See also:
U+4ED9, 仙
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4ED9

[U+4ED8]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+4EDA]

Translingual

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Stroke order
 

Han character

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(Kangxi radical 9, +3, 5 strokes, cangjie input 人山 (OU), four-corner 22270, composition )

Derived characters

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References

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  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 92, character 13
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 374
  • Dae Jaweon: page 196, character 3
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 114, character 3
  • Unihan data for U+4ED9

Chinese

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Wikipedia has an article on:

Glyph origin

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Historical forms of the character

References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).

Ideogrammic compound (會意会意) and phono-semantic compound (形聲形声, OC *sen) : semantic (person) + phonetic (OC *sreːn, mountain) — a person moving into a mountain to practise becoming immortal.

Originally . The current form is first attested in the clerical script of the Han dynasty.

Etymology 1

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simp. and trad.
alternative forms



ancient

𠑗 ancient
𠏡
 

A relatively late word, perhaps Sino-Tibetan (Schuessler, 2007). Compare Tibetan གཤེན (gshen, shaman), as in Tibetan གཤེན་རབ (gshen rab, Shenrab), the founder of the Tibetan religion Bon, although this might be a loan from Chinese (ibid.). Starostin sets up Proto-Sino-Tibetan *s[ă]n (a kind of demon), comparing it to Tibetan བསེན་མོ (bsen mo, female devil) and Jingpho sawn (malignant female nat).

Pronunciation

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Note:
  • siêng1 - Chaozhou;
  • siang1 - Shantou.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /ɕian⁵⁵/
Harbin /ɕian⁴⁴/
Tianjin /ɕian²¹/
Jinan /ɕiã²¹³/
Qingdao /siã²¹³/
Zhengzhou /sian²⁴/
Xi'an /ɕiã²¹/
Xining /ɕiã⁴⁴/
Yinchuan /ɕian⁴⁴/
Lanzhou /ɕiɛ̃n³¹/
Ürümqi /ɕian⁴⁴/
Wuhan /ɕiɛn⁵⁵/
Chengdu /ɕian⁵⁵/
Guiyang /ɕian⁵⁵/
Kunming /ɕiɛ̃⁴⁴/
Nanjing /sien³¹/
Hefei /ɕyĩ²¹/
Jin Taiyuan /ɕie¹¹/
Pingyao /ɕie̞¹³/
Hohhot /ɕie³¹/
Wu Shanghai /ɕi⁵³/
Suzhou /siɪ⁵⁵/
Hangzhou /ɕiẽ̞³³/
Wenzhou /ɕi³³/
Hui Shexian /se³¹/
Tunxi /siɛ¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /siẽ³³/
Xiangtan /siẽ³³/
Gan Nanchang /ɕiɛn⁴²/
Hakka Meixian /sien⁴⁴/
Taoyuan /sien²⁴/
Cantonese Guangzhou /sin⁵⁵/
Nanning /ɬin⁵⁵/
Hong Kong /sin⁵⁵/
Min Xiamen (Hokkien) /sian⁵⁵/
Fuzhou (Eastern Min) /sieŋ⁴⁴/
Jian'ou (Northern Min) /siŋ⁵⁴/
Shantou (Teochew) /siaŋ³³/
Haikou (Hainanese) /tin²³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (16)
Final () (77)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Baxter sjen
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/siᴇn/
Pan
Wuyun
/siɛn/
Shao
Rongfen
/sjæn/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/sian/
Li
Rong
/siɛn/
Wang
Li
/sĭɛn/
Bernard
Karlgren
/si̯ɛn/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
xiān
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
sin1
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
xiān
Middle
Chinese
‹ sjen ›
Old
Chinese
/*[s]a[r]/
English immortal (n.)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 11060
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
2
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*sen/

