
    Lianshan (Xiaosanjiang) 包麥
    Liannan 包麥
    Conghua (Lütian) 包粟
    Jiexi 包粟
    Luchuan 包粟
    Luchuan (Daqiao) 包粟
    Changting 包粟
    Pingyu 包粟
    Wuping 包粟
    Ninghua 包鬚
    Yudu 包粟
    Ruijin 包粟
    Shicheng 包粟
    Shangyou 包粟
    Miaoli (N. Sixian) 包粟
    Liudui (S. Sixian) 包粟
    Hsinchu (Hailu) 包粟
    Dongshi (Dabu) 包粟
    Hsinchu (Raoping) 包粟
    Yunlin (Zhao'an) 番麥
    Hong Kong 包粟
    Sabah (Longchuan) 包粟
    Senai 包粟
    Singkawang 包粟
    Huizhou Jixi 包蘿
    Shexian 包蘆
    Tunxi 包蘿, 包蘿兒
    Xiuning 包蘆
    Yixian 包蘆, 金蘆
    Qimen 包蘆
    Wuyuan 包蘿
    Fuliang 玉米
    Dexing 包粟
    Jingde 包蘆
    Xianyu (formerly Zhanda) 包蘆
    Jin Taiyuan 玉茭子
    Pingyao 玉䵚黍, 玉茭子, 玉茭
    Xinzhou 玉茭子
    Baochang 棒子
    Jining 玉茭茭
    Hohhot 玉茭子, 玉米
    Baotou 玉茭茭
    Dongsheng 玉茭子
    Linhe 玉茭子
    Haibowan 玉茭子
    Min Bei Jian'ou 包蘿, 觀音豆, 觀豆
    Dikou 包蘿
    Songxi 包蘿
    Zhenghe 包蘿
    Zhenqian 包蘿
    Jianyang 番米
    Wuyishan 包黍
    Shibei 包蘿
    Min Dong Fuzhou 油甜苞
    Changle 油甜苞
    Fuqing 番黍, 玉秫黍, 油甜苞
    Yongtai 油甜苞
    Gutian 金豆
    Fu'an 番豆
    Ningde 番豆
    Shouning 包蘿
    Zhouning 包蘿
    Fuding 番豆
    Matsu 包果
    Min Nan Xiamen 麥穗, 番麥 dated, 蘆黍 dated
    Tong'an 番仔蘆黍
    Quanzhou 番大麥, 蘆黍 dated
    Jinjiang 番大麥
    Yongchun 玉穗
    Dehua 玉穗
    Zhangzhou 麥穗, 番黍, 番麥 dated, 蘆黍 dated
    Longhai 番麥穗
    Changtai 番麥
    Pinghe 番麥
    Zhangpu 麥穗
    Yunxiao 番仔麥穗
    Zhao'an 番麥
    Dongshan 番麥, 玉米
    Taipei 番麥
    Kaohsiung 番麥
    Tainan 番麥
    Taichung 番麥
    Wuqi 番麥
    Hsinchu 番麥
    Taitung 番麥
    Lukang 番麥
    Sanxia 番麥
    Yilan 番麥
    Kinmen 包果, 番麥
    Magong 番仔蘆黍
    Penang 惹穬
    Singapore 惹穬, 番麥, 番蘆黍
    Philippines (Manila) 玉米
    Zhangping 番黍
    Zhangping (Yongfu) 番黍
    Datian 番黍
    Pingnan 包粟
    Chaozhou 薏米仁
    Shantou 幼米仁
    Johor Bahru 惹穬
    Wenchang 包麥,
    Haikou 珍珠米
    Leizhou
    Puxian Min Putian 黍秫
    Xianyou 番黍
    Pinghua Nanning (Tingzi) 玉米
    Guilin (Dahe) 玉米
    Wu Shanghai 珍珠米, 玉米
    Suzhou 御麥, 珍珠米
    Wuxi 珍珠米
    Hangzhou 六穀, 玉黍, 玉米
    Wenzhou 包蘿粟, 糯米粟, 粟麥, 飯糰粟, 珍珠粟
    Chongming 大米
    Danyang 玉米粟, 珍珠粟
    Jinhua 包蘿
    Ningbo 六穀
    Xiang Changsha 玉米, 包穀
    Shuangfeng 包穀, 玉米子
    Loudi 玉米子
    Quanzhou 包穀

    CompoundsEdit

    DescendantsEdit

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese:  (ばく) (baku)
    • Korean: (, maek)
    • Vietnamese: mạch ()

    ReferencesEdit


    JapaneseEdit

    Shinjitai

    Kyūjitai

    KanjiEdit

    (uncommon “Hyōgai” kanjikyūjitai kanji, shinjitai form )

    1. wheat

    ReadingsEdit

    • Go-on: みゃく (myaku)
    • Kan-on: ばく (baku)
    • Kun: むぎ (mugi, )

    KoreanEdit

    HanjaEdit

    (maek)

    • Eumhun:
      • Sound (hangeul): (revised: maek, McCune–Reischauer: maek, Yale: mayk)
      • Name (hangeul): 보리 (revised: bori, McCune–Reischauer: pori)
    1. wheat

    CompoundsEdit


    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    (mạch)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.