Definitions

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  1. (Taoism) xian (an immortal; celestial being)
  2. (figurative) extraordinary person
      ―  shīxiān  ―  great poet; epithet of Li Bai
  3. (agent affix, chiefly Southern Min, honorific) expert; a title for a person with a specific expertise
    相命 [Taiwanese Hokkien]  ―  siòng-miā-sian [Pe̍h-ōe-jī]  ―  fortuneteller
  4. (agent affix, chiefly Southern Min, ironic) person with some specific hobby or addiction
    [Taiwanese Hokkien]  ―  kiáu-sian [Pe̍h-ōe-jī]  ―  gambler
  5. a euphemism for the deceased
      ―  xiānshì  ―  to pass away
  6. (Southern Min) Classifier for deity, idol, statue, doll. Alternative form of (sian)
    Synonym: (zūn)
    王爺王爺 [Taiwanese Hokkien, trad.]
    王爷王爷 [Taiwanese Hokkien, simp.]
    Tōa sian--ê ông-iâ kong, sè sian--ê ông-iâ kiáⁿ. [Pe̍h-ōe-jī]
    (idiomatic) Idols of Wang Ye's are everywhere. Literally, The bigger idol is a senior Wang Ye; the smaller idol is a junior Wang Ye.
  7. (Southern Min) (with negative) whatsoever, any way
    [Taiwanese Hokkien]  ―  sian kóng to m̄ thiaⁿ [Pe̍h-ōe-jī]  ―  won't listen (to you) no matter what you say
  8. a surname
Descendants
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Sino-Xenic ():
  • Japanese: (せん) (sen)
  • Korean: 선(仙) (seon)
  • Vietnamese: tiên ()

Others:

Compounds

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See also

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Etymology 2

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simp. and trad.
alternative forms Min Nan

Borrowed from English cent.

Pronunciation

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Definitions

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  1. (Cantonese, Southern Min, Malaysian and Singapore Mandarin) cent (Classifier: c)
    硬幣硬币 [Cantonese]  ―  ng5 sin1 ngaang6 bai6 [Jyutping]  ―  five-cent coin
    私生子老豆嗰陣 [Cantonese, trad.]
    私生子老豆嗰阵 [Cantonese, simp.]
    keoi5 hai6 si1 sang1 zi2, keoi5 lou5 dau6 sei2 go2 zan6 jat1 go3 sin1 dou1 mou5 fan1 bei2 keoi5. [Jyutping]
    He is a son born out of wedlock, so when his dad died, he didn't even inherit one cent.
Synonyms
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Compounds

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See also

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Etymology 3

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From clipping of English senior.

Pronunciation

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Definitions

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  1. (Hong Kong Cantonese, university slang) senior
Derived terms
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Japanese

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Kanji

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(common “Jōyō” kanji)

Readings

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Compounds

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Etymology 1

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Kanji in this term
せん
Grade: S
on’yomi

From Middle Chinese (MC sjen, literally “immortal”). Compare modern Mandarin reading xiān and Cantonese reading sin1.

Pronunciation

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Noun

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(せん) (sen

  1. a sage or hermit, an enlightened person, usually immortal and ageless
  2. (mythology) short for 仙人 (sennin): a wizard or mage; an immortal living as a hermit in the mountains
  3. by extension, the region or area where a sennin lives
  4. the supernatural techniques for becoming immortal and ageless
  5. a person of exceptional talent

Etymology 2

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Kanji in this term
せんと
Grade: S
irregular

Borrowed from English cent.[1][2] The kanji spelling is an example of jukujikun.

For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry.
セント
[noun] [1860] cent (various national currencies, 1100 of a unit)
[noun] [1872] saint
(This term, , is an alternative spelling (obsolete) of the above term.)

Usage notes

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This word is almost always spelled in katakana as セント.

See also

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References

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  1. ^ Shōgaku Tosho (1988) 国語大辞典(新装版) [Unabridged Dictionary of Japanese (Revised Edition)] (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN
  2. ^ Matsumura, Akira, editor (2006), 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tokyo: Sanseidō, →ISBN

Korean

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Etymology

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From Middle Chinese (MC sjen). Recorded as Middle Korean (syen) (Yale: syen) in Hunmong Jahoe (訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회), 1527.

Pronunciation

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Hanja

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Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun 신선 (sinseon seon))

  1. Hanja form? of (a sage or hermit, an enlightened person, usually immortal and ageless).

Compounds

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References

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  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [1]

Vietnamese

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Han character

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: Hán Nôm readings: tiên

Noun

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  1. xian, Immortal (Taoism)
  2. fairy
  3. celestial